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본고에서는 부안 청호고씨의 사례를 통해서 17세기부터 19세기에 이르는 사족 가계의 계승방식에 대해 고찰하였다. 청호고씨는 전라도 옥구를 중심으로 세거하던 제주고씨 일파가 부안현 하서면 청호리 일대로 이거하면서 형성되었다. 이들은 대대로 무과에 급제하여 무반벌족으로서의 입지를 굳혔으며, 특히 고희가 호성공신으로 녹훈되면서 여러 특전을 부여받게 되었다. 청호고씨는 적장자로 이어지는 가계계승을 지향하였으나 그것이 실현되기 어려울 때에는 입후, 이종, 입양의 방식으로 가계를 지속시켰다. 17세기 친생자가 없어서 후사가 단절될 상황에 놓이게 되자 피계승자와 가장 가까운 혈연 관계에 있던 이를 입후하였다. 18세기 적장손이 폐적되고 계후자를 세우기 어려운 상황에 놓이게 되자 기존의 계승 관계를 새롭게 정립하는 이종을 행하여 피계승자와 가장 가까운 혈연 관계에 있는 이를 새로운 계승자를 세웠다. 19세기 기존의 적장자가 사망한 후 계승 구도를 둘러싸고 서파와 적파가 대립하는 양상이 나타나게 되자 관의 도움을 받은 적파에 의해서 새로운 계후자의 입양이 이루어지게 되었다. 다만 이 경우는 서파와의 대립 과정에서 양육의 의미가 포함되었기 때문에 입양이라 칭했으나 사실상 입후와 동일한 행위로 볼 수 있다. 이렇게 볼 때 입후, 이종, 입양은 구체적인 방식이 다르기는 하지만 결과적으로는 항렬에 맞는 순차적인계승 관계의 형성을 지향하고 있음을 확인할 수 있다. 그리고 청호고씨가 이러한 방식을 선택한 것은 적장계열과 가장 가까운 친족 관계에 있는 자손을 후사로 세우기 위함이었던 것으로 보인다. 즉 이들의 계승은 항렬을 토대로 친족간의 질서를 준수하였으며, 계승자를 선택할 때에는 적파의 테두리 안에서 혈연적 친소관계를 중시하였음을 알 수 있다. This study is to observe the phenomenon of long-lasting gentry pedigree after the consciousness of succession was reinforced in the Joseon society and to review its characteristics. Therefore, the aspect of Buan Cheongho Ko family’s succession for three centuries from the 17th to 19th century is traced. Cheongho Ko family started to be formed as Ko Se-ho who resided in Okgu moved to Haseo-myeon, Buan-hyeon with his wife’s family in the 16th century. Because Ko Se-ho, who established a family hometown, and his descendents passed the military service examination and entered government service, and especially Ko-hee was entitled a contributor by being in attendance on King Seonjo during Japanese Invasion of Korea in 1592, the family came to consolidate its footing as the distinguished military nobility family. The succession structure of Cheongho Ko family from the 19th Ko Se-ho to the 29th Ko Jin-ho shows mostly primogeniture succession. However, in case there was no primogeniture, the succession was done by adoption and next eligible child. This perspective indicates that the succession by adoption and next eligible child pursued the sequential succession relation according to the degree of kindred although the specific methods of practicing family succession were different. In addition, Cheongho Ko family used these methods in order to carry on family line with children who were closest to primogeniture.
본 연구는 신종 발표시 기록하지 않았던 진노랑상사화 Lycoris chinensis Traub var. sinuolata K. Tae et S. Ko에 대하여 라틴어 기재를 추가하였고, 또한 근연관계에 있는 L chinensis Traub와 L. aurea Herb를 포함한 새로운 분류군에 대한 검색표를 제시하였다. For Lycoirs chinensis Traub var. sinuolata K. Tae et S. Ko ex K. Tae et S. Ko, Korean endemic plant, latin description is add to the previous study, and a key including L. chinensis Traub and L. aurea Herb. which are closely related to the above variety, is newly provided.
1. The are many sentence-final endings in modern Korean. They are divided into conclusive endings and non-conclusive endings depending on whether they conclude a sentence or not. It may be said that the important point of non-conclusive endings is the lack of sentence types and speech levels. The purpose of this paper is to analyze non-conclusive endings, and investigate their syntagmatic relationship to adjacent forms. From the functional viewpoint, non-conclusive endings can be classified into conjunctive(連結語尾) and derivatives(轉成語尾). The former shows primary function; the latter shows non-primary function. Furthermore, conjunctives can be subdivided into coordinatives and subordinatives according to their function. Coordinatives and subordinatives can be subdivided into word-conjunctives and sentence-conjunctives, respectively. 2. It may be said that non-conclusive endings which were listed in the traditional grammars and dictionaries can not be analyzed further. However, among them there are complex forms which consist of mood and aspect morphemes, and final endings.(e.g. u˘myo˘nso˘: myo˘+nso˘; chamaja: cha+maja) The problems I faced in analyzing non-conclusive endings were as follows: (1) I did not identify the items beginning with ko˘(ko˘nu˘l, ko˘ni, ko˘ndae, ko˘du˘n, etc.) as complex forms. When we take the above mentioned items as complex forms, the remaining elements nu˘l, ni, ndae, tu˘n etc. can not be combined with other norphemes; moreover they cannot be attached directly to the verbal stems. At the same time, we cannot give any meaning to the morpheme ko˘ which probably cannot be further analyzed. (2) I identified the items o˘followed by so˘and taga as morphemes. In dictionaries so˘and taga are listed as emphatic particles. Since the addition of taga, so˘to o˘is not obligatory, o˘so˘, o˘taga can be regarded as unanalyzable morphemes. (3) The complex forms which consist of ki and case marker e or lo, o˘and delimiter to can be also regarded as unanalyzable morphemes. The deletion of the case markers and a delimiter makes sentences ungrammatical. If the deletion of delimiters does not exert an influence on the grammaticalness, the delimiters can be separated from preceding elements, e.g. nu˘ndedo, u˘myo˘nso˘do o˘yaman etc. 3. Non-conclusive endings do not combine with all the adjacent forms. First, tense morphemes precede non-conclusive endings. However, there is many restrictions in actual combinations. We can classify non-conclusive endings into three groups according to the combination with tense morphemes: some cannot be combined with any tense element; some cannot be combined with o˘ss; Some can be combined with o˘ss and kess. There are differences between coordinatives and subordinatives in conbination with tense morphemes. For example, u˘myo˘nso˘as a coordinative can not be combined with o˘ss. However, u˘myo˘nso˘as a subordinative can be combined with o˘ss. Secondly, case markers and delimiters follow non-conclusive endings. There are also many restrictions in this case.
CAD/CAM의 발전으로 기존의 많은 보철물이 지르코니아로 대체되고 있다. 하지만 많은 치과기공사가 지르코니아 색조재현에 많은 어려움을 겪고 있다. 시행착오를 겪으며 이에대한 해결을 위해 많이 노력하였고 이에 이 논문에서는 Ko's coloring 기법에 대해 설명하고자 한다. According of the development and spread of CAD/CAM, a number of prostheses we have done had been replaced. Dental technicians have a difficulty reproducing natural color when producing these zirconia crowns. Difficulty reproducing natural color when producing these zirconia crowns. In my case, in the beginning of experimenting with zirconia, I had a hard time dealing with zirconia and I have tried solve these problems. Therefore, I would like to share Ko's coloring technique made of my effort with you.
Objectives : This study was designed to investigate the chronical features of urticaria and the effects of urticaria treatment with Ko-Bang(古方). Methods : We treated 39 patients for urticaria with Ko-Bang(古方), who visited to care urticaria at the Dept. of Dermatology Oriental medical hospital Dong-eui university from Jan, 2008 to Sep, 2009. This study was assessed using the chart analysis and the follow-up survey by telephone. Results & Conclusions : 1. 39 outpatients were surveyed, who were 20 males and 19 females. And patients who were ages 21-30 were the largest group, 11(28.21%). Among the 39 patients, acute urticaria patients were 8(20.5%), chronic urticaria patients were 31(79.5%), and contraction of a disease period between 6 weeks with 3 months was 17.9%. 2. The causes of urticaria were measured unknown 37.5%, foods 37.5%, drugs 25% in acute and unknown 35.5%, a change of temperature 29%, foods 16% in chronic. And suspected provocation factors were measured unknown and foods each 12 cases. The most of accompanied symptoms was itching sign(34 cases), the second most was self-conscious fever(10 cases). 3. Out of treat prescription(Ko-Bang,古方), Injinho-Tang(茵蔯蒿湯) was used most in 5 cases, Daehwanghwangryunsasim-Tang(大黃黃連瀉心湯), Hwangryun-Tang(黃連湯), Daesiho-Tang(大柴胡湯) were used in each 4 cases, Galgeun-Tang(葛根湯), Chijadaehwangsi-Tang(梔子大黃?湯), Sosiho-Tang(小柴胡湯) were used in each 3 cases, Gaemagakban-Tang(桂麻各半湯), Chijasi-Tang(梔子?湯),Oryeongsan(五笭散) were used in each 2 cases. 4. When the processes of treatment were classified by one poison(一毒), there were the 19 cases (48.7%) which was caused by Bun(煩), the 12 cases(30.8%) by Water(水) and the 4 cases(10.3%) by Gyur(結).
이 글은 한국어 모음추이 가설의 지난 50년사를 충실히 돌아보기 위해 쓰인 글이다. 이를 위해 그간 국내외 학계에서 제기된 비판적 논점들을 자세히 살핌으로써 모음추이 가설이 지닌 이론적, 경험적 한계를 종합적으로 제시하고자 하였다. 특히 한국어 모음추이설의 거의 유일한 문헌학적 증거인 몽골어 차용어 자료를 재검토하고 그 이면에 전제된 중세 몽골어에 대한 구개적 조화 이론에 대한 대안으로서, 중세 몽골어 모음체계를 혀뿌리 조화 체계로 보아야 한다는 수정주의적 해석(Ko 2013, 2018)을 소개하였다. 이러한 논의는 몽골어 모음추이설의 기각, 그리고 그에 따른 한국어 모음추이설의 기각으로 귀결된다. 마지막으로 수정주의적 해석에 대한 바레레·얀후넨(Barrere & Janhunen 2019)의 반박을 비판적으로 검토하여 이들이 제시한 전통적 해석의 여섯 가지 논거가 몽골어 모음추이설을 끝내 구해내지 못한다는 점을 보였다. This article presents a comprehensive review of the history, issues, and current status of the Korean vowel shift hypothesis(KVS) (Lee 1972). A thorough reevaluation of the plausibility and adequacy of the KVS, combined with various counterexamples and contradictory evidence put forward in the literature, shows that the KVS is simply untenable. One major argument against the hypothesis comes from Ko’s (2013 & 2018) rejection of the Mongolic vowel shift hypothesis (MVS) (Svantesson et al. 2005). Ko’s revisionist view that Middle Mongolian had a tongue root harmony system poses a critical challenge to the proponents of the KVS who took it for granted that Middle Mongolian had a palatal harmony system when comparing the vowel qualities of Middle Korean and Middle Mongolian. This article also critically reviews the most recent arguments presented in favor of the conventional view by Barrere and Janhunen (2019).
Objective : The purpose of this study is to know the effect of Ko-Bang(古方) on nummular eczema. Methods : We decided the treatment principle through the abdominal examination and symptoms. We gave Ko-Bang to the patient and observed the progress. We used visual analogue scale(VAS). Results : After the treatment the grade of VAS was decreased and the symptoms of nummular eczema were significantly improved. Conclusion : After the treatment of Hwanggijakyakgyejigoju-Tang(黃耆芍藥桂枝苦酒湯), the symptoms of nummular eczema were disappeared and Ko-Bang was effective on the treatment of intractable skin diseases.
Objectives : This study was performed to analysis the effect of oriental medical care for inpatients with facial paralysis that had visited Dept. of Otolaryngology Oriental medical hospital Dong-eui university. Methods : From January 2008 to September 2010, a clinical study was done on 250 inpatients who were treated as facial nerve paralysis at the Dept. of Otolaryngology Oriental medical hospital Dong-eui university. This study was assessed using the chart analysis. Results : 1. The distribution of sex : female 54.8%, male 45.2%. The distribution of age was pregented that fifty to sixty was the most in 67 cases(26.8%). 2. The distribution of the period of admission : female 12.5 days, male 9.9 days. 3. The distribution of past history : hypertention(18.8%), diabetes-mellitus(10.85%), facial paralysis(9.25%), cerebrovascular disease(4.4%), liver disease(5.6%), hyperlipidemia(1.2%), otitis media(1.2%), herpes zoster(1.2%), cardiac disease(2.45%), thyroid disease(1.2%). 4. The distribution of the region of facial paralysis : Rt(55.36%), Lt(56.52%). 5. Check the mastoid pain : 66.8%(female 73.91%, male 58.04%). 6. Out of prescription(Ko-Bang, 古方), Galgeun-Tang(葛根湯) and Gaejigeogaegayoungchul-Tang was used most in each 34 cases, Daesiho-Tang(大柴胡湯) 30 cases, Galgeungabanha-Tang(葛根加半夏湯) 27 cases, Sihogaeji-Tang(柴胡桂枝湯) 14 cases, Hwanggigaejiomul-Tang 12 cases, Odu-Tang(烏頭湯) 10 cases, Chijadaehwangsi-Tang 10 cases, Gaejigagalgeun-Tang(桂枝加葛根湯) 7 cases, Banhasasim-Tang(半夏瀉心湯) 5 cases, Injinho-Tang(茵蔯蒿湯) 5 cases in order. 7. The distribution of herb group : Mahwang-Jae(麻黃劑) 31.72%, Gaeji-Jae(桂枝劑) 26.00%, Siho-Gae(柴胡劑) 20.70%, Chija-Gae(梔子劑) 7.49%, Buja-Jae(附子劑) 4.41%, Banhahwanggeum-Gae(半夏黃芩劑) 3.08%, Daehwang-Gae(大黃劑) 2.64%, Bockryeong-Gae(茯笭劑) 1.76%, Jisil-Gae(枳實劑) 1.32%, Insam-Gae(人蔘劑) 0.88% in order. 8. The distribution of House-Brackmann grade of admission : Gr Ⅳ 74.85%, Gr.III 13.6%, Gr.V 11.6% in order. 9. The distribution of House-Brackmann grade of discharge : Gr.III 56%, Gr.IV 38.4%, Gr.II 5.6% in order. 10. The average number of OPD follow up is 6.46. Conclusion : This results indicated that oriental medical treatment with Ko-bang(古方) can be an effective way to treat facial paralysis. The more patients we treat with Ko-bang(古方), the more clinical report is accumulated. Then it would be helpful to map out a systematic treatment on facial paralysis.
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The article deals with verba sentiendi et cogitandi in Czech, specifically with verbs vidět [see], slyšet [hear], cítit [smell/feel/sense], vědět and znát [know]. The framework of the study is the notion of TAM space, which is constituted by interrelations of time, aspect and modality factors in establishing communication construal. The article focuses on interplay of two of this factor triple, namely aspect and time. It builds on two distinctions: stative events (states) vs. dynamic events (activities processes), and distinction between morphological aspect (i.e., aspect given by the morphological make-up of the verb) vs. aspectual construal of the communication the verb is part of. The latter of the distinctions is motivated by the fact that in Czech morphologically perfective verbs may constitute an imperfective communication construal and vice versa. It is demonstrated that the above verbs behave in Czech in regard to TAM differently than other verbs: they do not constitute aspectual »perfective vs. imperfective« pairs contrary to, for instance, telic verbs; in respect to aspect and tense they result in different communication construals in collocation with temporal expressions and various verbal tenses than other verbs. The article provides explanation of these specifics. All conclusions and explanations are corpora based.
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This study is a subsequent experiment of Ko’s (2006), which investigated the effects of learning conditions and task types respectively. Based on the findings of Ko’s (2006), the present study examined which combination of instructional treatments combining two learning conditions with two task types could be more effective than the other combinations on the learning of different grammatical rules. 130 Korean college freshmen with low proficiency were assigned to four experimental groups: EC (explicit condition and comprehension task), EP (explicit condition and production task), IC (implicit condition and comprehension task), and IP (implicit condition and production task). After two week instructions, post-test data through grammaticality judgment test and controlled written test were analyzed by the two-way Multiple Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA). The findings of the study are as follows: (a) for the comprehension of a simple rule, there is no significant difference; (b) for the production of a simple and a complex rule, the EP can be the most effective; and (c) for the comprehension of a complex rule, the EP and the IP can be more effective than the EC and the IC. Overall, the effect of the combination with an explicit condition and a production task is more evident than the others. The results are expected to give empirical evidence and suggestions for more effective ways of promoting learning of formal linguistic features and leading L2 learners to develop their interlanguage.