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      • KCI등재

        The same generalizations in three different accounts of North Kyungsang Korean prosodic phrasing

        No-Ju Kim 한국음운론학회 2004 음성·음운·형태론 연구 Vol.10 No.1

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        No-Ju Kim. 2004. The same generalizations in three different accounts of North Kyungsang Korean prosodic phrasing. Studies in Phonetics, Phonology and Morphology 10.1. 111.128. Since N. Kim (1997, 2000), at least two additional papers on North Kyungsang Korean prosodic phrasing have come out by two scholars: Sohn (2001) and S. Kim (2002). Sohn (2001) deals with five generalizations proposed in N. Kim (1997). In addition, S. Kim (2002) deals with three of the generalizations proposed in N. Kim (1997, 2000). Readers can now encounter three different researchers’ works on the same phenomenon in the same dialect and arriving at the same generalizations. Because of these similarities as well as a lack of explicit recognition of previous studies, it is very hard for readers to judge by whom, when, and where the generalizations have been made first. This paper shows that the generalizations are made explicitly in N. Kim (1997, 2000) first. Since, despite the similarities, Sohn (2001) and S. Kim (2002) propose accounts different from N. Kim (1997, 2000), there still remains a question of which account is more elegant. This paper shows that N. Kim’s account is more adequate than Sohn (2001), which uses the three problematic constraints, Maximum Binarity, Wrap-XP, and Align-XP, and S. Kim (2002), which proposes a serial rule-based analysis. (Kyungpook National University).

      • KCI등재

        Asymmetrical Distribution of Long Vowels in Connection with a H in North Kyungsang Korean

        ( No Ju Kim ) 한국현대언어학회 2010 언어연구 Vol.26 No.3

        In this paper the distribution of long vowels in connection with a H in North Kyungsang Korean is investigated. Unlike Seoul Korean, long vowels can manifest themselves without limitations in this variety of Korean, i.e., word-internally as well as word-initially and word-finally. N. Kim (1997) claims that long vowels can surface only if they attract H`s on the surface. This generalization is embodied by his assumption that the constraint Weight-to-Tone Principle (WTP) outranks MAX (m). In line with this generalization, this paper verifies that long vowels exhibit distributional asymmetry in connection with a H; they can sponsor a singly-linked H and also occur at the left edge of a doubly-linked H, but they cannot appear at the right edge of a doubly-linked H. Revision of N. Kim`s (1997) WTP is required to explain this distributional asymmetry that long vowels exhibit. This revision enables us to cover a seemingly exceptional behavior of a floating H with a heavy derivational suffix and an apparently unexpected vowel shortening at the phrase level.

      • KCI등재후보

        Dual role of a teacher's pronunciation in loanword phonology: as an output as well as an input

        No-Ju Kim 한국음운론학회 2003 음성·음운·형태론 연구 Vol.9 No.1

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        Kim, No-Ju. 2003. Dual role of a teacher's pronunciation in loanword phonology: as an output as well as an input. Studies in Phonetics, Phonology and Morphology 9.1. 37-50. Loanword phonology has been studied within the frameworks of both Optimality Theory (S.-K. Kang 1995, Lee 1995, H. Kang 1996,Oh 1996, Yoo 1996) and Correspondence Theory (O.-M. Kang 1996, Cho 1998). These previous studies have one thing in common in that they recognize loanwords as a separate group that differs somehow from native words. This paper shows that there is no real difference between loanword phonology and native phonology. The apparent difference results because previous studies do not consider all of the relevant factors that exist in the word-learning situation. In Teaching English as a Foreign Language and loanword phonology, a teacher's pronunciation plays a dual role as an output as well as an input. Hence, between a student's pronunciation and a teacher's pronunciation, both the 10 constraints and 00 constraints operate together. Recognizing this fact, a unified account of both loanword phonology and native phonology can be made. (Kyungpook National University).

      • KCI등재

        The Two Structure-sensitive Constraints OCP(XP) and C-command in Korean Prosodic Phrasing

        ( Kim No-ju ) 대한영어영문학회 2009 영어영문학연구 Vol.35 No.4

        N. Kim’s previous studies have shown that properties both of phonology and of syntax play a significant role in defining a P-phrase in Korean. Among the constraints that play major roles in N. Kim’s studies, the constraints OCP(XP) and C-command are structure-sensitive in that they make a judgement on syntactic structures the words of an identical P-phrase can or cannot have. Though these two constraints played major roles in N. Kim’s previous studies, it turns out (i) that the constraint OCP(XP) is no longer necessary and (ii) that the constraint C-command needs to be revised. Eliminating OCP(XP) and making a revision to C-command, this paper aims to simplify and develop the area of prosodic phrasing in Korean phonology. (Kyungpook University)

      • KCI등재

        A Phonological Weight Effect on Prosodic Phrasing : With Reference to Chonnam Korean

        Kim No-Ju 신영어영문학회 2004 신영어영문학 Vol.0 No.29

        Defining prosodic phrases, which differ from syntactic phrases, is critical to phrase-level phonology because there is no one-to-one correspondence between syntactic phrases and prosodic ones. All the previous studies but N. Kim (1997, 2000, 2004) have one thing in common in that a P-phrase is argued to be formed by referring to syntactic structure only. However, N. Kim shows that, in North Kyungsang Korean, none of the syntax-based theories work when the length of the complement NP is longer than two words. To solve this problem, N. Kim proposes a set of constraints which regulate the weight of P-phrases, arguing that for prosodic phrasing, phonological weight as well as syntactic properties needs to be considered. This paper shows that N. Kim’s argument is also tenable for the data from Chonnam Korean.

      • KCI등재

        The Output-to-Output Weight-Identity Constraint in the Forms Related by Optional Rules

        No-Ju Kim,Hyang-Sook Sohn 한국음운론학회 1999 음성·음운·형태론 연구 Vol.5 No.2

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        No-Ju Kim & Hyang-Sook Sohn. 1999. The Output-to-Output Weight-Identity Constraint in the Forms Related by Optional Rules. Studies in Phonetics, Phonology and Morphology 5.2, 323-336. This paper shows that compensatory lengthening occurs in Korean only in the forms related by optional phonological or morphological rules. This peculiarity is explained within the framework of Correspondence Theory by the Output-to-Output (00) Weight-Identity Constraint, which regulates weight identity between the two possible output forms. This paper argues that the notion of faithfulness is extensible to the forms related not only by morphological rules but also by phonological rules. (Kyungpook National University)

      • 地域綜合開發計劃의 背景과 實際 : 경산지역을 중심으로 A Case of Kyongsan Region

        최외출,박노보,김문식,정하광,이정주 영남대학교 지역발전연구소 1995 새마을지역개발연구 Vol.17 No.-

        The purpose of this study is to examine background and characteristics of integrated rural development policy facing localization ages and to find out the effective ways for integrated rural development planning responding local settlement development and local autonomy. For this study, the case of Kyongsan region development planning was adopted. Policy issues were summarized as follows : 1. Endeavours for self-reliant regional development should be region-wide. Especially, residents, local government, local council, and local group concerned should be integrated through mutual cooperation. 2. Policy processes, including policy agend setting, policy making, policy implementation, policy evalution, should be opened to the public and should be institutionalized with the arrangement of participation of residents and experts. 3. Institutional arrangement should be made to compensate for scarce resources for regional development.

      • 地域綜合開發計劃의 樹立을 爲限 住民開發需要調査 分析 : 慶尙北道 永川郡事例를 中心으로 A case study of the Youngchen Gun , Kyngsang Buk Do

        최외출,박노보,김문식,정하광,이정주 영남대학교 지역발전연구소 1995 새마을지역개발연구 Vol.17 No.-

        The purpose of this study is to establish the integrated rural development plan based on the consciousness and development need of inhabitants in Youngchen Gun. Youngchen Gun is located near metropolitan Taegu city. It is a satellite town of Taegu. In the future it will become an industrial, educational center in a gardenlike environment. Youngchen Gun is an area having high level of the settlement consciousness in comparison with the other counties in Kyngsang Buk Do, but it has as ever the structural problem of rural. Obtained results of this study are as follows : 1. In a section of regional settlement consciousness, it is needed to establish the well organized settlement system. 2. In a section of zone of life, it is necessary to expand a marketing route for inhabitants. 3. In a section of agricultural industry, it is needed to expand the facilities for circulation, to improve an income crops and mechanize an agriculture. 4. In a section of residence, it is needed to expand the facilities of life benefit and enlarge housing lands. 5. In a section of transportation, it is needed to extend all sort of roads and traffic facilities. 6. In a section of education, it is necessary to elevate the qualities of education and modernize the education facilities. 7. In a section of medical service, it is needed to increase the medical specialist and expand medical facilities. 8. In a section of cultural service and welfare, it is necessary to establish and increase cultural and welfare facilities.

      • KCI등재

        A Grid-based Metrical Analysis of the Old English Stress System

        Kim, No-Ju 신영어영문학회 1998 신영어영문학 Vol.11 No.-

        본 논문은 고대영어의 stress체계를 Prince와 Selkirk가 주창한 이론인 격자(grid)를 이용한 운율음운론으로 분석했다. 본 분석을 위한 고대영어의 data는 Campbell(1959)과 Halle and Keyser(1971), 그리고 Sweet(1896, 1940)에서 모아졌다. 고대영어의 stress체계를 설명하는데 필요한 규칙들이 제안되었으며, 각 규칙에 대한 매개변수(parameter)가 정해졌다. 고대영어에서는 제 1강세가 단어의 첫 음절에 주어지므로 The End Rule Initial Version이 필요하다. 현대영어에서는 단어의 제 1강세가 오른쪽 끝으로 가는 경향이 있으므로 현대영어와는 상반되는 특징이다. 운율적인 변화(rhythmic alternation)를 설명하기 위해서 단어의 끝에서부터 헤아려 짝수 번째에 놓여 있는 모든 음절에 격자를 부여하는 Perfect Grid Rule도 필요하다. 중음절(heavy syllable)에는 두 개의 격자가 주어져야 한다. 고대영어의 접두사들은 stress를 받느냐, 받지 않느냐에 따라 세 종류로 분류된다. 항상 stress를 받지 않는 부류와 특정한 통사 범주에서만 stress를 받는 부류 그리고, 특정한 어휘에 따라 stress를 받느냐 받지 않느냐가 정해지는 부류가 있다. 복합어에서는 현대영어와 마찬가지로 첫 번째 성분이 가장 강한 stress를 받는다. 이를 설명하기 위해 Compound Stress Rule이 제안되었다.

      • KCI등재후보

        한국인 ADPKD 환자에서의 TGF-β1 Gene Leader Sequence 유전자 다형성의 분포 및 임상경과와의 연관성

        오윤규,한진석,이중건,안규리,어현선,노진주,김근화,이은주,황영환,황대연,이세한,이정은,김연수,김성권,이정상 대한신장학회 2002 Kidney Research and Clinical Practice Vol.21 No.1

        목 적 : 상염색체우성다낭신(ADPKD) 환자에서 가계간·가계내의 임상양상의 심한 차이는 원인유전자 돌연변이 외에 modifying gene의 존재를 시사한다. 본 연구는 한국인 ADPKD 환자에서 TGF-β1 유전자 다형성의 분포와 고혈압, 신부전 등 임상상과의 연관성을 알아보고자 하였다. 방 법 : 정상 성인 47명과 ADPKD 환자 114명을 대상으로 TGF-β1 g ene leader sequence에 대한 PCR 시행한 후 제한효소 MspA 1I, Bg lI로 각각 처리하여 T 869C(Leu 10Pro)과 G915C(Arg25Pro)의 다형성을 보았다. 신부전, 고혈압 발생과의 연관성을 검정하였다. 결 과 : 각 유전자군의 비율은 Hardy -Weinberg 등식에 부합하였으며, TGF - β1의 BglI 처리결과는 125명 모두 GG형으로 서구인과 차이를 보였다(G : C=90 : 10). T GF - β1의 MspA1I 처리결과 정상인에서의 T : C allele의 빈도(56 : 44)는 서구인(65 : 35)과 차이를 보이지 않았으며, 총 PKD 환자군의 빈도(52 : 48)와도 통계적 차이를 보이지 않았다(p=0.670). PKD 환자군을 말기신부전 및 조기 고혈압 발생에 따라 나누었을 때 T : C allele 빈도의 차이는 없었다(p=0.571, p=0.252). 결 론 : 한국인 ADPKD 환자에서 TGF - β1 leader sequence 유전자 다형성과 임상경과 간에 유의한 관련은 없었고, 이는 싸이토카인의 유전적 차이보다는 물리적 요인 등 이차적인 원인에 의해 신조직 섬유화가 진행하는 것을 시사한다. Background : Two genetic loci, PKD1 and PKD2, have been identified as being responsible for ADPKD, and PKD1 is known to be associated with poor prognosis. However, the presence of intrafamilial clinical diversity suggests the presence of disease-modifying loci. Because the mechanism of renal failure in ADPKD includes cystic growth and tubulointerstitial atrophy and fibrosis, we studied the associations between two cytokine gene polymorphisms in the TGF-β1 gene, which are known to be related with chronic tubulointerstitial inflammation, and ADPKD progression in Korean patients. Methods : 47 normal controls and 114 individuals with ADPKD were genotyped by PCR-RFLP, and the TGF-β1 gene leader sequence of T 869C(Leu10-Pro) variant was compared with M spA 1I and G915C (Arg25Pro) with B glI. Statistic significances were determined using the Chi-square test. Results : The distribution of alleles for the T GF-β1 Leu10Pro polymorphism in ADPKD was : T 52%, C 48%, which w as similar to the Korean (56 : 44, p=0.670) and Western controls (65 : 35), and in addition, no differences were found between the CRF and the non-CRF groups (p=0.571) or the early hypertension and the normotension groups (p=0.252). T he distribution of alleles for the TGF-β1 Arg25Pro polymorphism was all GG type, which w as different from Western controls (90 : 10, p=0.000). Conclusion : Our results suggest that the polymorphism at Arg25Pro of TGF-β1 in Korean population has different allele distribution from Western, and the polymorphism at Leu10Pro of TGF-β1 has no association with the renal progression of Korean ADPKD patients.

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