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      • KCI등재

        The same generalizations in three different accounts of North Kyungsang Korean prosodic phrasing

        No-Ju Kim 한국음운론학회 2004 음성·음운·형태론 연구 Vol.10 No.1

        No-Ju Kim. 2004. The same generalizations in three different accounts of North Kyungsang Korean prosodic phrasing. Studies in Phonetics, Phonology and Morphology 10.1. 111.128. Since N. Kim (1997, 2000), at least two additional papers on North Kyungsang Korean prosodic phrasing have come out by two scholars: Sohn (2001) and S. Kim (2002). Sohn (2001) deals with five generalizations proposed in N. Kim (1997). In addition, S. Kim (2002) deals with three of the generalizations proposed in N. Kim (1997, 2000). Readers can now encounter three different researchers’ works on the same phenomenon in the same dialect and arriving at the same generalizations. Because of these similarities as well as a lack of explicit recognition of previous studies, it is very hard for readers to judge by whom, when, and where the generalizations have been made first. This paper shows that the generalizations are made explicitly in N. Kim (1997, 2000) first. Since, despite the similarities, Sohn (2001) and S. Kim (2002) propose accounts different from N. Kim (1997, 2000), there still remains a question of which account is more elegant. This paper shows that N. Kim’s account is more adequate than Sohn (2001), which uses the three problematic constraints, Maximum Binarity, Wrap-XP, and Align-XP, and S. Kim (2002), which proposes a serial rule-based analysis. (Kyungpook National University).

      • KCI등재후보

        Dual role of a teacher's pronunciation in loanword phonology: as an output as well as an input

        No-Ju Kim 한국음운론학회 2003 음성·음운·형태론 연구 Vol.9 No.1

        Kim, No-Ju. 2003. Dual role of a teacher's pronunciation in loanword phonology: as an output as well as an input. Studies in Phonetics, Phonology and Morphology 9.1. 37-50. Loanword phonology has been studied within the frameworks of both Optimality Theory (S.-K. Kang 1995, Lee 1995, H. Kang 1996,Oh 1996, Yoo 1996) and Correspondence Theory (O.-M. Kang 1996, Cho 1998). These previous studies have one thing in common in that they recognize loanwords as a separate group that differs somehow from native words. This paper shows that there is no real difference between loanword phonology and native phonology. The apparent difference results because previous studies do not consider all of the relevant factors that exist in the word-learning situation. In Teaching English as a Foreign Language and loanword phonology, a teacher's pronunciation plays a dual role as an output as well as an input. Hence, between a student's pronunciation and a teacher's pronunciation, both the 10 constraints and 00 constraints operate together. Recognizing this fact, a unified account of both loanword phonology and native phonology can be made. (Kyungpook National University).

      • KCI등재

        Asymmetrical Distribution of Long Vowels in Connection with a H in North Kyungsang Korean

        ( No Ju Kim ) 한국현대언어학회 2010 언어연구 Vol.26 No.3

        In this paper the distribution of long vowels in connection with a H in North Kyungsang Korean is investigated. Unlike Seoul Korean, long vowels can manifest themselves without limitations in this variety of Korean, i.e., word-internally as well as word-initially and word-finally. N. Kim (1997) claims that long vowels can surface only if they attract H`s on the surface. This generalization is embodied by his assumption that the constraint Weight-to-Tone Principle (WTP) outranks MAX (m). In line with this generalization, this paper verifies that long vowels exhibit distributional asymmetry in connection with a H; they can sponsor a singly-linked H and also occur at the left edge of a doubly-linked H, but they cannot appear at the right edge of a doubly-linked H. Revision of N. Kim`s (1997) WTP is required to explain this distributional asymmetry that long vowels exhibit. This revision enables us to cover a seemingly exceptional behavior of a floating H with a heavy derivational suffix and an apparently unexpected vowel shortening at the phrase level.

      • KCI등재

        The Output-to-Output Weight-Identity Constraint in the Forms Related by Optional Rules

        No-Ju Kim,Hyang-Sook Sohn 한국음운론학회 1999 음성·음운·형태론 연구 Vol.5 No.2

        No-Ju Kim & Hyang-Sook Sohn. 1999. The Output-to-Output Weight-Identity Constraint in the Forms Related by Optional Rules. Studies in Phonetics, Phonology and Morphology 5.2, 323-336. This paper shows that compensatory lengthening occurs in Korean only in the forms related by optional phonological or morphological rules. This peculiarity is explained within the framework of Correspondence Theory by the Output-to-Output (00) Weight-Identity Constraint, which regulates weight identity between the two possible output forms. This paper argues that the notion of faithfulness is extensible to the forms related not only by morphological rules but also by phonological rules. (Kyungpook National University)

      • KCI등재

        The Two Structure-sensitive Constraints OCP(XP) and C-command in Korean Prosodic Phrasing

        ( Kim No-ju ) 대한영어영문학회 2009 영어영문학연구 Vol.35 No.4

        N. Kim’s previous studies have shown that properties both of phonology and of syntax play a significant role in defining a P-phrase in Korean. Among the constraints that play major roles in N. Kim’s studies, the constraints OCP(XP) and C-command are structure-sensitive in that they make a judgement on syntactic structures the words of an identical P-phrase can or cannot have. Though these two constraints played major roles in N. Kim’s previous studies, it turns out (i) that the constraint OCP(XP) is no longer necessary and (ii) that the constraint C-command needs to be revised. Eliminating OCP(XP) and making a revision to C-command, this paper aims to simplify and develop the area of prosodic phrasing in Korean phonology. (Kyungpook University)

      • KCI등재

        A Phonological Weight Effect on Prosodic Phrasing : With Reference to Chonnam Korean

        Kim No-Ju 신영어영문학회 2004 신영어영문학 Vol.29 No.-

        Defining prosodic phrases, which differ from syntactic phrases, is critical to phrase-level phonology because there is no one-to-one correspondence between syntactic phrases and prosodic ones. All the previous studies but N. Kim (1997, 2000, 2004) have one thing in common in that a P-phrase is argued to be formed by referring to syntactic structure only. However, N. Kim shows that, in North Kyungsang Korean, none of the syntax-based theories work when the length of the complement NP is longer than two words. To solve this problem, N. Kim proposes a set of constraints which regulate the weight of P-phrases, arguing that for prosodic phrasing, phonological weight as well as syntactic properties needs to be considered. This paper shows that N. Kim’s argument is also tenable for the data from Chonnam Korean.

      • 地域綜合開發計劃의 背景과 實際 : 경산지역을 중심으로 A Case of Kyongsan Region

        최외출,박노보,김문식,정하광,이정주 영남대학교 지역발전연구소 1995 새마을지역개발연구 Vol.17 No.-

        The purpose of this study is to examine background and characteristics of integrated rural development policy facing localization ages and to find out the effective ways for integrated rural development planning responding local settlement development and local autonomy. For this study, the case of Kyongsan region development planning was adopted. Policy issues were summarized as follows : 1. Endeavours for self-reliant regional development should be region-wide. Especially, residents, local government, local council, and local group concerned should be integrated through mutual cooperation. 2. Policy processes, including policy agend setting, policy making, policy implementation, policy evalution, should be opened to the public and should be institutionalized with the arrangement of participation of residents and experts. 3. Institutional arrangement should be made to compensate for scarce resources for regional development.

      • 地域綜合開發計劃의 樹立을 爲限 住民開發需要調査 分析 : 慶尙北道 永川郡事例를 中心으로 A case study of the Youngchen Gun , Kyngsang Buk Do

        최외출,박노보,김문식,정하광,이정주 영남대학교 지역발전연구소 1995 새마을지역개발연구 Vol.17 No.-

        The purpose of this study is to establish the integrated rural development plan based on the consciousness and development need of inhabitants in Youngchen Gun. Youngchen Gun is located near metropolitan Taegu city. It is a satellite town of Taegu. In the future it will become an industrial, educational center in a gardenlike environment. Youngchen Gun is an area having high level of the settlement consciousness in comparison with the other counties in Kyngsang Buk Do, but it has as ever the structural problem of rural. Obtained results of this study are as follows : 1. In a section of regional settlement consciousness, it is needed to establish the well organized settlement system. 2. In a section of zone of life, it is necessary to expand a marketing route for inhabitants. 3. In a section of agricultural industry, it is needed to expand the facilities for circulation, to improve an income crops and mechanize an agriculture. 4. In a section of residence, it is needed to expand the facilities of life benefit and enlarge housing lands. 5. In a section of transportation, it is needed to extend all sort of roads and traffic facilities. 6. In a section of education, it is necessary to elevate the qualities of education and modernize the education facilities. 7. In a section of medical service, it is needed to increase the medical specialist and expand medical facilities. 8. In a section of cultural service and welfare, it is necessary to establish and increase cultural and welfare facilities.

      • KCI등재

        Shortening in the P-stem

        Kim, No-Ju 서울대학교 어학연구소 2002 語學硏究 Vol.38 No.4

        This paper argues that two seemingly different type of Korean shortening are actually one identical phenomenon that can be adequately accounted for in terms of the phonological stem (P-stem), which exists universally in human language. Two types of shortening have been postulated in the past because the triggers of shortening that were identified differ both phonologically and morphologically. Thus, it was impossible to collapse them into one natural class. However, the triggers that have been proposed so far are not the real triggers. Instead, a unified account of the two apparently different types of shortening can be made in which shortening is shown to occur only when a mora is incorporated into the domain of a P-stem in compensation for the loss of a mora from the morphological root (M-root). Using the framework of Optimality Theory, the domain of a P-stem is defined in terms of a conspiracy of phonological and morphological factors.

      • KCI등재

        A Third Type of Tone Shift: ‘Non-local but Bounded’

        No Ju Kim 현대문법학회 1998 현대문법연구 Vol.13 No.-

        The phenomenon of Tone Shift has been divided into two typological classes: (i) a local tone shift by which a tone can shift only to an adjacent Tone Bearing Unit (TBU), and (ii) an unbounded tone shift by which a tone can shift as far as the domain extends. The former is found in Tonga(Goldsmith 1984) and Jita (Downing 1990a) and the latter in Digo(Kisseberth 1984) and Nguni languages(Downing 1990b). However, this paper shows that a third type of tone shift is found in North Kyungsang Korean (NK Korean), which does not belong to either of the above two classes. That is, a non-local but bounded tone shift is found; a tone can shift non-locally but it is bounded within an adjacent domain in NK Korean. A constraint Bounding is proposed in order to explain this third type of tone shift.

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