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      • KCI등재

        포렌식 마킹을 위한 특징점 기반의 동적 멀티미디어 핑거프린팅 코드 설계

        이강현(Kang Hyeon RHEE) 大韓電子工學會 2011 電子工學會論文誌-CI (Computer and Information) Vol.48 No.4

        본 논문에서는 멀티미디어 콘텐츠 보호에 대한 반공모 코드를 위한 동적 멀티미디어 핑거프린팅 코드를 설계하는 알고리즘을 제안한다. 기존의 반공모 코드(ACC: Anti-Collusion Code)를 위한 멀티미디어 핑거프린팅 코드는 BIBD(Balanced Incomplete Block Design)의 접속행렬을 보수행렬로 변환하여 k를 k+1로 증대시키는 수리적 방법으로 설계되었다. 그리고 보수행렬의 코드벡터를 사용자에게 핑거프린팅 코드로 부여하고, 콘텐츠에 삽입하였다. 제안된 알고리즘에서는 사용자가 구매하는 콘텐츠로부터 특징점을 추출하고, 이를 기반으로 동적으로 핑거프린팅 코드를 설계할 수 있도록 BIBD의 v와 k+1 조건을 만족하는 반공모 코드의 후보성 코드를 코드북(Codebook)에 구축하고 λ+1 조건을 만족하는 행렬(이하, Rhee행렬이라 함.)을 생성한다. 실험을 통하여 콘텐츠의 특징점 기반으로 생성된 Rhee행렬의 코드벡터는 v비트의 유의수준 (1-α)에서 신뢰구간에 k가 존재하며, Rhee행렬의 각 행과 행, 열과 열 사이의 유클리디안 거리가 BIBD 기반의 보수행렬과 그래프 기반의 보수행렬과 같은 k값이 산출되었다. 더욱이 Rhee행렬의 첫 행과 첫 열은 생성과정에서 초기 점화벡터로 콘텐츠 포렌식 마크 정보가 되며, 이와 관계가 있는 나머지 코드벡터들과의 관계성이 코드북에 기록되어 있기 때문에, 공모된 코드를 추적할 때 원 핑거프린팅 코드의 상관관계 계수를 구할 필요 없이 코드북의 탐색으로 공모자를 추적이 용이하다. 따라서 본 논문에서 생성된 Rhee행렬은 수리적으로 생성된 BIBD 기반의 행렬보다 ACC로서 강인성과 충실도가 우수하다. In this paper, it was presented a design on the dynamic multimedia fingerprinting code for anti-collusion code(ACC) in the protection of multimedia content. Multimedia fingerprinting code for the conventional ACC, is designed with a mathematical method to increase k to k+1 by transform from BIBD's an incidence matrix to a complement matrix. A codevector of the complement matrix is allowanced fingerprinting code to a user' authority and embedded into a content. In the proposed algorithm, the feature points were drawing from a content which user bought, with based on these to design the dynamical multimedia fingerprinting code. The candidate codes of ACC which satisfied BIBD's v and k+1 condition is registered in the codebook, and then a matrix is generated(Below that it calls “Rhee matrix”) with λ+1 condition. In the experimental results, the codevector of Rhee matrix based on a feature point of the content is generated to exist k in the confidence interval at the significance level (1-α). Euclidean distances between row and row and column and column each other of Rhee matrix is working out same k value as like the compliment matrices based on BIBD and Graph. Moreover, first row and column of Rhee matrix are an initial firing vector and to be a forensic mark of content protection. Because of the connection of the rest codevectors is reported in the codebook, when trace a colluded code, it isn't necessity to solve a correlation coefficient between original fingerprinting code and the colluded code but only search the codebook then a trace of the colluder is easy. Thus, the generated Rhee matrix in this paper has an excellent robustness and fidelity more than the mathematically generated matrix based on BIBD as ACC.

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        독도(獨島)와 그 주변수역(周邊水域)에 대(對)한 한국(韓國)의 주권행사(主權行使)

        이상면 ( Sang Myon Rhee ) 서울대학교 법학연구소 2008 서울대학교 法學 Vol.49 No.4

        이승만 대통령이 선포한 평화선(Peace Line, Rhee Line)은 해수(海水, water-column)의 상하와 해붕(海棚, 大陸棚)의 상하를 포함하는 인접해양에 대한 주권적 권리를 포괄적으로 선언한 것으로서 오늘날의 배타적 경제수역과 그 개념이 거의 같다. 1965년 박정희 정권은 한일어업협정을 체결하여 일본 어민에 대하여 평화선을 사실상 폐기하였다. 그러나 김대중 정권은 1999년 신한일어업협정을 체결하여 독도를 아무런 표시도 없이 중간수역에 넣고 그 안에서 기국주의에 기하여 한일어업공동위원회가 권고하는 사항을 양국이 국내법을 만들어 각 어민에 실시하도록 함으로써 공동관리적 요소를 가미하였다. 이것은 중·일간 분쟁도서인 센카쿠(尖角)열도 내지 디아위(釣魚)도 주변수역에 대하여 일본이 중국이나 대만과 잠정수역이나 중간수역과 같은 공동관리적 수역을 만들지 않고 온전하게 주권적 권리를 행사해온 것과 크게 대조되어, 미국 지명위원회(BGN)는 2008. 7 한 때 독도에 대하여 한국 정부의 주권적 권리 행사에 정합성이 부족하다면서 `주권미지정지역`으로 결정했던 일이 있다. 노무현 정권은 2005년 일본 시마네 현이 `다케시마의 날`을 제정하고 2006년에는 독도 근해에서 해저 측량을 시도하는 등 공세적인 입장으로 나오자, 김대중 정권 이래 독도 암석론에 기하여 독도기점을 무시하고 대일본 유화정책을 펴온 정책을 접고, 독도 유인도론에 의해 경계획정 시 독도가 기점으로 사용되어야 한다는 입장으로 변경했다. 이러한 일본의 공세정책은 독도가 무인도로서 영해만을 갖고 그 주변수역은 독도와 무관하다는 김대중 정부의 이론에 결함이 있다고 보고, 한국 정부가 독도 주변수역의 해저에 대한 권리를 효과적으로 주장하기 위해서는 독도가 유인도로서 배타적경제수역을 가질 수 있는 섬이어야 하기 때문이었다. 이는 곧 경계획정문제로 귀착하는 것이므로, 한국 정부는 독도와 일본의 옹키(隱岐)섬간의 중간선까지 주권을 행사할 수 있다는 것과, 공평한 해결을 위하여 일본과 협상을 할 수 있다는 것을 천명하였다. 그러나, 공평한 경계획정을 위해서는 망망대해에 위치한 조그만 섬인 독도를 무시하거나 그 가치를 현저히 축소하여 해양경계선을 도출하는 것이 바람직할 것이다. The 1952 Korean Proclamation of the Rhee Line surrounding the Korean peninsula with several straight lines was similar to the regime of the EEZ, as it comprised the water-column and the seabed of the adjacent seas up to the possible maximum outer-limits. It was soon vehemently criticized by Japan, as it would drive out incoming Japanese fishermen from the declared seas. Japan also claimed the ownership of the islet of Dokdo or Takeshima, which was included in the Rhee Line, asserting that it used to be a Japanese territory before the 1910 annexation. Protracted negotiations over a decade produced the 1965 Japan/Korea Fisheries Agreement, wherein Korea allowed the Japanese fishermen to fish in the entire Korean waters beyond 12 mile exclusive zone. As a result, the Rhee Line was no longer to be applicable to the Japanese fishermen. Dokdo was left without any 12 mile exclusive zone in the hazy zone of joint fisheries resources survey outside of the zone of joint fisheries resources preservation. In the 1999 Japan/Korea Fisheries Agreement, Dokdo was to be located in the nameless zone of joint management of fisheries, influenced by the "provisional arrangement of a practical nature" as provided in Articles 74 of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea. There was a vehement criticism over such an arrangement in Korea, because the rocky islet of Dokdo has not been regarded as a disputed one by Korea due to the solid evidential facts and the sound legal bases. South Korea had to accept such an arrangement `unwillingly` while she was under IMF management when it needed Japan`s help during the financial crisis. It had to persuade the angry Koreans saying that the nameless intermediate zone has no character of joint management, since the rocky islet can generate only a 12 mile territorial sea without existence of any possibly sustainable human habitation or economic life of its own. However, in May 2006 when Japan attempted to conduct a scientific survey over the seabed around the disputed islet, Korea had to abandon the theory, newly asserting that it can generate 200 mile EEZ for it can sustain human habitation and economic life of its own, emphasizing upon the `possible capacity standard` provided in Article 121 (3) of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea. Due to the change, Korea came to face a difficulty in denying any existence of a character of a joint management in the nameless zone, which would no longer be regarded as a zone with a character of the high seas, since it is consequently a potential EEZ generated from the disputed islet. In July 2008, the US Board of Geographical Names labelled the islet as `sovereignty undesignated` due to an appraisal that Korea is in lack of integrity in exercising its sovereign rights generating from the islet. The BGN had to restore the label of the Korean sovereignty as advised by President Bush who would otherwise face vehement protest during his coming visit to Seoul in early August. It is interesting to note that the BGN has maintained the Japanese sovereignty over the disputed Senkaku islets due to the fact that Japan has exercised its full sovereign rights without making any provisional arrangement in the marginal seas off the islets with China or Taiwan. South Korea should learn such a wisdom from Japan in exercising full sovereign rights over Dokdo if it would persuade a third party like the BGN that it is exercising its sovereign rights over Dokdo and its marginal seas.

      • 韓國立法府의 行政統制의 限界에 關한 硏究 : 重石弗事件에 따른 國務院 不信任 決議案의 事例

        李振馥 건국대학교 1984 論文集 Vol.19 No.1

        Ⅰ. Introduction The executive power has been strengthened even the extent to which it invades the legislative roles in recent years. This emphasizes on the administrative responsibility and legislative control on the excutive. Ⅱ. Legislative Control over the Executive. The legislative power and functions in mass democracy are different from them in modern democracy. This doesnt' mean the denial of democracy hut the self-preservation of democracy. So the executive should be responsible for his actions and effectively be controlled by legislative. Ⅲ. The Background and Contents of lung-Suck BUL (Dollars from exhorted Tungsten) Affair Rhee regime, in order to survive his power, founded the Liberty Party (Ja-Yoo Dang) and passed the selected amendment bill to Constitution under declaring martial law in 1952. Furthermore, Rhee regime transfered to some trading companys rung-Suck BUL and granted them the privilege to import cereals and fertilizer. This fact shoved that Jung-Suck BUL affair resulted from the process of assuring the political funds to found the Liberty party and to reelect Rhee president. The lung-Suck BUL affair had a serious influence on the general public and caused social disorder. Ⅳ. The Deliberative Process of the National Assembly about Non-Confidence Resolution to the Government (Cabinet) The National Assembly proposed non-confidence resolution to government, for the illegal actions and failure of the government raised the Jung-Suck BUL affair. But this resolution was rejected by 35 to 128. Eventually, the National Assembly played a role only as a maid of the Executive Ⅴ. Conclusion The great financial affair and the failure of the government as the Jung-Suck BUL affair will often occur in the developing countries. Particularly, this affair happens when new-regime comes to power by the physical power.

      • The Detail Drawing of a Gudle Room

        Shin-Ho,Rhee,Gwang,Hoon,Rhee 국제온돌학회 2006 International Journal of Ondol Vol.1 No.1

        A Zikhwa-Gorae(Directfire-Firetunnel) Gudle is composed in the order of Agungi(Fireplace- gate), Agungi-hureongi(Fireplace-in), Bunengki(Fireridge), Gudle-Gaezari(Gudle-Deepplace), Gorae(Firetunnel), Gorae-Gaezari(Firetunnel-Deepplace), Gulduk(Holebank) and Gusae(Chimney ). The detail drawings of a Gudul(traditional Ondol) are showed. Four kinds of the Gudle are Godeon-Gorae(Straight-Firetunnel) Gudle, Doedon-Gorae(Return-Firetunnel) Gudle and Heutn -Gorae(Scatter-Firetunnel) Gudle.

      • Monetary Corruption of ex-Presidents and their Relatives in South Korea

        ( Sang Jin Rhee ) 한국행정학회 2010 한국행정학회 학술발표논문집 Vol.2010 No.-

        Purposes of this study were to know monetary corruption of seven ex-presidents and their relatives, to suggest anti-monetary corruption methods and to refer to study monetary corruption of local governors, mayors, county governors who were elected by residents directly. This research analyzed the monetary corruption of seven ex-presidents who ruled South Korea over 5 years. Seven ex-presidents were Syngman Rhee, Chunghee Park, Doowhan Chun, Taewoo Roh, Youngsam Kim, Daejung Kim, and Mooheun Roh. Scopes of ex-presidents` relatives were ex-presidents` wifes, sons and daughters, ex-presidents` brothers and sisters, and relatives of ex-presidents` wifes including their nephews. Description of facts was explained. Findings of analysis were as follows. There were no evidences to taking illegal money about Syngman Rhee and Chunghee Park. Doowhan Chun was sentenced 2 years and 4 months in prison and charged an additional fee 294 million dollars. Chun`s son, Jaeryeong, was sentenced two years and six months in prison with 3 years of probation and charged an additional fine 3.5 million dollars. Chun`s elder brother, Kiwhan, was sentenced two years in prison and charged an additional fine 378,000 dollars and also his younger brother, Gyeongwhan, was sentenced in prison on charges of embezzlement of public funds 9.125 million dollars and 75 million dollars. Taewoo Rho was indicted and sentenced 2 years and 4 months in prison in 1995. He was charged an additional fine 276 million dollars. Youngsam Kim`s son, Hyunchul, was confined and indicted on charges of receiving 3.44 million dollars from Hanbo Steel Company and 6.94 billion dollars from other companies in 1997. He was sentenced two years in prison on charges of tax evasion of 1.2 million dollars. Hongil, the first son of Daejung Kim, was indicted on charges of receiving 125 thousand dollars from Nara Chonggum Investment in 2003. But he didn`t go to jail. Hongup, the second son of Daejung Kim, was sentenced 6 years in prison on charges of 3.916 million dollars in October, 2002. He should pay charge fee 833 thousand dollars and an additional fine 466,000 dollars. The third son, Honggul, was confined and indicted on charges of receiving 3 million dollars for choosing sport tickets company in 2002. Mooheun Roh`s elder brother, Kunpyeong Roh, was under summary indictment and charged fine 1,666 dollars with receiving money from Mingyeongchan Fund in February, 2004. He was sentenced one year in prison with 2 years of probation to receiving 25 thousand dollars from CEO of Daewoo Construction in March, 2004. He was in jail during 1 year and 3 months. For solution of anti-monetary corruption of ex-presidents and their relatives, ``Special Law for Anti-Monetary Corruption for President and his Relatives``, anti-corruption system, president`s will of moral and ethical integrity, and uprightness of relatives of presidents were needed. President who had clear sovereign ideology should be elected by people.

      • Numerical Comparative Analysis for Fluid Blowing Direction of Temperature in Gorae of GUDLE

        Jong,Min,Moon,Shinho,Rhee,Gwang,Hoon,Rhee 국제온돌학회 2008 International Journal of Ondol Vol.3 No.1

        Ondol, Korean traditional heating system, has widely been used due to high thermal efficency based on its character of thermal dynamics. it has been also well known Ondol has improved real indoor thermal comfort compared to the other heating systems. Recently, a lot of numerical studies using CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics) in order to understand interal thermal and flow field has been corned out. In present study, we find out the variation of temporal temperature in floor of traditional Goodie between Jul-Gorae and Doidon-Gorae, we have performed numerical analysis. According to flow rate streams, Weet-mok's temperature in a Doidon-Gorae is 7 t:: higher than Jul-Gorae 's. This asymmetry part has an influence on decreasing a standard deviation of the temperature.

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        Fourier 변환 변이계수를 이용한 미디언 필터링 영상의 포렌식 판정

        이강현(Kang Hyeon RHEE) 대한전자공학회 2015 전자공학회논문지 Vol.52 No.8

        디지털 영상의 배포에서, 위·변조자에 의해 영상이 변조되는 심각한 문제가 있다. 이러한 문제를 해결하기 위하여, 본 논문에서는 영상의 Fourier 변환 변이계수를 이용한 미디언 필터링 (Median Filtering: MF) 영상의 포렌식 판정 알고리즘을 제안한다. 제안된 알고리즘에서, 영상의 각 수평, 수직라인의 Fourier 변환 (Fourier Transform: FT)을 하고, 이웃 라인과의 변이계수를 기반으로 하여 MF 검출 (Median Filtering Detection: MFD)을 위한 10 Dim. 특징벡터를 정의한다. 이는 MF 검출기의 SVM (Support Vector Machine) 학습에 사용된다. 제안된 미디언 필터링 검출 스킴은 동일 10 Dim. 특징벡터의 MFR (Median Filter Residual)과 Rhee의 MF 검출 스킴과 비교하여 원영상, JPEG (QF=90), Down 스케일링 (0.9) 그리고 Up 스케일링 (1.1) 영상에서는 성능이 우수하며, Gaussian 필터링 (3×3) 영상에서는 성능이 일부 높았다. 제안된 알고리즘은 성능평가 전체항목에서 민감도 (Sensitivity; TP: True Positive rate)와 1-특이도 (1-Specificity; FP: False Positive rate)에 의한 AUC (Area Under ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) Curve)가 모두 1에 수렴하여 ‘Excellent (A)' 등급임을 확인하였다. In a distribution of digital image, there is a serious problem that is the image alteration by a forger. For the problem solution, this paper proposes the forensic decision algorithm of a median filtering (MF) image using the feature vector based on a coefficient of variation (c.v.) of Fourier transform. In the proposed algorithm, we compute Fourier transform (FT) coefficients of row and column line respectively of an image first, then c.v. between neighboring lines is computed. Subsquently, 10 Dim. feature vector is defined for the MF detection. On the experiment of MF detection, the proposed scheme is compared to MFR (Median Filter Residual) and Rhee"s MF detection schemes that have the same 10 Dim. feature vector both. As a result, the performance is excellent at Unaltered, JPEG (QF=90), Down scaling (0.9) and Up scaling (1.1) images, and it showed good performance at Gaussian filtering (3×3) image. However, in the performance evaluation of all measured items of the proposed scheme, AUC (Area Under ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) Curve) by the sensitivity and 1-specificity approached to 1 thus, it is confirmed that the grade of the performance evaluation is rated as "Excellent (A)".

      • 항암항생제 Rhodomycin의 Aglyconed인 (±)-γ-Rhodomycinone과 10-Deoxy-γ-rhodomycinone의 합성(제2보)

        趙仁鎬,전진순,魯永釗,Rhee,,Richard,P 全北大學校 基礎科學硏究所 1991 基礎科學 Vol.14 No.1

        항암항생제 Rhodomycin(2)의 합성단계 최종물질인 (±)-γ-Rhodomycinone(4)과 10-Deoxy-γ-rhodomycinone(5)이 9-ethyl-9,10-epoxy-4,6,11-trihydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydronaphthacene-5,12-dione(10)의 epoxide ring 쪼개짐으로부터 만들어졌고, epoxide 10은 Hauser-Rhee가 개발한 고리접합법을 이용해서 만든 9-acetyl-4,5,6,11,12-pentamethoxy-7,8-dihydronaphthacene(6)으로 부터 얻었다. (±)-γ-Rhodomycinone(4) and 10-Deoxy-γ-rhodomycinone(5), late-stage Precursors of the alglycone of antitumor antibiotic Rhodomycin(2) were prepared from the cleavage of epoxide ring of 9-ethyl-9,10-epoxy-4,6,11-trihydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydronaphthacene-5,12-dione(10). The epoxide 10 was furnished from 9-acetyl-4,5,6,11,12-pentamethoxy-7,8-dihydronaphthacene(6), which was assembled utilizing ring annelation methodology developed by Hauser-Rhee.

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