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An interpretation of the relation between the electric field and the applied current for cathodic protection is investigated usinga boundary element method simulation. Also, a conductivity-difference environment is set for the interface influence. Thevariation of the potential distribution is increased with the increase of the applied current and the conductivity differencedue to the rejection of the current at the interface. In the case of the electric field, the tendencies of the increasing rate andthe applied currents are similar, but the interface influence is different according to the directional component and field type(decrease of Ez and increases of Ex and Ey) due to the directional difference between the electric fields. Also, the changetendencies of the electric fields versus the applied current plots are affected by the polarization curve tendency regardingthe polarization type (activation and concentration polarizations in the oxygen-reduction and hydrogen-reduction reactions). This study shows that the underwater electric signature is determined by the polarization behavior of the materials.
In this paper, the infl uence of weld corrosion on the mechanical behavior of a welded joint pipeline was investigated usingcorrosion and mechanical simulations simultaneously. In the corrosion simulation, the modeling results (i.e., the corrosionpotential and current density) revealed that the welded joint is preferentially corroded and the corrosion rate is higher in theoutside environment due to the severe corrosion factors. The increase in corrosion degradation according to the operationtime increases the stress concentration on the welded joint, indicating that the failure risk of the welded joint is increasedwith increasing corrosion degradation. These results can be used to evaluate the lifetime of welded joints exposed to corrosionand suggest guidelines for the maintenance of structures.
This study aimed to establish the best applicable method for the National Ecosystem Survey (NES) guidelines by (i) verifying the efficiency of an insect trap that combined the Malaise trap, flight intercept trap, and pitfall trap (MFP trap) as part of the improvement for the terrestrial insect field in the fifth NES, and (ii) comparing the result with the currently used Malaise trap and pitfall trap (MP traps). We found that the efficiency of attaining species diversity was much higher with the added flight intercept trap function than the current Malaise trap alone for flying insect collection. For collecting ground insects, the efficiency of attaining species diversity of the pitfall trap from the MFP trap was lower than that from the MP trap. Besides, the Malaise trap of the MP trap showed superior efficiency than that of the MFP trap in species diversity. The results suggested that modification, supplementation, and re‐testing should be performed by analyzing various factors such as the trap material, barrier size, capturing container inlet, and mesh size, with consideration of the design of the current Malaise trap. Therefore, in survey‐based research, which aims at identifying insects species diversity and inhabiting status—such as the NES, it is necessary to introduce the MFP trap with the flight intercept trap function added to the Malaise trap function, and for the pitfall trap function of the MFP trap, it can be operated as a separate trap from the MFP trap.
Presently, We have constructed an olig-d(T) primed directional cDNA library from the silkworm Dongchunghacho, an entomopathogenic fungus, of which species is belonging to Paecilomyces tenuipes Jocheon-1. To isolate and screen genes in the fungus, 626 expressed sequence tags(ESTs) were generated by a partial sequencing from the cDNA library. Paecilomyces tenuipes Jocheon-1 cDNA encoding the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase(Pt-GAPDH) of Paecilomyces tenuipes Jocheon-1 was cloned from the above cDNA library. The complete cDNA sequence of Pt-GAPDHis comprised of 1,014bp encoding 338 amino acid residues. The deduced protein sequence of Pt-GAPDH showed higher homology with Beauberia bassiana-GAPDH(93% amino acid identity). Hydropathy analysis revealed that Pt-GAPDH protein is hydrophilic. The major three amino acids in its composition of amino acid residues were alanine(11.54%), valine(9.47%) and glycine(8.88%). The cDNA encoding Pt-GAPDH was expressed as a 37 kDa polypeptide in baculovirus-infected insect Sf9 cells. The Pt-GAPDH gene of Paecilomyces tenuipes entomopathogenic fungus consisted of three exons and two introns coding for 338 amino acid residues, and the genomic DNA length of the gene spans 1302bp. The accession number of the gene in GenBank are GU997099 for Pt-GAPDH cDNA and GU997102 for Pt-GAPDH genomic DNA.
Fungi belonging to the Paecilomyces spp. have recently been used as food and herbal medicines in Korea and are greatly popular as commercially available powdered supplement or dried fruiting body. Despite this acceptance and its use, little is known of the genes related to its reactive agents. Presently, We have constructed an olig-d(T) primed directional cDNA library from the silkworm Dongchunghacho, an entomopathogenic fungus, of which species is belonging to Paecilomyces spp. based on the previous identification of ITS1 and ITS2 at the molecular level and collected from Jocheon Miryang, Korea. To isolate and screen genes in the fungus, 626 expressed sequence tags(ESTs) were generated by a partial sequencing from the cDNA library. cDNA encoding the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase(Pt-GAPDH) of Paecilomyces tenuipes- Jocheon was cloned from the above cDNA library. The complete cDNA sequence of Pt-GAPDH is comprised of 1,014bp encoding 338 amino acid residues. The deduced protein sequence of Pt-GAPDH showed higher homology with Beauberia bassiana-GAPDH(93% amino acid identity). Hydropathy analysis revealed that Pt-GAPDH protein is hydrophilic. The major three amino acids in its composition of amino acid residues were alanine(11.54%), valine(9.47%) and glycine(8.88%). The Pt-GAPDH gene of Paecilomyces tenuipes entomopathogenic fungus consisted of three exons and two introns coding for 338 amino acid residues, and the genomic DNA length of the gene spans 1302bp. The accession number of the gene in GenBank are GU997099 for Pt-GAPDH cDNA and GU997102 for Pt-GAPDH genomic DNA. More investigation works including gene expression, immunological analysis etc. will be carried continuously without hesitation after this presentation.
생리적 치근 흡수가 뒤따르는 유치 치주인대의 신경분포 및 변화를 평가하기 위하여 생후 1, 2, 3, 4, 5개월된 개의 유치 치주인대와 9개월된 영구치 치주인대를 대상으로 neurofilament protein(NFP)을 이용한 면역조직화학적 방법으로 관찰하여 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. ● 유견 유치의 치주인대 신경분포는 치근단 1/3부위에서 가장 밀집되어 있었으며 치근 중앙부로 향할수록 현저하게 감소되었으며 전체적으로 그 분포밀도 및 분지 정도는 영구치와 비교시 약한 양상을 나타냈다. ● 구치부에 비해 전치부에서 신경분포가 보다 발달된 양상을 보였으며 구치 치근이개부치주인대에서는 신경섬유가 관찰되지 않았다. ● 유치근이 흡수됨에 따라 신경분포 정도도 감소되었으며 탈락시기의 치근 주위에서는 신경섬유룰 관찰할 수 없었다. ● 치은점막상피의 신경지배는 치아가 발육함에 따라 감소되는 양상을 나타내었으며 설측점막이 순측점막보다 더 발달된 신경분포양상을 관찰할 수 있었다. ● 유치 치주인대 신경말단 형태는 수지상의 신경말단 형태를 나타내고 있었으며 전형적인 Ruffini 신경말단은 거의 관찰할 수 없었다. 이상의 결과를 미루어 신경섬유의 분포는 기능과 밀접한 관계가 있는 것으로 생각되고 더욱이 유치의 생리적 치근흡수에 따른 치주인대에 신경섬유의 분포 및 변화는 유치의 성장발육에 따른 하나의 변화라고 생각된다. The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution of nerves in the periodontal ligament of a dog's primary teeth by each developing stage. The distribution of nerves in the periodontal ligament were investigated by means of immunohistochemistry for detection of neurofilament protein(NFP). The results were as follows: The NFP-immunoreactive nerve fibers were found to be densely distributed in the apical third of the periodontal ligament, while they were sparse in the coronal two third, in both primary and permanent teeth. In generally the density of distribution and degree of arborization of nerve fibers in periodontal ligament of primary teeth revealed a poor appearance compared with that of permanent teeth. Periodontal ligament in anterior teeth showed more abundant nerve innervation than posterior teeth, and the periodontal ligament of the bifurcation area in posterior teeth roots were not observed to have nerve fiber. The density of nerve distribution in the periodontal ligament of primary teeth was reduced according to the physiological root resorption and nerve fibers were not observed in the surrounding area on the root of the exfoliation stage in primary teeth. The distribution of nerve fibers in mucogingival tissue, was poor innervated according to the aging of the dogs. A more abundant distribution of nerve fiber was represented in the lingual mucogingival tissue than in the labial side. Most of the nerve endings in the periodontal ligament of primary teeth showed a tree-like appearance. However, the typical Ruffini-like nerve endings were not observed.
The corrosion failure of electronic devices has been a major reliability concern lately. This failure is an ongoing concern because of miniaturization of integrated circuits(IC) and the increased use of polymers in electronic packaging. In this paper plasma-polymerized thiophene films were considered as a possible candidate for an interlayer dielectric for multilever metallization of ultra large scale integrated (ULSI) semiconductor devices. The protective ability of above films as a function RF power in an 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution was examined by electrochemical methods and contact angle measurement. The protective efficiency of the film increased with increasing RF power, which induced the higher degree of cross-linking and hydrophobicity of the films.
5본의 백합나무 모수로부터 미숙종자 배양을 통한 체세포 배발생을 시험하였다. 두 가지 배지(MS 및 B5)에 2,4-D 및 TDZ의 농도별 조합처리로 캘러스 및 배발생 조직 유도를 시험하고 체세포배 유도, 발달 및 재분화에 미치는 명·암배양의 효과를 조사하였다. 캘러스 및 배발생 조직의 유도는 두 배지간 유의적인 차이가 없었으나 MS + 2,4-D 1.0 mg/L, TDZ 0.01 mg/L, 3% sucrose 조건에서 양호하게 나타났다. 갤러스 유도는 모수 및 명·암배양에 따른 차이가 없었으나 배발생 조식의 유도는 암배양이 주효하여 명배양보다 약 2배의 효과가 있었고 모수간 55~72%까지 차이를 나타냈다. 체세포배 유도 및 정상적인 체세포내의 발달에 있어서도 모수의 영향을 받으며, 암배양이 필수적인 것으로 나타났고, 해부학적인 관찰을 통해 확인할 수 있었다. 본 실험 결과는 백합나무 체세포배 유도에 있어 모수의 선택과 암배양이 중요한 요인임을 시사해 준다. An effective micropropagation system for Liriodendron tulipifera L via somatic embryogenesis was established using immature seeds. Immature seeds from five individual trees were bisected longitudinally and cultured on two basal media (MS and R5) containing different combinations of 2.4-D and TDZ to induce callus and embryogenic tissue under light (40 umol m^(-2)s^(-1), 16 hr/day) or complete darkness at 25±2℃. There was no distinctive difference on callus and embryogenic tissue induction between the two basal media with PGRs. Optimum culture medium appeared to be MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 2.4-D and 0.01 mg/L TDZ plus 3% sucrose. Nonembryogenic callus induction rate was not significantly different among the genotypes. However, the embryogenic callus induction frequency differed greatly by the genotypes ranging from 55% to 72%, when cultured in the dark. Generally, the cultures maintained in the dark tended to show normal somatic embryo development as well as embryogenic tissue formation and this was confirmed by histological examination. Above results suggest that a proper selection of mother tree and dark culture condition are necessary to optimize somatic embryogenesis system of Liriodendron tulipffera.
The purposes of this study are to examine the strategy of managing foreign exchange risk of Korean Companies. Even through a national environment with regard to foreign exchange rate has been changed, Korean Companies have been maintaining their business based on manager's discretion, traditional experiences without recognizing importance of risk management of foreign exchange. Also, in spite of being interested in such risk management of foreign exchange, most of Korean Companies have lack of knowledge on the practical way of managing such risk. Besides, a management is not a specialist in the field of risk management of foreign exchange, but it is difficult for Korean Companies having small operation to hire a specialist in that field. Therefore, this study intends to protect Korean Companies from their exposure to foreign exchange risk and fluctuation of foreign. exchange rate by proposing the method for Korean Companies to be able to simply use in order to manage such risk through introducing strategies of managing foreign exchange risk. In the future, various studies regarding risk management method of foreign exchange in Korean Companies should be continued.