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This paper tries to analyse Lee Sang-Jae's thought on state building. In this research paper I analysed his crisis recognition, diagnosis, and prescriptions to overcome difficult obstacles. He joined the Independence Society during the time of the foreign infringement of sovereignty in Korea. He thought that Korea came to crisis due to a lack of independence and self-study. He groped for a constitutional monarchy as an ideal state type, but failed. The Independence Society's state building ideas had its Limitations. Lee Sang-Jae is under the influence of The Independence Society. It is clear that not only the Independence Society but Lee Sang-Jae himself had similar limitations. The Independence Society had various spectrums of ideal state types. From a constitutional monarchy to a republican form of government coexisted together in the Independence Society. Some people regarded a republic as an ideal state type. On the other hand, Lee Sang-Jae thought that a more conservative form of governemnt, a constitutional monarchy, was the ideal state type for the times. He took an active role in building a modern constitutional monarchy through the Independence Society. The most important example is the movement for establishing a Chungchuwon, a Senate. His endeavor was a very important step toward a modem state. Lee Sang-Jae failed to solve the tension between the King's rights and people's rights in the real world. But he took a clear position on relations between them. He thought Korea could defend itself by cooperation between the King and his people against foreigners' intervention in domestic affairs. His political line was very realistic to overcome the difficulties at that time. The tension and conflict between the King and his people could not be resolved by Lee's endeavor. A true solution to the problem was emerging under the New People Society in 1907. Lee's political idea was a stepping stone between a monarchy and a republic.
영화작가로서 이창동은 장르적 자장 안에서 영화를 만들고 있는 한국영화계의 대다수 감독들과 구별된다. 그동안 그의 영화는 관객과의 소통을 위해 느와르, 멜로 등의 장르를 차용해왔지만 최근작 〈시〉에 이르러서는 장르적 외피를 벗어던진 것처럼 보인다. 〈초록물고기〉부터 〈시〉에 이르기까지 일관되게 남은 것은 관객의 참여를 요하는 깊은 심도와 시간의 연속을 암시하는 길게 찍은 숏들의 몽타주, 현실성을 강조한 연기 등 리얼리즘적 표현방식이다. 또한 이창동의 영화들은 환영적 동일시를 깨는 방식으로 관객들에게 성찰의 자리를 돌려준다는 측면에서 장르영화의 카운터 시네마로 파악할 수 있다. 이창동의 영화에서 볼 수 있는 ‘낯설게 하기’는 핸드헬드, 판타지, 미장아빔, 응시 되돌려 보내기 등의 영화적 장치로 구현된다. 이 장치들은 텍스트의 재현양식을 폭로함으로써 관객들이 역사적, 정치적 컨텍스트를 성찰하게 한다. 본 연구에서는 〈시〉,〈오아시스〉,〈밀양〉 등의 분석을 통해 이창동의 영화 만들기 행위는 결국 보이지 않는 ‘실재’를 상징화함으로써 ‘윤리를 창조하는 반복충동’이라고 주장할 것이다. As a film maker, Lee Chang Dong stands out from most Korean film makers who work within the trappings of genre films. To be sure, Lee has also used the trappings of genre films, such as noire and melodrama, but primarily as a tool to communicate with film audience. In his most recent film “Poetry”, Lee seems to have even stripped even the minimal trappings of genre film. Lee commands the audience to self-reflect and work towards their own conclusions by denying them the illusory identification on screen. In this way, Lee’s works are counter cinema. Lee achieves a distancing effect using such filmic apparatuses as hand-held camera, fantasy, mise en abyme, and returned gaze. Through these filmic apparatuses, Lee exposes the re-presentation of text and compels his audience to see the historical and political contexts of the text. In this study, I make the case that Lee Chang Dong’s film making is an act of repetition compulsion that cultivates ethical reflection, through symbolization of the invisible realities.
<P>We study light-extraction efficiency (LEE) of AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (DUV-LEDs) using flip-chip (FC) devices with varied thickness in remaining sapphire substrate by experimental output power measurement and computational methods using 3-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (3D-FDTD) and Monte Carlo ray-tracing simulations. Light-output power of DUV-FCLEDs compared at a current of 20 mA increases with thicker sapphire, showing higher LEE for an LED with 250-관m-thick sapphire by ~39% than that with 100-관m-thick sapphire. In contrast, LEEs of visible FCLEDs show only marginal improvement with increasing sapphire thickness, that is, ~6% improvement for an LED with 250-관m-thick sapphire. 3D-FDTD simulation reveals a mechanism of enhanced light extraction with various sidewall roughness and thickness in sapphire substrates. Ray tracing simulation examines the light propagation behavior of DUV-FCLED structures. The enhanced output power and higher LEE strongly depends on the sidewall roughness of the sapphire substrate rather than thickness itself. The thickness starts playing a role only when the sapphire sidewalls become rough. The roughened surface of sapphire sidewall during chip-separation process is critical for TM-polarized photons from AlGaN quantum wells to escape in lateral directions before they are absorbed by p-GaN and Au-metal. Furthermore, the ray tracing results show a reasonably good agreement with the experimental result of the LEE.</P>
This study are performed to reveal the origin of the Sasang constitutional theory made by Lee-jae-ma(李濟馬), confucianist as well as famous oriental doctor, who succeeded to Han-suck-jie(韓錫地)'s Anti-Neo-Confucianism. Han wrote a book named Myung-Suen-Lock(明善錄) which criticized Neo-Confucianism formed at times of Song dynasty in China and proposed a new doctrine i.e Anti-Neo-Confucianism. He asserted that The Sacred and Ordinary Men are all the same in nature, and that The Actual Mind of Universe and The Actual Mind of Human also are all the same ultimately. These two assertions clearly contrasted with pre-existing Neo-Confucianism led Lee-jae-ma to successively organize Sasang constitutional theory. This study is aimed to illuminate this point : How under the effects of Han's new doctrine Lee-jae-ma could find four general constitutions due to the variation of the four organs. At first, Lee indicated four organs as the very general basement providing human nature for all men including The Sacred. In consequence, he justified one of the Han's assertions that The Sacred and Ordinary Men are all the same in nature. Secondly, Lee indicated the Mind as the actual center which bring forth the individual spontaneity. As far as this individual spontaneity is rightly aimed, which means harmonize his own's with the actual process of the Universe, all men could be The Sacred. So he come to justify the other of Han's assertions that The Actual Mind of Universe and The Actual Mind of Human also are all the same ultimately. Therefore, it is clearly verified that the Lee-jae-ma's Sasang doctrine is the successive achievement origined from Han-suck-jie(韓錫地)'s Anti-Neo-Confucianism abundantly represented in his own book, Myung-Suen-Lock.
Lee Young-chan is well known by his drama Gajok(the Family). He focused on a family and it’s difficulties. He believed that family’s difficulties could are solved by family’s affection. However, his idea of family has a huge problem. It is that his concept of family is based on the patriarchy and the anti-communism. Due to the patriarchy, women who have become others appear from his dramas, so Lee Young-chan’s idea of family can not be completed perfectly. Futhermore, his idea of family is linked with idea of nation and people. Lee Young-chan said that people work for nation not only their families. This his idea is involved in the anti-communism. In the 1950s, the anti-communism is ideology of nation in Korean. At that time, the president Lee Seung-man used the anti-communism to catch state authority. Consequently, Lee Young-chan did not have the different author consciousness from old generation authors. Therefore, his formal experiments from Gajok, Giro, and Pineun Bamedo Jaji Anneunda have limited value. His formal experiments can not express the new generation consciousness, but they can be utilized to overcome the limits of Realism’s time and space.
D. K. LEE, J. S. LEE, B. J. LEE, H. S. LEE, Y. J. KIM, S. B. PARK, J. P. JOO. PIantar foot pressure analysis during golf swing motion using plantar foot pressure measurement system. Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 75-89, 2005. In this study, weight carrying pattern analysis and comparison method of four foot region were suggested. We used three types of club(driver, iron7, pitching wedge). This analysis method can compare between top class golfer and beginner. And the comparison data can be used to correct the swing pose of trainee. If motion analysis system, which can measure the swing speed and instantaneous acceleration at the point of hitting a ball, is combined with this plantar foot force analysis method, new design development of golf shoes to increase comfort and ball flight distance will be available. 1. Address acting, forces concentrated in rare foot regions and lateral foot of right foot. Back swing top acting, relatively high force occurred in medial forefoot region of left foot and forefoot region of right foot. Impact acting, high force value observed in the lateral rarefoot region of left foot and medial forefoot region of right foot. Finish acting, force concentration observed on the lateral region and rarefoot region of left foot. 2. Forces were increased in address of right foot with clubs length increased. All clubs, back swing top acting, high force value observed in the lateral forefoot region of right foot. All clubs, in impact, high force value observed in the lateral rarefoot region of left foot and medial forefoot region of right foot. Finish acting, force concentration observed on the rarefoot region in driver and lateral foot region in iron on left foot. 3. Right foot forces distribution were increased in address, back swing top and left foot force distribution were increased in impact, finnish
This thesis titled 'The Analysis of Lee Sang's Poetic Metaphor', as a whole, is attempted to say the aesthetic quality of Lee Sang's Poetry in terms of the metaphor. The meataphor appears as a part of artitic devices, as an special nature of artistic perception. I emphasize the structure of Lee Sang's poetic metaphor in this thesis. It is divided into four subi\jects: firstly, it treats the structure of idea-image; secondly, it discusses the structure of image-idea; thirdly, it excavates the structure of idea-idea; finally, it is consisted of the structure of image-image. Thus structural approach of Lee Sang's poetic metaphor, consisted of the four type and is relation, is engaged in excavaing Lee Sang's poetry in order to clarity its character for better understanding of his works. It is hopefully assumed that this hypothetic study of the structural analysis of the poetic image raise further same sort of topic for whole modern poetry in Korea.
This thesis titled 'The structural Analysis of Lee Sang's Poetry', as a whole, is attempted to analyze Lee Sang's poetic works in the light of its structure. It is originally consisted of six chapters. Howver, this paper deals with merely two chapters, the first and the second. The first chapter is an introduction of the thesis, and the second chapter, devoted to 'the structure of opposition in terms of Lee sang's poetry. The latter is devided in to three subjects: firstly, it extends the theory of the opposition in the poetic structure; secondly, it discusses the structure of the binary opposition in Lee sang's poetry; and finally, it excavates the chain structure of the binary opposition. Thus structural approach of Lee Sang's poetry, consisted of the binary opposition and its chain, is engaged in excavating Lee Sang's poetry in order to clarify its character for better understanding of his works. It is hopefully assumed that hypothetic study on the structural analysis of the whole range of one's poetic world may raise further contentions on the same sort of topic for the whole Modern Poetry of Korea in general.
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Lee and Lee (2014) proposed bi-factor multidimensional item response theory model (BFM) "observed-score" equating procedures. The main purposes of this study were to develop BFM "true-score" equating procedures, and to investigate applicability of the proposed procedures with actual data. Eight equating methods (including both true- and observed-score) based on dichotomous IRT (2-parameter logistic model: 2PL), polytomous IRT (graded response model: GRM), testlet response model (TRM), and BFM were compared with target equipercentile equating. Data for this study were from the Reading Comprehension test for a large-scale state assessment program, which consisted of several passages and corresponding groups of items. True- and observed-score equating methods based upon 2PL and BFM produced similar equating results. The GRM true- and observed-score equating methods provided equating results somewhat different from others, and more similar to the target equipercentile equating. Lee와 Lee(2014) 연구는 혼합형 검사에서의 bi-factor 다차원 문항반응모형을 적용한 IRT "관찰점수" 동등화 절차를 제안하였다. 이 연구는 Lee와 Lee(2014) 연구의 추수연구로 단위검사를 대상으로 bi-factor 다차원 문항반응모형을 적용한 IRT "진점수" 동등화 절차를 제안하고, 그 적용 가능성을 실제 자료를 이용하여 탐색하고자 하였다. 이를 위해 단위검사로 구성된 대규모 독해 검사 자료를 이용하여, 2모수 로지스틱 모형(2-parameter logistic model: 2PL), 등급반응모형(graded response model: GRM), 단위검사모형(testlet response model: TRM), bi-factor 모형(bi-factor model: BFM)을 적용하였으며, 관찰점수 및 진점수 동등화를 시행하여 총 8개의 동등화 방법을 적용하고, 산출된 결과를 동백분위 동등화 결과와 비교하였다. 연구 결과, 2PL과 BFM을 적용한 관찰점수 및 진점수 동등화는 유사한 결과를 산출하였으며, GRM을 적용한 관찰점수 및 진점수 동등화 방법은 다른 방법들과 다소 차이를 보이는 결과를 산출하였고, 비교 기준이 된 동백분위 동등화 결과와 보다 유사한 결과를 보였다.
Backgrounds Exposure to a toxic stress environment leads to excessive inflammatory reactions and induces allergic asthma resulting in airway hyper-responsiveness. We investigated whether Rosa laevigata Michx. (RL) exhibits anti-inflammatory effects related allergic asthma in both an in vitro and in vivo studies. Methods To investigate the preventive effect of RL, A549 cells were pretreated with non-toxic doses of RL (500, 1000 μg/ mL) and induced by epidermal growth factor (EGF) (10 ng/mL). First, we evaluated cytotoxicity via a MTT assay. The inhibitory effects of NF-κB activity and COX-2 expression were confirmed by a western blot assay. In the in vivo study, BALB/c mice were challenged with regard to ovalbumin via an intraperitoneal injection of RL (50, 100 mg/kg) and were killed to collect bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, lung tissues and blood serum. The number of inflammatory cells, the secretion of IgE and related cytokines were monitored by ELISA and multiplex assays. Results RL significantly suppressed NF-κB activity and COX-2 expression levels in EGF-induced A549 cells. In a chronic inflammation mice model, pretreatment of RL attenuated allergic airway inflammation by reducing inflammatory cells, the secretion of IgE and related cytokines in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions The results of this study present the possibility of RL as a therapeutic agent for allergic asthma patients via the suppression of IgE and related cytokines.