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Homophilic interaction of the L1 family of cell adhesion molecules plays a pivotal role in regulating neurite outgrowth and neural cell networking in vivo. Functional defects in L1 family members are associated with neurological disorders such as X-linked mental retardation,multiple sclerosis, low-IQ syndrome, developmental delay, and schizophrenia. Various human tumors with poor prognosis also implicate the role of L1,a representative member of the L1 family of cell adhesion molecules, and ectopic expression of L1 in fibroblastic cells induces metastasis-associated gene expression. Previous studies on L1 homologs indicated that four N-terminal immunoglobulin-like domains form a horseshoe-like structure that mediates homophilic interactions. Various models including the zipper, domain-swap, and symmetry-related models are proposed to be involved in structural mechanism of homophilic interaction of the L1 family members. Recently, cryo-electron tomography of L1 and crystal structure studies of neurofascin, an L1 family protein,have been performed. This review focuses on recent discoveries of different models and describes the possible structural mechanisms of homophilic interactions of L1 family members. Understanding structural mechanisms of homophilic interactions in various cell adhesion proteins should aid the development of therapeutic strategies for L1 family cell adhesion molecule-associated diseases.
The tazarotene-induced gene 1 (TIG1) protein is a retinoid-inducible growth regulator and is considered a tumor suppressor. Here, we show that DnaJ heat shock protein family member C8 (DNAJC8) is a TIG1 target that regulates glycolysis. Ectopic DNAJC8 expression induced the translocation of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) into the nucleus, subsequently inducing glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) expression to promote glucose uptake. Silencing either DNAJC8 or PKM2 alleviated the upregulation of GLUT1 expression and glucose uptake induced by ectopic DNAJC8 expression. TIG1 interacted with DNAJC8 in the cytosol, and this interaction completely blocked DNAJC8-mediated PKM2 translocation and inhibited glucose uptake. Furthermore, increased glycose uptake was observed in cells in which TIG1 was silenced. In conclusion, TIG1 acts as a pivotal repressor of DNAJC8 to enhance glucose uptake by partially regulating PKM2 translocation.
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Classical protein tyrosine phosphatases and dual specificity phosphatases share a common structural fold and constitute a major part of the protein tyrosine phosphatase family that dephosphorylate proteins involved in critical cellular processes such as cell growth and differentiation, immune regulation, and brain function. The active site of the enzyme family involves residues in several loops and the conformation of the active site residues and loops are critical in enzyme catalysis. A large number of structural studies have yielded various structures of classical protein tyrosine phosphatases and dual specificity phosphatases, which exhibit mobility of active site residues and loops depending on substrate/ligand binding and regulation states. The mobility is likely to play a role in the catalytic efficiency and cellular regulation processes of the enzymes. In this review article, we analyze currently available structures of classical protein tyrosine phosphatases and dual specificity phosphatases to understand the nature of structural mobility of the enzyme active site and its relationship with enzyme activity and cellular regulation.
본 연구는 이전에 이배체와 삼배체를 교배하여 얻은 이수체 사과 나무의 생장과 과실 특성을 알아보고자 수행하였다. 이수체 사과나무의 화분발아율, 영양생장, 과실의 특징을 조사하였다. 그 결과, 이수체 사과 나무 간의 화분발아율의 차이가 크고, 모든 이수체 사과 나무의 화분 발아율이 이배체 ‘홍로'(82.4%) 보다 낮은 것으로 나타났다. 이수체 사과 나무 과실의 평균 크기와 중량은 이배체 ‘홍로'보다 작고 가벼운 것으로 나타났다. 또한 이수체 사과 나무 과실의 길이와 너비에 의해 이수체 JF3942빼고 다른 이수체 과실의 외형이 조금 납작했다. 거의 모든 이수체 사과 나무 과일의 당 함량은 이배체 ‘홍로'보다 높았다. 본 실험에서 얻은 이수체 사과의 산 함량은 이전에 대부분의 연구자의 이배체 사과 결과와 완전히 달랐다. 이수체 사과의 시트르산하고 타르타르산 함량은 사과산 함량보다 더 높은 것으로 나타났다. 이수체 사과 나무의 수고와 폭은 이배체 ‘홍로'보다 짧았다. 대부분 이수체 사과 나무의 수고는 폭보다 길지만 네 나무는 반대로 나타났다. 잎의 길이와 너비에 의해 이수체 사과 나무 잎의 크기가 이배체 ‘홍로'보다 작았다. 이수체 사과 나무는 이배체보다 잘 자라지 않는 것으로 나타났다. This study was conducted to observe some characteristics of aneuploid trees obtained from the crosses between diploid and triploid in the first experiment. The results showed that the difference among the percentage of aneuploid's pollen grain germination was large, and all of them were lower than that of diploid ‘Hongro' (82.4%). The average weight and size of each aneuploid's fruit was far lighter and smaller than that of diploid ‘Hongro'. According to the width and length, all of the fruits shape was flat or short-globose conical shape except for JF3942. Almost all the aneuploid had higher sugar content than ‘Hongro', nearly half of aneuploid fruits were firmer than that of diploid ‘Hongro'. As for the acid contents of aneuploid fruits, the results were greatly different from those of previous studies on diploid apples, in present study the citric acid and tartaric acid contents were more than the malic acid which are dominant acid in most cultivars of apples. Both the length and width of aneuploid tree were shorter than that of diploid ‘Hongro'. Most aneuploid trees' height was longer than width, but there were 4 exceptions. The size of leaves was smaller than that of diploid ‘Hongro' according to the length and width of leaves measured. In all, aneuploid's vegetative growth is not as vigorous as diploid.