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A wave of bank failures and dramatic losses have occurred since late 1980s. This article considers whether there are some effective ways in handling the problem bank The first section of the article discusses several methods to resolve the problem banks. We also reviews some cases of major bank's insolvencies and its experiences in handling them. Some methods exist for resolving a potential failure : (1) deposit payoffs (2) financially assisted purchased-and-assumption(P&A) transactions (3) direct assistance, which usually means making a subsidized loan to a troubled banks. The P&A and the deposit payoff have been the principal methods available to the bank supervision. The regulators tried to address the problems that led to the crisis and prevent its recurrence. They intended to reduce the costs of the troubled banks. Prompt corrective action can reduce regulatory forbearance by causing regulators to intervene early in problem banks. Prompt corrective action identifies a problem bank in need of intervention. Banks are classified according to their capital adequacy. Some evidence suggests that examiners have information that is superior to publicly available data. For example, the CAMEL ratings provide useful information on troubled banks. In fact, direct assistance has inappropriate effects on future incentives in that it benefits the shareholders and managers of the problem banks. One important principle is that the bank authority should minimize the costs of failure resolution. Also "the market discipline" should be implemented. The measures to promote sound banking should be central to the bank supervision.
순무는 초음파 병행 추출을 통하여 60, 100℃에서 모두 추출 수율을 증가시킬 수 있음을 확인하였다. 알코올 분해 효소인 ADH와 Aldehyde 분해 효소인 ALDH의 분해 활성 측정 실험을 통해 순무의 추출물들은 물 일반 추출물보다 초음파 병해 추출물들이 높은 활성을 나타내는 것을 확인하였고 특히 ADH의 활성율 보다 ALDH의 활성이 높게 나타나 알코을 분해 과정의 최종 목적지인 acetic acid와 이산화탄소로의 분해에 순무의 추출물들이 유의적인 활성을 나타내고 있음을 확인할 수 있었다. 60℃ 열수 추출물은 100℃ 열수 추출물과 비교하여 관능평가 시 높은 점수를 얻었으며 이의 추출물들은 감압농축을 통해 이취의 제거가 이루어져 열수추출 시 유용한 방법으로 평가되었다. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and Aldehyde dehydroganase (ALDH) activities of turnip extracts with ultrasonification at 60, 100℃ temperature were investigated. Ultrasonification extracts showed a increase as compared with the normal extracts. ALDH activities were high than ADH activities. So, turnip extracts was shown efficient plants in alcohol oxidation. Appraisers liked powder extracts better than liquid extracts in sensory score.
국내에서 자생하는 팔손이 나무의 각 부위를 이용하여 에탄올과 물 용매를 이용하여 각각 65℃와 65℃로 12시간 동안 2회 반복 추출하였으며 부위에 따른 항암 및 면역 활성의 변화를 측정하는 실험을 하였다. 실험결과 부위에 따른 항암 활성 증진 효과 실험 중 근피와 에탄올 용매 추출물이 가장 높게 나타나는 것을 확인 할 수 있었다. 면역세포의 생육활성 측정결과에서는 근피 부위가 높은 활성도를 나타내어 다른 부위에 비해 40~60% 정도의 높은 활성을 나타내었다 이는 두릅나무과 수종들의 특징인 근피의 특이 활성을 나타내는 예인데 이에 반해 목부의 활성을 살펴보면 농도의 증가에 따라 활성도가 증가하기는 하지만 저농도의 시료에서는 100% 미만의 활성도를 나타냄으로서 면역 세포에 독성을 나타내는 것을 확인할 수 있었다. 면역세포의 활성과 관련하여 Cytokine의 분비량과의 상관관계를 확인 할 수 있었는데 면역세포의 생육활성이 가장 높은 때에 IL-6와 TNF-α의 Cytokine의 분비량이 최대치인 110~120 pg/ml를 나타내었다. 이로서 앞선 결과들에 따라 팔손이 나무의 부위별 항암 및 면역 활성 실험에서 다른 두릅나무들과 수종들과 같이 근피의 높은 활성도를 확인할 수 있었으며 특히 가장 활성이 좋은 근피는 가장 낮은 활성을 나타내는 목부의 추출물과 비교하여 최대 40% 이상의 높은 활성도를 관찰할 수 있었다. 이로서 근피의 추출물이 다른 부위와 비교하여 높은 활성을 나타내는 것은 두릅나무과 수종들의 대표적인 특징 성분인 사포닌이 다른 부위에 비해 많이 함유되어 있는 것으로 사료되어지며 이는 후에 분획 및 물질 분석 실험을 통하여 확인되어져야 할 사항으로 사료되어진다. The study was performed using of ethanol and water extracts of Fatsia japonica Decne. et Planch. in anticancer and immune activities. All extracts of 1.0 g/l concentration were increased in over 60% of the anticancer activites in A549 and MCF7 cells. Root barks inhibited 55%, 74% in A549 and MCF7 cell by adding ethanol extracts of g/l concentration. The cytotoxicity of human lung nomal cell (HEL299) counted up to about 22% for ethanol extracts of root barks in 1 g/l concentration. The activity of human immune T and B cells were increased up to 140~170% by adding ethanol extract of the root barks. Increasing trend of secretion of cytokine (IL-6, TNF-α) from human B and T cell for 5 days cultivation has been abserved. From the results, the anticancer and immune-stimulatory activities of the roots extract were higher than the extracts of other parts.
The purpose of this study is to assess the welfare level for shift workers by means of their satisfactions to the jobs in manufacturing environment. As a measurement tool of job satisfaction, we use the JDI(Job Descriptive Index) which can ensure reliability and are widely used. Measurement factors are investigated by means of the duty, payment, promotion, supervisor, co-workers, and general job satisfaction of shift workers. For the application of job satisfaction, 109 workers, 12-hour shift workers in domestic five companies related with manufacturing industry are considered. They treat general facilities in night shift work. The result of this study may be used as a strategic data of welfare policy for improving the welfare level of shift workers.
We introduce a restricted height model with conservation of the total number of particles. The surface width W(L, t) of our model follows a scaling formula W2(L, t) = W2 i − L2αf(t/Lz) as a function of time t, where Wi and L are an intrinsic width and the system size, respectively. By subtracting the surface width from the intrinsic width, we successfully obtain the roughness exponent α −ds/2 and the growth exponent β −ds/4 for substrate dimensions ds = 1, 2, and 3. We also obtain the dynamic exponent z 2 in all substrate dimensions. The relation between our model and the conserved Edwards-Wilkinson equation is also discussed. We introduce a restricted height model with conservation of the total number of particles. The surface width W(L, t) of our model follows a scaling formula W2(L, t) = W2 i − L2αf(t/Lz) as a function of time t, where Wi and L are an intrinsic width and the system size, respectively. By subtracting the surface width from the intrinsic width, we successfully obtain the roughness exponent α −ds/2 and the growth exponent β −ds/4 for substrate dimensions ds = 1, 2, and 3. We also obtain the dynamic exponent z 2 in all substrate dimensions. The relation between our model and the conserved Edwards-Wilkinson equation is also discussed.
Objectives : Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing(EMDR) is a novel, time-limited psychotherapy originally developed for treatment of psychological trauma. The effectiveness of this therapy has been validated only for posttraumatic stress disorder ; however, EMDR is often applied to other psychiatric illnesses, including other anxiety disorders and depression. This pilot study tested the efficacy of EMDR added to the routine treatment for individuals with acute stage schizophrenia. Methods : This study was conducted in the acute psychiatric care unit of a university-affiliated training hospital. Inpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to either three sessions of EMDR, three sessions of progressive muscle relaxation(PMR) therapy, or only treatment as usual(TAU). All the participants received concurrent typical treatments(TAU), including psychotropic medication, individual supportive psychotherapy and group activities in the psychiatric ward. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale(PANSS), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale were administered by a clinical psychologist who was blinded to the patients' group assignment. Results : Forty-five patients enrolled and forty patients(89%) completed the post-treatment evaluation. There were no between-group differences in the withdrawal rates of patients during the treatment or at the three-month follow-up session. All three groups improved significantly across each of the symptomatic domains including schizophrenia, anxiety, and depressive symptoms. However, a repeated measures ANOVA revealed no significant differences among the groups over time. Effect size for change in total PANSS scores was also similar across treatment conditions, but effect size for negative symptoms was large for EMDR(0.60 for EMDR, 0.39 for PMR and 0.21 for TAU only). Conclusion : These findings supported the use of EMDR in treating the acute stage of schizophrenia but the results failed to confirm the effectiveness of the treatment over the two control conditions in three sessions. Further studies with longer courses of treatment, more focused target dimensions of treatment, and a sample of outpatients are necessary.
Molding is the root industry of the manufacturing as a means to mass-produce developed prototypes. Molds are typically divided into injection molds and press mold industries. Injection molds produce the products by injection of molten plastic into a mold, and press molds are molded and bended plate. The ejection system, such as eject pins, is used to separate the manufactured products from the mold, which involves a number of hole operations. Location, diameter and depth of holes are often tabulated and managed collectively when designing 2D drawings. The design efficiency was realized by applying CATIA Automation to the 3D model and bringing in the data of the holes in the Excel data.
A discrete growth model with quenched impurities driven by an external force is studied on aSierpinski gasket substrate. At the critical force Fc, the growth velocity v of the average interfaceheight follows a power-law behavior v(t) t− with 0.268(1), and the interface width Wshows a scaling behavior W2(t,L) L2 f(t/Lz), with 1.22(4) and z 1.68(4). Near Fc, thesteady-state velocity scales as vs (F − Fc), with 0.413(2). A possible fractional Langevinequation with quenched noise is introduced to describe the model.