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Background and objective:There are many differences in common inhalant allergens between countries and regions. We need to determine the major inhalant allergens in this country with geographical characteristics. To observe the major inhalant allergens and establish essential ones for the skin prick test in Korea, a nation-wide multicenter study was performed. Method:The skin prick tests were performed with the same kits of 43 allergens on 2,554 allergy patients who visited their regional hospitals for one year. Result:There are significant differences in the sensitization rate to common inhalant allergens among the centers. Twenty three allergens showed ? 5% sensitization rate: D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Tetranychus urticae, Panonychus citri, Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium tenuis, cat fur, dog hair, American and German cockroach, tree pollen mixture I, alder, hazel, tree pollen mixture II, birch, beech, oak, plane tree, ragweed, mugwort, hop Japanese and chrysanthemum. Conclusion:We suggest the major allergens such as D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae, T. putrescentiae, T. urticae, P. citri, outdoor molds, indoor molds, cat fur, dog hair, German and American cockroaches, tree pollens, mugwort, and hop Japanese pollen should be included in skin test battery in Korea. (J Asthma Allergy Clin Immunol 23: 483-93, 2003)
Background:Sensitization to food allergens is associated with development of food allergy. Although rates of sensitization to food allergens are different according to countries, there has not been surveyed on the sensitization rate to each food allergen in Korean population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the food allergen sensitization rate among patients who visited allergy clinics at several university hospitals in Korea. Methods:This study was carried out on 1,425 patients who visited allergy clinics with various allergic symptoms. They had skin prick test for 62 items to evaluate sensitization to food allergens. Result:The food allergens of which sensitization rate was above 1% were pupa of a silkworm, shrimp, chestnut, curry, potato, soybean, rice flour, buckwheat, cabbage, mackerel, abalone, lobster, turban shell, arrowroot in decreasing order. The sensitization rate of pupa was highest among them by 9.4% and that of shrimp followed by 5.8%. The sensitization rates of food allergens were generally higher in males and young adults than in those of females and old people. Atopic patients for inhalant allergens showed higher sensitization rates of food allergens than non-atopic patients for inhalant allergens. Conclusion:Common food allergens sensitized in a Korean population were different from those in other countries. Pupa of a silkworm, shrimp, chestnut, curry, potato, soybean, rice flour, buckwheat, cabbage, mackerel were the 10 most common food allergens sensitized in Korean population above 10 years old. (J Asthma Allergy Clin Immunol 23: 502-14, 2003)
저자 등은 기존의 치료에 반응하지 않은 중증 허혈성 지체질환 환자를 대상으로 하여 vascular endothelial growth factor를 이용한 혈관신생 유전자 치료를 시행하였다. 치료 후 환자의 허혈에 의한 하지 통증이 현격하게 감소하고 상처의 진행이 측부혈관이 많이 증가됨이 관찰되어 이에 문헌고찰과 함께 보고하는 바이다. We report VEGF-induced angiogenic gene therapy in a patient with critical limb ischemia, who did not respond to conventional treatment. This patient was the first case in a dose-escalating series of phase I clinical trial. The patient had severe resting pain, gangrene and diffuse ulcer in his left foot. Total 1,000㎍ of naked DNA encoding human VEGF165 was administered intramuscularly to 8 sites of the loft lower extremity. Four weeks after the first 1,000㎛ was administered to the same sites (total dose: 2,000㎛). After gene therapy, resting pain gradually reduced and the amount of analgesics taken by the patient decreased. The ischemic wound of lower extremity slightly improved. However, there was no complete wound healing at 12 weeks of treatment. Digital subtraction angiography at 12 weeks after gene therapy showed an increase in collateral vessels at the mid-tibial, ankle and foot arch levels. Immediately and up to 12 weeks, there was no complication related to gene therapy. These findings may be cautiously interpreted to indicate that intramuscular injection of naked plasmid DNA of VEGF_165 may induce therapeutic angiogencsis in a patient with critical limb ischemia. Further clinical evaluation of VEGF-induced gene therapy is needed to evaluate the safety and efficiency of this treatment.(Korean J Med 64:85-90, 2003)
The CrO3 mostly used in plating. metal surface disposal, leather, cosmetic manufacturing, as an experiment material by repeatedly inhaling and exposure the male S.D. rats at a 0.00, 0.2., 0.50, 1.25 mg/㎡ concentration(particle size: 0.5-0.5 aerosol)6hours a day, 5day a week in 13weeks comparing with 2weeks, 8weeks of recovery group about the noxiousness of the experiment animal and the reduce scale of the CrO3 in the internal organ especially in blook and respiratory organ with the period of convalescent and clearance. The experiment results which we received are as follows. 1. In blood the RBC, HGB and HCT experiment, rats with 0.20, 0.50 mg/㎡ concentration showed that there were some decreases but not dependent. The kidneys absolute weight compared with control group was reduced intentionally(p〈0.05) and the lungs absolute weight compared with control group showed intentional increase(p〉0.05). 2. After the exposure of the experiment material, the whole blook, l\blood plasma and red blood cell in blood by (x): the period of convalescent, per (y); the decreasing of Cr concentration, was y=66.51 e -0.057x, y=67.2 e-0.101x, y=70.01 e-0.030 in 0.50 mg/㎡ exposure concentration by calculating the clearance coefficient of correlation, and the half life (day)was estimated 12.0, 6086, 23.0 each. 3, After the exposure of the experiment material, the experiment animals lung, liver and kidneys by(x); the period of convalescent, per (y); the decreasing of Cr conentration, was y=1808 e-0.00493x, y=12.02e-0.0297x, y=67.61 e-0.0292x in 0.50mg/㎡ exposure concentration by calculating the clearance coefficient of correlation, and the half life(day)was estimated 140.6, 23.3, 23.7, each, and including lung, liver with all of the experiment internal organs, the Cr clearance decreased as the exposure concentration increased.
A Study on the Youkjoron(逆調論) of the So Moon(素問) one of the classic book of oriental medicine, was carried out analytically for the right comments. The principal ideas abtained summerized as follows: The unbalance between Eum(陰) and Yang(陽) The unbalance between Su(水) and Wha(火) The Yuk Ga(肉苛) which is caused by the unbalance of the Young Wi(營衛) The Asthma(喘息) which is caused by the unbalance of the Viscera(臟腑)
우리 나라의 경우 계약직공무원제도는 공직사회의 전문성을 제고하고 공직 개방화에 따른 정부인적자원의 효율적 관리차원에서 1998년 도입되었다. 그 후 책임운영기관제도와 개방형 직위제도가 새로이 도입되었고, 행정서비스수요에 탄력적으로 대응하기 위하여 시간제공무원제도와 외국의 우수전문인력을 공직에 충원하기 위한 외국인공무원채용제도 등을 도입하는 등 계약직 공무원제도는 그 분야와 영역이 점차 확대되고 있는 실정이다. 이 연구의 목적은, 계약직공무원제도의 운영실태를 조사·분석하고, 이를 바탕으로 도입취지의 당위성을 확인하고 향후 인사관리정책의 방향성을 탐색하고, 계약직공무원제도의 개선을 위한 실현 가능한 정책대안을 모색하고자 한다. 특히 계약직공무원의 임용과 성과관리 방안 등 인력활용시스템의 개선에 대하여 중점적으로 고찰해보고자 한다. 먼저 면담조사를 통해 계약직공무원제도 운영실태를 파악한 후 이를 토대로 설문조사를 실시하였다. 전체 계약직 공무원 전원과, 비교집단으로 각 계약직 공무원과 유사한 위치에서 비슷한 업무를 수행하는 동일한 수의 일반직 등 비계약직 공무원을 선정하여 설문조사를 실시하였다. 이를 통해 계약직공무원제도의 운영실태를 파악한 후, 그 결과를 바탕으로 제도적·운영상 개선방안을 모색하였다. Given that the contingent employee is likely to be a familiar presence in the public service workplace of the future in Korea, this study explores the realities of contingent civil service system and discusses its institutional development. It reviews the characteristics and present situations of the contingent civil service system, analyzes its problems, and suggests the alternatives for improvement. Drawing upon survey evidence from two groups, 383 non-contingent public employees and 408 contingent public employees in the central government of Korea, our study shows that there is no difference between contingent and non-contingent public employees in the main reasons why they have entered to the government and in the factors which they have considered as more important, and that the major problems of current contingent civil service system are inappropriate performance evaluation and insufficient linkage between performance and reward, while most contingent and non-contingent public employees are agreed with the purposes of contingent civil service system. Such findings are discussed for the improvement of contingent civil service system in Korea.
This study concerns the catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide with 26 kinds of Ag-oxide, MnO_2 and their mixtures at room temperature. From the results the following phenomena were obtained. 1. Simple Ag-oxide or MnO_2 samples were not favorable to the oxidation of carbon monoxide. 2. The Ag_2O, AgO and MnO_2 mixtures(10 : 90 or 20 :80) were observed more powerful catalyzer for carbon observed more powerful catalyzer for carbon monoxide oxidation. 3. The oxidized samples of Ag-Mn premixture with several oxidants were also weaker catalyzer than the simple mixtures. 4. The AgMnO_4 and Ag-Mn-Oxides prepared by electroytic oxidation method also acted poorly as the catalytic oxidants. 5. Ag_2O and MnO_2 were not found out the structure change but AgO is changed oxidation state and heat evolved during the treatment. 6. The γ-MnO_2 are more superior catalyzer than the β-MnO_2 for catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide.
극저준위 방사능측정시스템의 백그라운드에 영향을 주는 중성자를 차폐하기 위한 차폐체를 설계하였다. 중성자 차폐방법은 고 밀도 폴리에틸렌을 이용하여 고속중성자를 감속한 후 B4C를 이용하여 감속된 열중성자를 흡수하는 방법을 이용하였다. 몬테카를로 모사방법인 MCNP4B 코드를 이용하여 계산한 결과 고 밀도 폴리에틸렌의 두께가 10 cm 일 때 열중성자속이 최대가 되는 것으로 나타났으며 감속된 중성자의 흡수는 용제에 자연상태의 B4C 분말을 30 w% 섞을 경우 2 mm의 두께에서 94%의 중성자 흡수가 일어나는 것으로 나타났다. 또한 몬테카를로 모사를 통한 계산결과의 타당성 여부를 조사하기 위하여 중성자 차폐실험 장치를 제작하여 실험 결과와 비교하였으며, 비교 결과 실험값과 일치하는 것으로 나타났다 In order to shield the neutrons affecting the background of Low Level Gamma Ray Spectrometer, a neutron shielder was designed. The method used in this study for neutron shielding was the deceleration of fast neutrons by high density polyethylene(HDPE) and the absorption of those slowing-down neutrons by B4C. The calculation results of neutron interaction in HDPE using Monte Carlo simulation code MCNP4B showed that the thermal-neutron flux was maximum at 10 cm thickness of HDPE. The results also showed that 95% of the thermal neutrons were absorbed by 2 mm thickness of B4C absorber consisted of 30 w% B4C and 70 w% polymer. The results of the Monte Carlo calculation were in good agreement with the experimental value obtained by a neutron shielding apparatus designd for this purpose.
Silicone gel breast implants may induce local(fibrous capsular contracture) or systemic(rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, etc) complications. The exact mechanism of fibrous capsular contracture has not been fully understood. In the present study, we tried to find out the effect of silicone gel on the fibroblast proliferation which has been known as a major contributing factor in fibrous capsular contracture formation. In vitro, activated macrophages are known to secrete monokines which affect fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis. And tumour necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) and interleukin-6(IL-6), which were released by macrophages, were reported as potent stimulator of fibroblast proliferation. The goal of this study is to investigate the role of macrophages and tumour necrosis factor-αor interleukin-6 in the interaction of fibroblasts and silicone gel. We designed four groups, two experimental and two control, using Institute for Cancer Research(ICR) mouse peritioneal macrophage and silicone gel. For the preparation of the conditioned medium of macrophages, peritoneal macrophages were prepared and cultured for 24 hours on the silicone gel-coated and naked (not coated) surface [silicone gel-macrophage conditioned medium(SCM; experimental group) and normal polystyrene-macrophage conditioned medium(NCM; control group) respectively]. To correct the effect of 10% fetal bovine serum which was included in Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing Institute (RPMI) 1640 medium and draw the effect only by macrophages, the RPMI 1640 medium with 10% fetal bovine serum was cultured by the same method on the silicone gel-coated and naked surface (silicone gel-macrophage free conditioned medium; SFM and normal polystyrene-macrophage free conditioned medium; NFM respectively). Each conditioned medium was added onto NIH 3T3 fibroblasts culture at a final 25% concentration of total culture medium and followed by the cultivation for 24 hours. For antibody neutralizing experiments, each conditioned medium was preincubated with polyclonal rabbit anti-mouse TNF-α antibody or polyclonal rat anti-mouse IL-6 antibody for 1 hour and then, conditioned medium with antibody was added to the culture medium of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts by the same method. After 24 hours cultivation, total number of viable fibroblast(cell growth), DNA synthesis and collagen synthesis of fibroblasts with each medium were measured by sulforhodamine B(SRB) assay, 3H-thymidine and 3H-proline incorporation respectively. The results were as follows: 1. In the experiment about the effect of the conditioned medium on the fibroblast activity, the experimental group(SCM), compared with the control group(NCM), showed a significant increase of the cell growth (p<0.01), a significant decrease of DNA synthesis(p<0.001), but no significant difference in the collagen synthesis. 2. In the experiment about the effect of polyclonal rabbit anti-mouse TNF-α antibody on the fibroblast activity, after the addition of antibody the experimental group, compared with the control group, showed a significant decrease of the cell growth(p<0.001), a significant increase of DNA synthesis(p<0.01), but no significant difference in the collagen syn thesis. 3. In the experiment about the effect of polyclonal rat anti-mouse IL-6 antibody on the fibroblast activity, after the addition of antibody the experimental group, compared with the control group, showed a significant decrease of the cell growth(p<0.001), a significant increase of DNA synthesis(p<0.0001), but no significant difference in the collagen synthesis. In conclusion, culture supernatants (conditioned medium) of peritoneal macrophages, activated by silicone gel, stimulate the NIH 3T3 fibroblast proliferation. TNF-α and IL-6, products of macrophage, are involved in the stimulation of NIH 3T3 fibroblast proliferation in an in vitro condition.