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      • Identification of cytokines inhibiting eosinophil activation and the inhibitory mechanism

        Park,,Choon-Sik,Choi,,Eun,Nam,Lee,,Young,Mok,Park,,Sung,Woo,Jang,,An,Soo,Lee,,June,Hyuk,Choi,,Yun,Sung,Chung,,Il,Yup 대한천식 및 알레르기학회 2003 천식 및 알레르기 Vol.23 No.4

        IL-5는 여러 경로를 통하여 호산구의 기능에 결정적인 역할을 하고 혈액이나 조직에서 호산구의 수적인 증가를 고려할 때 호산구 증다증을 동반하는 여러 질환과 깊게 연관되어 있다. 본 실험에서 IL-5로 자극된 호산구와 자극되지 않은 호산구의 활성을 pro-inflammatory cytokines(IL-1β , IL-6, TNF-α )과 Th1(IFN- γ), Th2(IL-4, IL-13) 그리고 Tr cytokines(IL-10)이 억제할 수 있는지를 eosinophil shape change를 통해서 알아보았다. 시간과 투여량에 따라 IL-6와 TNF- 는 자극되지 않은 호산구의 크기를 증가시키는 반면, IFN- γ와 IL-4 그리고 IL-13은 호산구의 크기를 유의하게 감소시켰다. 또한 IL-13을 제외한 IFN- γ와 IL-4는 IL-5로 자극된 호산구의 shapec hange를 억제했다. 최대 억제를 위해서 IFN- γ와 IL-4로 30~60분 정도 전처리 하였다. cyclohexamide에 의한 억제 효과의 제거는 cytokine에 의한 신호전달과 IFN- γ의 효과에 있어서 새로운 단백질이 필요함을 제시하였다. IFN- γ의 전처치는 IL-5에 의하여 유도된 ERK1/2의 인산화를 유의하게 억제하였다. 결론적으로 IFN- γ는 새로운 단백질의 생성으로 MAP kinase 활성을 억제하여 IL-5로 자극된 호산구의 기능을 조절할 수 있다. (J Asthma Allergy Clin Immunol 23: 759-72, 2003)

      • KCI등재

        원저 : IL-15에 의한 류마티스관절염 환자 활막 섬유모세포에서의 SDF-1 유도

        박영은 ( Young Eun Park ), 김성일 ( Sung Il Kim ), 박성후 ( Seong Hu Park ), 백승훈 ( Seung Hoon Baek ), 오혜좌 ( Hye Jwa Oh ), 허양미 ( Yang Mi Heo ), 조미라 ( Mi La Cho ) 대한류마티스학회 2010 대한류마티스학회지 Vol.17 No.3

        Objective: Interleukin-15 (IL-15) recruits and activates synovial T cells, and IL-15 plays an important role in amplifying and perpetuating inflammation in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) is a potent chemoattractant for memory T cells in the inflamed RA synovium. This study investigated the effect of IL-15 on SDF-1 production in RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). Methods: The expressions of IL-15 and SDF-1 were determined from the synovium of patients with RA and osteoarthritis (OA) by performing immunohistochemistry. The expressions of SDF-1 was measured from the RA FLS that were cultured with IL-15 and IL-17 by real-time RT-PCR and ELISA. The SDF-1 expression was also measured, via ELISA, from the RA FLS stimulated by IL-15 together with the inhibitors of such intracellular signal molecules as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase, LY294002), STAT3 (AG490), MAP Kinase (PD98059), NF-κB (parthenolide) and activator protein 1 (AP-1, curcumin). Results: IL-15 and SDF-1 were mainly expressed in the RA synovium compared to that of the OA synovium. IL-15 increased the SDF-1 expressions and it, and had an additive effect with IL-17 on the SDF-1 expressions in the cultured RA FLS. The IL-15 induced increase of the SDF-1 expression in the cultured RA FLS was blocked by the inhibitors of PI 3-kinase, NF-κB and AP-1. Conclusion: The SDF-1 expression was increased in the RA synovium and it was up-regulated by IL-15 in the RA FLS through the PI 3-kinase, NF-κB, and AP-1 pathways. These results imply that the IL-15 induced increase of the SDF-1 expressions may be involved in the immunopathogenesis of RA.

      • 화상환자에서 면역억제 기전

        정태호,황일우,장수일,김문규,서정민,정치영,김정철 慶北大學校 醫科大學 1995 慶北醫大誌 Vol.36 No.4

        목적 : 본 연구는 화상환자에서 면역이상의 기전을 조사코져 T-세포의 활성을 나타내는 가용성 interleukin-2 수용체(IL-2R), 대식세포의 활성을 나타내는 neopterin, tumor necrosis factor(TNF) 및 interleukin-6 (IL-6), 그리고 호중구의 활성을 반영하는 elastase-α1-antitrypsin을 측정하였다. 또한 lipopolysaccharide(LPS)가 이들 면역세포의 활성화에 미치는 영향을 조사하였다. 대상 및 방법 : 30예의 화상환자를 대상으로 화상후 1일, 7일, 14일, 21일, 28일에 각각 혈액을 채취하여 혈청중 가용성 IL-2R, TNF, IL-6, 그리고 elastase-α1-antitrypsin은 각각 효소면역법으로, 혈청중 neopterin은 radioimmunoassay법으로 측정하였다. LPS가 말초 단핵세포에 미치는 영향은 역전사 중합효소 연쇄반응을 통하여 각종 cytokines의 mRNA 발현을 측정하였다. 결과 : 화상환자에서 혈청중 가용성 IL-2R은 화상후 1일째부터 대조군에 비하여 유의성 있게 증가되어 7일과 14일째에 최고치를 나타냈으며 그 이후에는 다소 감소하였으나 대조군보다는 유의한 증가를 나타냈다. 화상환자를 중화상, 중등도화상, 경도화상으로 분류하여 혈청중 가용성 IL-2R 치를 비교해본 결과 중증 화상일수록 더욱 높은 치를 나타냈다. 화상환자에서 혈청중 neopterin 역시 화상후 1일째부터 증가되어 전 관찰기간 동안 대조군에 비해 유의한 높은 치를 나타냈다. 경도화상과 중등도 화상에서는 서로 유의한 차이를 보이지 않았으나 중환자에서는 경도 혹은 중등도 화상환자에 비해 유의한 증가를 보였다. 화상환자에서 혈청중 TNF 농도는 화상후 1일부터 증가되어 관찰전기간에 걸쳐 유의한 증가를 나타냈으며 중등도 화상환자에서 가장 높은 치를 보였다. 혈청중 IL-6치 역시 화상 전기간에 걸쳐 대조군보다 유의한 증가를 나타냈으며 중화상 환자에서 가장 높은 치를 나타냈다. 화상은 또한 혈청중 elastase-α1-antitrypsin 농도를 현저히 증가시켰다. 즉 화상후 1일에 elastase-α1-antitrypsin 농도는 정상인보다 5배 높았으며 그 이후 약 4주간 계속 높은 농도를 유지하다가 환자가 회복되면서 감소하는 경향을 나타내었다. 중등도화상 및 중화상환자의 혈청중 elastase-α1-antitrypsin 농도는 경도 화상환자에서 비해 유의한 증가를 보였다. 한편 화상환자에서 면역이상을 초래하는 주된 요인으로 여겨지는 lipopolysaccharide는 면역세포를 총체적으로 활성화시켜 IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF, IFN-γ, TGF-β, GM-CSF, IL-2R의 유전자발현을 현저히 증가시켰다. 결론 : 화상환자에서 T-세포, 대식세포, 호중구의 활성화를 반영하는 가용성 IL-2R, neopterin, ,TNF, IL-6, elastase-α1-antitrypsin치가 혈중에 증가되어 있으며 화상의 정도가 심할수록 더 높았다. Cell-mediated immunity frequently becomes severely impaired after thermal injury. However, the cause of postburn immune dysfunction is unclear and controversy exists over both pathophysiology and clinical relevance of these abnormalities. This study was undertaken to investigate the immune responses in vivo of patients with burn. Levels of soluble IL-2R, a sensitive marker of T-cell activation, levels of serum TNF, IL-6, and neopterin, an index of macrophage activation, and levels of serum elastase-α1-antitrypsin, an index of neutrophil activation, were measured in serial serum samples taken from 30 burned patients. In patients with burn, soluble IL-2R levels were increased over a 4-week interval with peak concentrations reached during the 2nd week after burn. Patients with severe burn showed a higher soluble IL-2R levels than those with mild or moderate burn. In addition soluble IL-2R significantly correlated with burn size. The levels of serum neopterin were already increased at the first day following burn, and remained at a high level throughout the total period studied (28 days). Patients with severe burn showed significantly higher concentration of serum neopterin than mild or moderate burn. There was positive relationship between the burn sizes and the levels of neopterin. A significant positive correlation was also found between serum soluble IL-2R levels and neopterin levels in burn patients. Levels of serum TNF and IL-6 were also significantly increased over a 4-week interval in burn patients. The levels of serum elastase-α1-antitrypsin were also already increased at the first day following burn, and remained at a high level over a 4-week. Patients with moderate or severe burn showed significantly higher concentration of serum elastase-α1-antitrypsin than those with mild burn. There was no significant relationship between the burn extent and the level of elastase-α1-antitrypsin. LPS increased the transcription of all the cytokines we examined in peripheral mononuclear cells, i.e., IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5_IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF, TGF-β, GM-CSF, and IL-2R. We conclude that soluble IL-2R, neopterin, TNF, IL-6, and elastase-α1-antitrypsin might be useful parameters for monitoring of the clinical course in burn patients. Moreover, they indicate that T-cell, macrophage, and neutrophil activation might play the central role in the pathogenesis of the immuno-logic and metabolic disturbance that follows thermal injury.

      • KCI등재후보

        흰쥐 경골의 신연 골형성술에서 염증성 싸이토카인의 발현

        황일웅(Il Ung Hwang), 조태준(Tae-Joon Cho), 최인호(In Ho Choi), 정진엽(Chin Youb Chung), 유원준(Won Joon Yoo), 김은희(Eun Hee Kim) 대한정형외과학회 2004 대한정형외과학회지 Vol.39 No.1

        목적: 본 연구의 목적은 신연 골형성술에서의 염증성 싸이토카인의 발현 양상을 일반 골절 치유 과정과 비교하는 것이다. 대상 및 방법: 흰쥐 경골의 단순 골절 치유 모델과 신연 골형성술 모델을 대상으로 3주에 걸쳐서 단계적으로 골 조직을 채취하였다. 총 리보핵산을 추출하고 각종 염증성 싸이토카인 발현의 시간적 변화를 검사하였다. 수술 후 7일과 9일째에 조직에서 면역조직화학 검사를 통해서 IL-6의 공간적 발현 양상을 조사하였다. 결과: IL-1β, IL-6는 단순 골절 치유 과정에서 수술 후 1일째에 발현이 절정에 달하였다가 3일째부터 발현이 감소하여 수술 전 상태로 회복되었다. IL-1β는 신연 골형성술 중 신연 기간에도 발현의 변화가 없었으나 IL-6은 신연을 시작함에 따라 다시 발현이 증가하는 양상을 보였다. 면역조직화학 검사장 IL-6은 골수 세포 뿐 아니라 연골세포, 골모세포 그리고 신연 간격의 미성숙 간엽세포에서 발현이 확인되었다. 결론: 신연 변형력에 의한 IL-6의 발현이 유도되는 것을 확인하였으며, 이는 조절된 염증 반응이 신연 골형성술 과정에서 신생골 형성에 부분적으로 기여할 가능성을 시사하는 것으로 생각된다. Purpose: The purposes of this study were to investigate the expression pattern of pro-inflammatory cytokines during distraction osteogenesis and to compare these with expression during simple fracture healing. Materials and Methods: Regenerated bones from the rat tibia subjected distraction osteogenesis and simple fracture healing models were harvested over three-week periods. Temporal expressions of mRNA of pro-inflammatory cytokines were investigated by RNase protection assay. Immunohistochemical studies for IL-6 were performed in postoperative day 7 and 9 tissue section specimens. Results: IL-1β and IL-6 produced detectable signals, while IL-1α, TNF α and TNF β did not. The mRNA expressions of IL-1β and IL-6 were markedly upregulated on postoperative day 1 and then subsided to the preoperative level. IL-1β mRNA expression remained the same even when distraction began. However, IL-6 mRNA expression was reactivated during the distraction phase. Immunohistochemical study revealed the expressions of IL-6 not only at the transitional zone of the transchondroid ossification, in young osteoblasts lining newly formed trabeculae and in hematopoietic cells in the marrow but also in primitive mesenchymal cells at the distraction gap. Conclusion: Distraction strain re-induced IL-6 expression during distraction osteogenesis, which suggests that well-controlled inflammatory reaction might contribute to active new bone formation in distraction osteogenesis.

      • 金正日體制管理經綸과 그 延命術 : North Korean Power Politics since 1974- An Analysis Kim, Jong Il's Statecraft on System Management and his Tactics of Survival 1974년이래의 북한판 "勢道政治"

        신일철 고려대학교 북한학연구소 2000 北韓學硏究 Vol.1 No.-

        When the lord reigned but did not rule, we called the period as being under the power politics. The lord was simply a figure-head of the feudal dynasty without any power at all. Since 1974, a similar power politics has been in existence in North Korea; Kim Il Sung was raised as the founder of the pseudo-religious sect, while his son, Jong Il, governed in the name or his father's charisma. It is this type of modem power politics that Kim Jong Il managed in the apex of the power structure, where his power and authority was supported and maintained by the personality worship towards his father by his people. Kim Jong Il's ruling tactics has mainly consisted of the cult of personality, and the mobilization structure led by the monolithic and dogmatic doctrine of the Suryong (the leader). This cult of personality also managed to take the heart and soul fo the people into a dictatorial system through the routine process of instigating propaganda and ideological lessons. Kim Jong Il's management tactics in the 1970s were mostly devoted to mobilizing or exploiting human labor forces via political and ideological means such as Speed Battle (Campaign). Directed by his The Great Three Revolution Tennis (Samdae Hyongmyong), it blocked the road towards medium-ranged development. Therefore, it was natural that the inter-Korea economic contest turned out up side down between Seoul and Pyongyang, and the economic capability of the North dropped to just one twenty-fifth of the South's. Kim Jong Il's political ideology is the Suryong doctrine. The Suryong is not only a respectful title of a supreme leader; rather, he is very much like an absolute, despotic monarch over the constitution, or a founder of a pseudo-religious sect putting a great emphasis on the deity of the leader Ever since the purge of the Kapsan faction, Kim Jong Il took on the interpretation of the Marxism-Leninism and the rights of initiating and developing the dogmatic Juche ideology, the DPRK's ruling ideology. In the early 1990s, Kim Jong Il's leadership faced a serious challenge due to the sudden collapse of socialistm in Eastern Europe and the USSR along with the reform and opening in China and Vietnam. However, Kim Jong Il reacted firmly against such reform and opening movements under tile slogan of "Our Way of Socialism." In addition, Kim Jong Il developed the concept of the Immortal Socio-Political Organic Body, which means that the masses are to be integrated into the socio-political body politic that is destined to live forever, While physical life, which is mortal, is given by the parents, political life, which is immortal, is given by this socio-political body. Therefore, the masses are required to unconditionally obey the brain of the organic body, which is the Suryong. Furthermore, Kim Jong Il demanded the people not just to obey, but to be determined to flight until death. This is all in attempt to protect the Suryong. This kind of deplorable death or glory spirit is one of the basic elements of the DPRK policies of survival, and the brinkmanship reflected in the DPRK-US direct talks. Regardless, Kim Jong Il has four major shortcomings in his management tactics; Firstly, the overemphasis on the charisma of Kim Il sung has become dysfunctional, and thus, it is very difficult to justify the doctrine of personality worship towards Kim Jlong Il. Secondly, from the viewpoint of the dual social structure based on Marxism and Leninism, the lower structure in the DPRK has collapsed, and the upper structure, including the Party, the Government, and even the administrative organs, has been collapsing step by step except the Military. Thirdly, the adoption of the People's Economic Planning Law signifies that Pyongyang has chosen a central planning and ordering instead of market and civil society, and thus, made it difficult to predict which way the North Korean regime would follow. Fourthly and lastly, Kim Jong Il's system is now facing a deadlock by sticking to such an isolated and closed garrison state, which is totally outdated in the era of postcold war and information revolution.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재후보

        Articles : Up - Regulation of Interleukin - 4 Receptor Expression by Interleukin - 4 and CD40 Ligation via Tyrosine Kinase - Dependent Pathway

        ( Hyun Il Kim Eui Young So Suk Ran Yoon Mi Young Han Choong Eun Lee ) 한국생화학분자생물학회 (구 한국생화학회) 1998 BMB Reports Vol.31 No.1

        Recently a B cell surface molecule, CD40, has emerged as a receptor mediating a co-stimulatory signal for B cell proliferation and differentiation. To investigate the mechanism of synergy between interleukin-4(IL-4) and CD40 ligation in B cell activation we have examined the effect of CD40 cross-linking on the IL-40 receptor expression in human B cells using anti-CD40 antibody. We observed that IL-4 and anti-CD40 both induce IL-40 receptor gene expression with a rapid kinetics resulting in a noticeable accumulation of IL-4 receptor mRNA within 4 h. While IL-4 caused a dose-dependent induction of surface IL-4 receptor expression, the inclusion of anti-CD40 in the IL-4-treated culture, further up-regulated the IL-4-induced IL-4 receptor expression as analyzed by flow cytometry. Pretreatment of B cells with inhibitors of protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) resulted in asignificant inhibition of both the IL-4- and anti-CD40-induced IL-4 receptor mRNA levels, while protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors had no effects. These results suggest that IL-4 and CD40 ligation generate B cell signals, which via PTK-dependent pathways, lead to the synergistic induction of IL-4 receptor gene expression. The rapid induction of IL-4 receptor gene expression through the tyrosine kinase-mediated signal transduction by B cell activating stimuli, would provide cells capacity for an efficient response to IL-4 in the early phase of IL-4action, and may in part constitute the molecular basis of the reported anti-CD40 co-stimulatory effect on the IL-4-induced response.

      • KCI등재

        Positive and negative roles of interleukin-6 in bone metabolism , inflammation and cell differentiation : application in oriental medical research

        Lee,,Dong,Kyu,Kang,,Dong,Hwi,Kim,,Dong,Il,Lee,,Tae,Kyun,Park,,Young,Guk,Kim,,Cheorl,Ho 대한한의학회 부인과학회 2000 大韓韓方婦人科學會誌 Vol.13 No.2

        Interleukin 6 (IL-6)은 여러종류의 세포에서 분화 및 주화인자로 작용하는 사이토카인이다. 사람 IL-6의 분자구조는 21에서 28 kDa의 분자량을 갖는 하나의 폴리펩타이드 단백질로서 N-형과 O-형당부가반응과 세린잔기에 인산화를 수반하여 수식되어 있다. 이 사이토카인은 수성의 28-아미노산 자기로 구성된 시그날배열을 가진 212 아미노산의 전구체 단백질로서 생합성된다. IL-6와 가장 밀접한 분자구조를 갖는 물질로는 granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)가 있으며 사람 IL-6의 유전자는 염색체 7p21에 암호화되어 있다. IL-6는 IL-6수용체 (80 kDa subunit, IL-6Ra)의 a-사슬의 세포의 영역과 상호작용을 거쳐 세포표면에 결합하게 되며 이렇게 생성된 결합체는 gp130수용체와 상호작용하며, 이때 gp130 subunit는 JAK/STAT signaling cascade의 계속적인 활성화능력을 보유하도록 리간드-의존적인 2량화 형성이 유도된다. IL-6Ra의 세포내 영역도메인은 신호전달반응에 아무런 역할을 하지 않으며 IL-6Ra의 세포막통과와 세포질도메인이 결여된 수용성 IL-6수용체도 마찬가지로 IL-6와 반웅하며 상승제로서 가능을 하게 된다. 이러한 광범위한 발현과 효과 때문에 IL-6생성의 생체내에서의 부적절한 발현과 조절은 중요한 생리적인 변화를 야기시킨다. 본 총설에서는 생리적이고 병태생리적인 조건에서의 IL-6의 역할과 기능을 검토하였으며 한의학에서의 면역, 천식, 골대사, 당뇨, 암, 순환기계질환, 신경계질환의 약물개발과 기전해석의 수단으로서 검토하였다. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a cytokine that functions as a trophic and differentiating factor in cells of many types. Human IL-6 is a single-chain protein with a molecular mass ranging from 21 to 28 kDa. IL-6 is modified by N- and O-glycosylations, as well as by phosphorylation on serine residues. The cytokine is synthesized as a precursor protein of 212 amino acids with a hydrophobic 28-residue signal sequence. Its closest homolog is granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). The gene for human IL-6 is located on chromosome 7p21. IL-6 binds to the cell surface via an interaction with the extracellular region of the a-chain of the IL-6 receptor (80 kDa subunit, IL-6Ra). This complex then associates with the gp130 receptor. The gpl30 subunit undergoes ligand-dependent dimerization with subsequent activation of the JAK/STAT signaling cascade. The intracellular domain of IL-6Ra does not play a role in signal transduction. The soluble IL-6 receptor, which lacks the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domain of IL-6Ra, is also responsive to IL-6 and acts as an agonist. Because of its wide-ranging expression and effects, the inappropriate expression and modulation of IL-6 production has important physiological consequences. Presently, it was examined that role of IL-6 under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, and its feasibility as a drug discovery target are meaningful in fields of oriental medical research.

      • Up-Regulation of Interleukin-4 Receptor Expression by Interleukin-4 and CD40 Ligation via Tyrosine Kinase-Dependent Pathway

        Kim,,Hyun-Il,So,,Eui-Young,Yoon,,Suk-Ran,Han,,Mi-Young,Lee,,Choong-Eun Korean Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biol 1998 Journal of biochemistry and molecular biology Vol.31 No.1

        Recently a B cell surface molecule, CD40, has emerged as a receptor mediating a co-stimulatory signal for B cell proliferation and differentiation. To investigate the mechanism of synergy between interleukin-4 (IL-4) and CD40 ligation in B cell activation, we have examined the effect of CE40 cross-linking on the IL-4 receptor expression in human B cells using anti-CE40 antibody. We observed that IL-4 and anti-CD40 both induce IL-4 receptor gene expression with a rapid kinetics resulting in a noticeable accumulation of IL-4 receptor mRNA within 4 h. While IL-4 caused a dose-dependent induction of surface IL-4 receptor expression, the inclusion of anti-CD40 in the IL-4-treated culture, further up-regulated the IL-4-induced IL-4 receptor expression as analyzed by flow cytometry. Pretreatment of B cells with inhibitors of protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) resulted in a significant inhibition of both the IL-4- and anti-CD40-induced IL-4 receptor mRNA levels, while protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors had no effects. These results suggest that IL-4 and CD40 ligation generate B cell signals, which via PTK-dependent pathways, lead to the synergistic induction of IL-4 receptor gene expression. The rapid induction of IL-4 receptor gene expression through the tyrosine kinase-mediated signal transduction by B cell activating stimuli, would provide cells capacity for an efficient response to IL-4 in the early phase of IL-4 action, and may in part constitute the molecular basis of the reported anti-CD40 co-stimulatory effect on the IL-4-induced response.

      • Interleukin-1B(1L-1B) polymorphisms and gastric mucosal levels of IL-Iβ cytokine in Korean patients with gastric cancer

        Chang,,Young-Woon,Jang,,Jae-Young,Kim,,Nam-Hoon,Lee,,Jae,Won,Lee,,Hyo,Jung,Jung,,Woon,Won,Dong,,Seok-Ho,Kim,,Hyo-Jong,Kim,,Byung-Ho,Lee,,Joung-Il,Rin,Chang KYUNG HEE UNIVERSITY MEDICAL CENTER 2006 고황의학상 수상논문집 Vol.21-22 No.-

        Interleukin-1B and IL-1 receptor antagonist gene polymorphisms are associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer (GC) in Caucasian populations. However, recent studies could not find any association between IL-1B-511T polymorphism and the risk of GC in Asians. We tested for an association between IL-1 loci polymorphisms with increased gastric mucosal levels of IL-1β and an increased risk of developing GC in a Korean population. Polymorphisms of IL-1A-889, IL-1B-31, IL-1B-511 and IL-1RN were genotyped in 434 controls and 234 patients with GC. Mucosal IL-1β cytokine was measured using an ELISA. The frequencies of IL-1A, IL-1B-511, IL-1B-31 and IL-1RN were not statistically different between controls and all patients with GC. After subclassification of GC, only patients with intestinal-type GC showed a higher frequency of IL-1B-31T homozygotes (OR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.1-4.3) compared with controls. Risk was also significantly increased in these patients for IL-1B-31T homozygotes compared with patients with diffuse-type GC (OR = 3.4; 95% CI = 1.5-7.7). As in Caucasian populations, linkage disequilibrium between IL-1B-31 and IL-1B-511 was nearly complete, but the pattern of haplotype related to the risk of GC (IL-1B-31T/IL-1B-511C) was opposite (IL-1B-511T/IL-1B-31C). Mucosal IL-1β levels in H. pylori-infected GC patients were higher in patients homozygous for IL-1B-31T compared with IL-1B-31C/T and IL-1B-31C/C. Thus, the combined effects of H. pylori infection and IL-1B-31T/IL-1B-511C polymorphisms with enhanced mucosal IL-1β production contributed to the development of intestinal-type GC in this Korean population.

      • KCI등재

        Evaluation of ‘TNF-α, IL-6, and MMP-9' Test Kit for Screening of Meibomian Dysfunction in Patients with Inflammatory Dry Eye Syndrome

        Min-Hye,Park,Jung-Eun,Park,Jang-Won,Byun,Min-Ji,Choi,Il-Hoon,Cho,Myeong-Jin,Jeong,Yoon-Jung,Choy,Koon-Ja,Lee 대한시과학회 2020 대한시과학회지 Vol.22 No.1

        목적 : 마이봄샘기능저하증(meibomian gland dysfunction, MGD)을 수반하는 염증성 건성안의 감별진단에 대한 ‘TNF-α, IL-6, MMP-9' 검사키트의 유용성을 평가하였다. 방법 : 건성안 이외의 안질환이 없는 20~30대 중 OSDI 설문 검사에 따른 건성안 총 118안을 대상하였고, 결막낭 메니스커스로부터 소량의 눈물을 채취하여 TNF-α, IL-6 및 MMP-9 검사를 하였다. 각막염색과 결막충혈 이 모두 Grade 1 이상인 경우는 염증성 건성안으로, 마이봄샘폐쇄와 마이봄샘구멍막힘이 모두 grade 1 이상인 경우는 MGD 관련 건성안으로 평가하였다. 염증성 건성안 및 MGD와 TNF-α, IL-6, MMP-9과의 상관성은 카 이제곱검정(Chi-square test)으로 분석하였고, ‘TNF-α, IL-6, MMP-9' 검사키트의 염증성 건성안과 MGD를 수반하는 염증성 건성안 감별능력은 ROC 커브를 이용하여 민감도, 특이도 및 AUC(Area under the curve)를 구하고 정확도를 평가하였다. 결과 : 염증성 건성안은 TNF-α와 IL-6와 유의한 상관성을 보였고(p<.050), ‘TNF-α, IL-6, MMP-9' 검사 키트는 MMP-9 검사키트와 80.20%의 높은 일치도를 나타냈으나(p<.050), 염증성 건성안 감별에 대한 민감도, 특이도, 정확도는 MMP-9 검사키트보다 낮았다. MGD는 MMP-9 검사와 상관성을 보이지 않았고, TNF-α와 IL-6 검사와는 유의한 상관성을 보였으며, MGD 감별에 대한 민감도, 특이도, 정확도는 각각 85.50%, 34.70%, 0.601, 85.50%, 32.70%, 0.591로 나타났다. MGD 수반한 염증성 건성안 감별에 대한 ‘TNF-α, IL-6, MMP-9' 검사키트의 민감도, 특이도 및 정확도는 100.00%, 34.10%, 0.670로 MMP-9 검사키트보다 더 높았다. 결론 : MGD 진단에는 TNF-α, IL-6 검사가 유용하며, ‘TNF-α, IL-6, MMP-9' 검사키트는 MGD를 수반한 염증성 건성안 평가에 유용할 것으로 사료된다. Purpose : To evaluated the ‘TNF-α, IL-6, MMP-9' test kit for screening of inflammatory dry eye and IDE (inflammatory dry eye) with MGD (meibomian gland dysfunction). Methods : A total of 118 dry eyes were selected using OSDI (ocular surface disease index) questionnaire among participated 20~30s without ophthalmologic diseases except for dry eye. Small amount of tear obtained from meniscus of the conjunctiva were tested with TNF-α, IL-6, and MMP-9 kit. IDE refers to the criteria which specifies the corneal staining and conjunctival hyperemia more than grade 1 and MGD refers to the criteria which specifies meibomian gland blockage and meibomian orifice obstruction with more than grade 1. Chi-square test was performed to analyze the correlation between the IDE, MGD and the results of ‘TNF-α, IL-6, MMP-9' tests. and ROC (receiver operate characteristics) curve was used for the sensitivity, specificity and AUC (area under the curve) for the accuracy of ‘TNF-α, IL-6, MMP-9' tests. Results : TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly correlated with IDE (p<.050) and ‘TNF-α, IL-6, MMP-9' test kit showed a high agreement of 80.20% with MMP-9 test kit(p<.050) although the accuracy was lower than MMP-9 test kit. The MMP-9 showed no correlation with MGD, however TNF-α, IL-6 were significantly correlated with MGD (p<.050). sensitivity, specificity, and AUC of TNF-α, IL-6 tests for MGD were 85.50%, 34.70%, 0.601, 85.50%, 32.70%, and 0.591. The sensitivity, specificity, and AUC of ‘TNF-α, IL-6, MMP-9' test kit for IDE with MGD were 100.00%, 34.10%, and 0.670, respectively, which shows higher accuracy than MMP-9. Conclusion : TNF-α and IL-6 tests are useful for the diagnosis of MGD, and ‘TNF-α, IL-6, MMP-9' test kit is useful for screening IDE with MGD.

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