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Rice is an important staple cereal for many households in Ghana. This study examines the factors that influence consumers’ preference for rice. Using questionnaires, 300 rice consumers, who were sampled across the municipality, were interviewed. Descriptive statistics, factor analysis, and multinomial logistic regression model were used to analyze the obtained data. The rice-related attributes that showed marked influence on consumers’ preference for rice were packaging quality, swelling capacity, stickiness of grains after cooking, percentage of broken grains, market availability, price, and degree of whiteness. Therefore, the stakeholders should implement strategies to improve these rice-related attributes and enhance the rice post-harvest chain.
The objectives of this study were to investigate the radical-scavenging activity of Ligularia fischeri on oxidative damage by the radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and to rapidly identify the active components using the bioassay-linked fractionation method. The MeOH extract and fractions of CH2Cl2, BuOH, and H2O from L. fischeri showed DPPH radical-scavenging effects in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.01). In particular, the BuOH fraction had the most effective (p < 0.05) antioxidative capacity. The active constituents from the BuOH fraction of L. fischeri were rapidly isolated by bioassay-linked HPLC method and identified as hyperoside and 2''-acetylhyperoside with potent antioxidant effects against the DPPH radical, with IC50 values of 1.31 and 7.09 μg/mL, respectively. They have not been reported from L. fischeri yet. The objectives of this study were to investigate the radical-scavenging activity of Ligularia fischeri on oxidative damage by the radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and to rapidly identify the active components using the bioassay-linked fractionation method. The MeOH extract and fractions of CH2Cl2, BuOH, and H2O from L. fischeri showed DPPH radical-scavenging effects in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.01). In particular, the BuOH fraction had the most effective (p < 0.05) antioxidative capacity. The active constituents from the BuOH fraction of L. fischeri were rapidly isolated by bioassay-linked HPLC method and identified as hyperoside and 2''-acetylhyperoside with potent antioxidant effects against the DPPH radical, with IC50 values of 1.31 and 7.09 μg/mL, respectively. They have not been reported from L. fischeri yet.
Piao, Lin,Ying Li, Hai,Park, Chul-Kyu,Cho, Ik-Hyun,Piao, Zheng Gen,Jung, Sung Jun,Choi, Se-Young,Lee, Sung Joong,Park, Kyungpyo,Kim, Joong-Soo,Oh, Seog Bae Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company 2006 JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH - Vol.83 No.7
<P>We investigated the mechanosensitivity of voltage-gated K<SUP>+</SUP> channel (VGPC) currents by using whole-cell patch clamp recording in rat trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons. On the basis of biophysical and pharmacological properties, two types of VGPC currents were isolated. One was transient (I<SUB>K,A</SUB>), the other sustained (I<SUB>K,V</SUB>). Hypotonic stimulation (200 mOsm) markedly increased both I<SUB>K,A</SUB> and I<SUB>K,V</SUB> without affecting their activation and inactivation kinetics. Gadolinium, a well-known blocker of mechanosensitive channels, failed to block the enhancement of I<SUB>K,A</SUB> and I<SUB>K,V</SUB> induced by hypotonic stimulation. During hypotonic stimulation, cytochalasin D, an actin-based cytoskeletal disruptor, further increased I<SUB>K,A</SUB> and I<SUB>K,V</SUB>, whereas phalloidin, an actin-based cytoskeletal stabilizer, reduced I<SUB>K,A</SUB> and I<SUB>K,V</SUB>. Confocal imaging with Texas red-phalloidin showed that actin-based cytoskeleton was disrupted by hypotonic stimulation, which was similar to the effect of cytochalasin D. Our results suggest that both I<SUB>K,A</SUB> and I<SUB>K,V</SUB> are mechanosensitive and that actin-based cytoskeleton is likely to regulate the mechanosensitivity of VGPC currents in TG neurons. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.</P>
Background: Optimal treatment for prostate cancer remains a challenge worldwide. Recently, T cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (TIM-3) has been implicated in tumor biology but its contribution prostate cancer remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of TIM-3 as a prognostic marker in patients with prostate cancer. Methods: TIM-3 protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting in 137 prostate cancer tumor samples and paired adjacent benign tissue. We also performed cell proliferation assays using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl- 2H tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and cell invasion assays. The effects of small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of TIM-3 (TIM-3 siRNA) in two human prostate cancer cell lines were also evaluated. Results: TIM-3 expression was higher in prostate cancer tissue than in the adjacent benign tissue (P<0.001). High TIM-3 expression was an independent predictor of both recurrence-free survival and progression-free survival. TIM-3 protein was expressed in both prostate cancer cell lines and knockdown suppressed their proliferation and invasion capacity. Conclusions: TIM-3 expression is associated with a poor prognosis in prostate cancer. Taken together, our resutlts indicate that TIM-3 is a potential prognostic marker in prostate cancer.
Full color holographic optical element fabrication using a photopolymer is proposed for a waveguide-type head mounted display. The fabricated full color holographic optical elements can be attached to the waveguide to replace the conventional couple-in and couple-out optics in the head mounted display. To implement the system, this study analyzed the optical characteristics of the photopolymer using three lasers (red, green and blue). Considering the color uniformity, a new laminated structure for a full color holographic optical element was also designed. The proposed system was confirmed experimentally.
<P>Gene selection for cancer classification is one of the most important topics in the biomedical field. However, microarray data pose a severe challenge for computational techniques. We need dimension reduction techniques that identify a small set of genes to achieve better learning performance. From the perspective of machine learning, the selection of genes can be considered to be a feature selection problem that aims to find a small subset of features that has the most discriminative information for the target.</P>
Previously, we have reported the preparation and characterization of mucoadhesive pellets of metformin hydrochloride using four high-viscosity polymers including hydroxymethylcellulose (HPMC), HPMC/carbopol, sodium carboxylmethylcellulose (Na-CMC) and sodium alginate (Na-Alg) (Piao et al., Arch Pharm Res 32:391–397, 2009). Here, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation of these metformin pellets was performed. Metformin pellets were administered orally to normal and streptozotocininduced diabetic rats at 100 mg/kg dose and the blood concentration of metformin and blood glucose levels were determined. The area under the plasma concentration versus time curve from the Na-Alg-coated metformin pellets in normal rats was 69.93 ± 39.63 lg h/mL and it was the highest among tested, followed by Na-CMC-coated pellets (58.38 ± 5.19), HPMC/carbopol-coated pellets (52.24 ±5.29), HPMC-coated pellets (42.70 ± 14.29) and metformin aqueous solution (33.49 ± 2.04). The Cmax from the Na-Alg-coated metformin pellets in normal rats was 29.47 ±10.74 lg/mLand itwas the highest among tested, followed by Na-CMC-coated pellets (15.10 ± 2.73), HPMC/carbopolcoated pellets (11.38 ± 3.04), HPMC-coated pellets (11.29 ± 3.85) and metformin aqueous solution (6.92 ±0.83). The area under the effect versus time curve of the Na-Alg-coated pellets in diabetic rats was the highest as 670.01 ± 211.20 lg h/mL, followed by CMC-coated pellets (542.42 ± 116.93), HPMC-coated pellets (539.46 ±189.91), HPMC/carbopol-coated pellets (444.03 ± 90.30),and metformin aqueous solution (199.28 ± 31.07). These data show that the Na-Alg-coated pellets were found to be the best among tested as a new mucoadhesive formulation for metformin hydrochloride prepared by the powder layering technique with a centrifugal fluidizing-granulator.
2013년 10월, 북한사회과학원 고고학연구소에서는 평양시 삼석구역 호남리에서 호남리 19호, 20호, 21호 등 고구려시기 석실봉토묘 3기를 새롭게 발굴정리하였다. 발굴조사 일부 기간에 중국 연변대학 인문사회과학학원 역사학부 박찬규, 정경일 교수가 참가하였다. 호남리 19호 무덤은 안길과 주검칸으로 이루어진 지상식 석실봉토단실묘이다. 안길은 주검칸의 남벽 중심에서 남쪽으로 길게 나 있다. 주검칸의 입구에는 장방형의 막음돌이 세워져 있고 막음돌의 안쪽에는 문턱시설이나 있다. 주검칸의 평면생김새는 남북으로 긴 장방형인데 주검칸 가운데에는 평면이 장방형인 관대시설이 남북으로 길게 놓여있다. 이 무덤에서는 머리가 없는 못대가 1점 나왔다. 무덤의 축조시기는 6세기로 보인다. 호남리 20호 무덤은 안길과 주검칸으로 이루어진 지상식의 단실묘이다. 안길은 주검칸 남벽 중심에서 남쪽으로 길게 나 있다. 주검칸의 평면생김새는 남북으로 긴 장방형인데 주검칸 입구에는 장방형의 문턱시설이 있다. 주검칸의 동, 서 양쪽에는 배수시설이 있으며 바닥에는 관대가 설치되어 있다. 유물로는 쇠로 만든 관못이 16점 드러났다. 무덤의 축조시기는 19호 무덤과 같은 시기인 6세기이다. 호남리 21호 무덤은 안길과 주검칸으로 이루어진 반지하식의 석실봉토단실묘이다. 주검칸의 평면생김새는 방형에 가까운 장방형인데 주검칸에서는 관대시설을 찾아볼 수 없었다. 유물로 4점의 쇠관못이 드러났다. 무덤의 축조시기는 그 구조로 보아 5~6세기의 것으로 판단된다. 이번에 발굴된 무덤가운데서 호남리 19호, 20호 무덤은 고구려시기의 석실봉토묘의 유형을 더욱 세분화할 필요성을 안겨주는 귀중한 자료이다. 특히 20호 무덤에서는 지금까지 볼 수 없었던 가로 놓인 관받침과 같은 시설이 나타난 것은 고구려 무덤형식에서는 보기 드문 것으로서 고구려 석실봉토묘 구조의 다양성을 보여주는 또 하나의 실례라고 말할 수 있다. In October 2013, The North Korean Academy of Social Sciences Institute of Archaeology discovered three Koguryo stone chamber tombs, including Tomb No.19, Tomb No.20 and Tomb No.21 in Hunan Lane. During the investigation, Piao Cankui and Zheng Jingri, two professor from the Department of History of Yanbian University in China took part in this excavation. Tomb No.19 in Hunan Lane is a stone chamber tombwhich is on the ground with a single room. It is made up of a tomb passage and a burial room. The tomb passage is located at the central part of south wall of the burial room. There is a rectangular obturating stone at the entrance of the burial room and also a threshold inside the obturating stone. Tombshape,and the north-south direction is longer than the east-west direction. A rectangular platform lies at the central of the tomb, with the both ends facing north and south respectively. One coffin was excavated in the tombbut only the body was found.Tomb No.19 in Hunan Lane existed in about the 6th Century. Tomb No.20 in Hunan Lane is a single chamber tomb which is on the ground. It is made up of a tomb passage and a burial room. The tomb passage is located at the central part of south wall of the burial room.The tomb passage is located at the central part of south wall of the burial room. The tomb passage is located at the central part of south wall of burial rooms. A threshold laid inside the entrance in burial rooms, also there are drainage facilities on both sides in the room and a coffin platform on the ground. Sixteen iron coffins were excavated in the tomb. Tomb No.20 in Hunan Lane also existed in aboutthe 6th Century as Tomb No.19. Tomb No.21 in Hunan Lane is a stone chamber tomb which is Half underground with a single room. It is made up of a tomb passage and a burial room. The tombshape, and there was no coffin platform on the ground. Four iron coffinnails were excavated in the tomb. Tomb No.21 in Hunan Lane existed in around the 5th to 6th Century. The excavation of these three tombs in Hunan Lane provided valuable information for further subdivision of the type of Koguryo stone chamber tombs. In particular, there are several thwart pad stones under the coffin platform that is extremely rare in Koguryo mausoleum, which provided new substantial information for further research about the structure of Koguryo stone chamber tomb.
Applying metric(distance) factor as weighting to spatial syntax is known to not contribute to the explanatory power for the human movementbehavior as compared to the geometric(angle) factor according to the negative results of several related studies. However, Kim & Piao (2017)assumed that there is not a problem of the metric factor itself but a problem of the way of applying the metric factor as weighting, andpresented a new possibility of the metric factor as weighting by proposing and verifying the methods of applying the metric weighting, whichare different from the existing ones. The purpose of this study is to propose advanced methods of applying the metric weighting to spacesyntax, and to verify whether they contribute to the improvement of explanatory power of space syntax analysis. In this paper, we proposefunctions for combined depth of distance-step that combine the distance-weighted depth function with the step depth function and apply themto axial segment analysis to check the improvement of explanatory power of them. 공간구문론에 거리요소를 가중개념으로 적용하는 것은 기존의 몇몇 연구들의 부정적인 결과에 따라 각도요소에 비해 인간이동행태에 대한 설명력 향상에 기여하지 못한다고 알려져 있었다. 그러나 Kim & Piao(2017)은 그것이 거리요소 자체의 문제가 아니라 거리요소를 가중개념으로 적용하는 방식의 문제라고 전제하고, 기존과는 다른 거리가중개념 적용방식을 제안하고 검증함으로써 가중개념으로서의 거리요소의 새로운 가능성을 제시하였다. 본 연구는 거리요소가 가중개념으로서 실효성을 지닐 수 있는 궁극적인 가중개념 적용 방안을 제안하고, 이것이 공간구문론 분석의 설명력 향상에 기여하는지 검증을 목적으로 한다. 이를 위해 본 연구에서는 거리가중개념을 새롭게 해석하여 거리가중깊이함수와 단계깊이함수를 결합한 거리-단계 결합 깊이함수를 제안하고, 이를 분절축선도 분석에 적용하여 그 설명력 향상을 확인하였다.