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Purpose : The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in sociodemographic characteristics, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and healthcare needs among disabled persons with and without language disorder. Methods : Using raw data from the National Survey of the Disabled Person (2017), this study compared 6,320 disabled persons without language disorder and 229 disabled person with language disorder among 6,549 persons with disabilities. The dependent variables included sociodemographic characteristics, IADL, and healthcare needs. Results : People with language disorder were younger (p<.001), illiterate (p<.001), and had higher family income (p=.003) than people without language disorder. In addition, people with language disorder had a higher disability grade than people without language disorder (p<.001), and the percentages of brain injury, hearing impairment, and intellectual disability were higher among type of disability (p<.001). People with language disorder showed significantly higher dependence on all items of IADL than people without language disorder (p<.001). As the first-ranked healthcare need, people without language disorder had the highest percentage of “chronic illness management,” and people with language disorder had the highest percentage of “disability management” (p<.001). Conclusion : The findings of the current investigation suggest that health care services are needed to improve IADL in people with language disorder and that the development of a disability management program for people with language disorder is required. Purpose : 본 연구는 장애인의 언어장애 유무에 따른 사회인구학적 특성, 수단적 일상생활, 보건의료 인식의 차이를 규명하고자 하였다. Methods : 연구자는 2017년 장애인 실태조사의 원시자료를 이용하여 장애인 6,549명 중 언어장애가 없는 장애인 6,320명과 언어장애가 있는 장애인 229명을 비교하였다. 종속변수는 사회인구학적 특성, 수단적 일상생활활동, 필요하다고 생각하는 보건의료서비스로 선정하였다. Results : 언어장애가 있는 장애인은 언어장애가 없는 장애인과 비교하여 나이가 젊었고(p<.001), 무학인 사람이 많았으며(p<.001), 월평균 총 가구 소득이 높았다(p=.003). 그리고 언어장애가 있는 장애인은 언어장애가 없는 장애인보다 장애등급이 더 높았으며(p<.001), 장애등록유형 중 뇌병선, 청각장애, 지적장애의 비중이 높았다(p<.001). 언어장애가 있는 장애인은 언어장애가 없는 장애인과 비교하여 전화하기, 물건사기, 식사준비, 청소하기, 빨래하기, 약 챙겨먹기, 금전관리, 대중교통수단 이용하기에서 의존도가 유의하게 높은 것으로 나타났다(p<.001). 필요한 보건의료서비스 1순위는 언어장애가 없는 장애인이 ‘만성질환 관리’의 비중이 가장 높았으며, 언어장애가 있는 장애인은 ‘장애관리’가 가장 높았다(p<.001). Conclusion : 본 연구의 결과는 언어장애가 있는 사람의 수단적 일상생활활동의 도움을 위한 보건의료서비스가 요구되며, 언어장애가 있는 사람을 위한 장애관리 프로그램 개발이 필요함을 시사한다.
A new magnetic semiconductor material was synthesized to enable separation after a liquid-type photocatalysis process. Core@shell-structured CuFeS2@TiO2 magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by a combination of solvothermal and wet-impregnation methods for photocatalysis applications. The materials obtained were characterized using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible, photoluminescence spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area measurements, and cyclic voltammetry. This study confirmed that the light absorption of CuFeS2 was shifted significantly to the visible wavelength compared to pure TiO2. Moreover, the resulting hydrogen production from the photo-splitting methanol/water solution after 10 hours was more than 4 times on the core@shell structured CuFeS2@TiO2 nanocatalyst than on either pure TiO2 or CuFeS2.
The purposes of this study were to identify premenstrual syndrome symptoms and coping of female college students, to investigate the relationship between premenstrual syndrome symptoms and coping of female college students and to provide basic information for nursing implementation methods. The convenience sample of 261 students were obtained from colleges in Seoul. Data was collected through questionnaires from January 3rd to 6th, 2004. The data was analyzed by using descriptive statistics, frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, Pearson Correlation, t-test, ANOVA with the SPSS 12.0 for windows. The result of this study can be summarized as follows : 1. The age of the subjects ranged from 20 to 24(82%) an they were mostly unmarried(99.2%). 137 persons(52.5%) were found to have coped well enough and were within the appropriate stress level bracket. The time when the symptoms appeared was mostly 3 to 4 days before the menstruation and most of the subjects felt discomfort regarding the menstruation(55.2%). 2. The total mean score for premenstrual syndrome symptoms was 2.44±.73. 2.74 for water retention, 2.71 for pain, 2.62 for negative affect, 2.33 for autonomic reactions, 2.28 for behavior change and 2.08 for concentration disorder. 3. The total mean score for coping with PMS was 7.16 and the coping mode with the highest scores were ′rest and go to bed(85.1%)″. The most frequently used methods to relief of symptoms were ′take pain killers(99%). 4. Symptoms according to general characteristics that show statistical difference: ′the conditions of their health(F=4.458, p=.002)′, ′stress level(F=10.855, p=.000)′, ′the amount of menstrual fluid(F=4.355, p=.014)′, ′the time when the symptoms come about(F=6.640, p=.000)′, ′feeling about the menstruation(F=4.351, p=.000)′. 5. Coping according to general characteristics that show statistical difference: ′conditions of health(F=2.879, p=.023)′, ′stress level(F=4.694, p=.003)′. 6. Coping according to PMS that show statistically positive correlation. That is, those who have severe symptoms cope in more ways than one. In conclusion, a majority of the subjects in this study experienced PMS. Not only the total mean score for premenstrual syndrome symptoms but also the mean score for coping was low. It is reported that, symptoms become worse in the case of using evasive coping methods. subjects are supposed to be aided through counseling and treatment for PMS.
The health care services are the most basic social institutions that are provided to citizen including disabled persons for improvement of health. However, the study of the difference of health care services according to the speech therapy use in the people with speech-language disorders was insufficient. The aim of this investigation was to compare the awareness of health care services and characteristics of people with speech-language disorders according to speech therapy use. The researchers selected 229 people with language disorder using raw data of National Survey of the Disabled Person (2017). We compared the characteristics and health care services of people with speech-language disorders by distinguishing between speech therapy non-users and speech therapy users. Among the 229 people with language disorder, speech therapy users were 37 persons (16.2%). In comparison with non-users, users were younger, more preschoolers, more family incomes, and intellectual disabilities and autistic disorder were the most common types of disability enrollment. Users had a lower proportion of unmet medical needs than non-users. For the reasons of unmet medical need, there were 6.8% and 6.3% of the "economic reasons" and "communication difficulties" Both users and non-users responded that "disability management services" need to be strengthened by the government. In conclusion, we suggest that access to health care services needs to be increased to lower the barriers of speech therapy use. 보건의료서비스는 장애인을 포함한 국민의 건강을위해 제공되는 가장 기초적인 사회제도이다. 그러나언어장애가 있는 사람 중 언어치료 이용여부에 따른보건의료서비스의 차이를 알아본 연구는 미흡하였다. 본 연구는 언어장애가 있는 장애인을 대상으로 언어치료 이용여부에 따른 특성과 보건의료서비스의 인식을 비교하고자 하였다. 연구자는 2017년 장애인 실태조사의 원시자료를 이용하여 언어장애를 가진 사람 229명을 선정하였다. 이 중 언어치료를 이용하는자와 이용하지 않는 자를 구분하여 그들의 특성(사회인구학적 특성, 장애특성)과 보건의료서비스 인식(미충족 의료, 정부 또는 사회에서 강화해야할 보건의료서비스)을 비교하였다. 229명의 언어장애가 있는 사람 중 언어치료를 이용하고 있는 사람은 37명(16.2%) 이었다. 언어치료 이용자는 비이용자와 비교하여 나이가 젊었고, 미취학인 아동이 많았으며, 월평균 총가구 소득이 높았으며, 장애등록유형에서 지적장애와자폐성장애가 더 높은 비중을 차지했다. 언어치료 이용자는 비이용자에 비해 미충족 의료 경험의 비율이낮았다. 미충족 의료 이유에서 언어치료 비이용자 49 명의 분포를 살펴보면‘경제적인 이유’와‘의사소통에 어려움’이 13명(6.8%)과 12명(6.3%)로 1순위와2순위를 차지하였다. 언어치료 비이용자와 이용자 모두는 정부(사회)에서 강화해야 할 보건의료서비스로‘장애관리’를 요구하였다. 본 연구의 결과는 언어장애가 있는 사람의 언어치료 이용의 장벽을 낮추기위해서 보건의료서비스의 접근성을 증대시킬 필요가있음을 시사한다.
본 연구의 목적은 혁신활동이 기업의 성과 혹은 가치와의 영향 관계를 실증적으로 검증해보기 위함이다. 이를 위해서 2000~2007년까지 371개 기업 809개 공시정보를 대상으로 혁신활동에 따른 공시 데이터를 활용하여 사건연구를 바탕으로 분석을 하였다. 연구결과, 기업의 다양한 혁신활동이 성과에긍정적인 영향을 미치는 것으로 분석되었다. 또한 폐쇄형 혁신과 개방형 혁신에 따른 비교에서도 그성과의 차이가 있었으며, 대기업과 중소기업간의 혁신활동에서도 유의한 차이가 있는 것으로 나타나슘페터 가설을 뒷받침한다고 볼 수 있겠다. 본 연구의 시사점으로는 혁신활동을 측정하기 위한 새로운 방법론의 적용과 다양한 측정 변수를 포괄하여 분석해 보았다는 것이 학문적 관점에서의 기여라 하겠다. 또한 기업에 있어서는 혁신활동을 추구하는 목적 및 경쟁 환경에 따라 내부 지식에 대한 투자가 효율적인지 혹은 외부 지식을 활용하는 것이 효율적인지에 대한 의사결정에 도움을 줄 수 있을 것이다.
Nano-sized and spherical shaped LaSrMn oxide particle was synthesized by thermal treatment at 900 ℃for 3 h after hydrothermally treatment at 200 ℃ for 8 h, and characterized to be applied as a cathodematerial in solid oxide fuel cells. A spherical LSM nano-particle with sizes ranging from 100 to 120 nmwas shown in SEM image and particle size distribution. The pellets of five types composed of x-wt% LSMsynthesized and commercial y-wt% YSZ were manufactured and pre-sintered. Their ionic conductivitieswere enhanced responding to LSM concentrations, and it was the highest in 8LSM:2YSZ showing74.0 S cm-1. Nano-sized and spherical shaped LaSrMn oxide particle was synthesized by thermal treatment at 900 ℃for 3 h after hydrothermally treatment at 200℃for 8 h, and characterized to be applied as a cathodematerial in solid oxide fuel cells. A spherical LSM nano-particle with sizes ranging from 100 to 120 nmwas shown in SEM image and particle size distribution. The pellets of five types composed of x-wt% LSMsynthesized and commercial y-wt% YSZ were manufactured and pre-sintered. Their ionic conductivitieswere enhanced responding to LSM concentrations, and it was the highest in 8LSM:2YSZ showing74.0 S cm-1.
Based on the resource-based perspective, this study seeks to understand the relationship between the organizational slack and innovation, and to demonstrate that there exists a difference in the influence of the organizational slack according to the type of innovation by dividing the types of innovation into exploratory and exploitative innovations. They also want to understand the role that network diversity plays in the relationship between organizational slack and innovation. For this purpose, hypothesis and research models were presented based on resource-based perspectives and empirical analysis was conducted on 171 companies. The analysis confirmed that the impact of organizational slack on exploitative innovation is linear, not non-linear, as expected. In other words, the more resources available, the more productive the enterprise is, and the more resources available to the organization have a positive impact on the innovation. On the other hand, exploratory innovation represented an inverse U-shaped relationship between organizational slack and nonlinearity as expected. The control effect of network diversity was only seen in the relationship between organizational slack and exploratory innovation. Through this study, it provides implications such as the importance of network diversity, which is a relationship between companies, and the difference in the utilization of organizational slack according to the type of innovation.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate empathy, awareness, and attitudes toward violence among elementary school students. Methods: The participants were 195 fifth and sixth grade students in Y elementary school. The data collection period was from June 24 to July 4, 2019. Results: Empathy scores significantly differed according to participants' gender and need for education on violence prevention. Attitudes towards violence (permissive and neglectful) significantly differed according to students' grade and need for education on violence prevention. Empathy was negatively correlated with permissive attitudes toward violence (r=-.26, p<.001) and neglectful attitudes toward violence (r=-.24, p=.001). Conclusion: The results of this study are expected to be utilized as basic data for education on violence prevention through empathy.