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발정주기에 따라서 생쥐자궁의 alkaline phosphatase와 transport ATPases의 활성변화를 알아보기 위하여 정량적으로 분석하였다. 발정주기의 각 시기에 있어서 이효소활성들의 비율은 대체로 그 양상이 서로 비슷하나, 발정기의 ??-dependent 와 ??, ??-activated ATPase 를 제외한 다른 효소들의 활성은 다른 어떤 시기보다도 유의하게 (p<0.025) 높았다. 즉??-dependent와 ??, ??-activated ATPase 의 활성은 발정간기에서 발정기에 이르는 동안 무시할 정도이고, 다만 발정후기에 약간의 활성(0.04-0.05 μM/mg protein/hr, 총활성의 6-7%)이 나타났다. 한편, 발정기에서 ??-dependent phosphatase, transport ATPase 와 alkaline phosphatase 의 활성들은 급속히 그리고 크게 증가하였으며 각각 0.69(35%), 0.42(21%) 그리고 1.58(79%)였다. Alkaline phosphatase 는 전 발정주기를 통해 0.60-1.58(79-90%)의 활성을 보여 그 주종을 이루었다. Alkaline phosphatase 의 활성중에는 ??-dependent 의 것이 총활성의 12-16%로 추정되었다. 그러므로 ??-dependent 와 ??, ??-activated ATPase 는 발정기때에 자궁액의 누적을 조절하는 요인이 아니고 발정후기에서 자궁상피 속으로 내액을 재흡수하는 요인인 것으로 짐작되며, 또한 ??-edpenednt phosphatase, transport ATPases 그리고 alkaline phosphatase 는 생쥐의 자궁상피세포에서부터 내액을 분비하는 데에 밀접히 관련되어 있는 것으로 사려된다. Quantitative analysis of the activities of transport ATP ases as well as alkaline phosphatase of the mouse uterus was carried out during the estrous cycle. Even though the proportional patterns of the enzyme activities were similar each another between the stages of estrous cycle. the absolute activities of the enzymes except ??-dependent and ??, ??-activated ATPases at the time of estrous were significantly (p<0.025) higher than that at any other time of the estrose cycle. That is, the activities of ??-defendent and ??,??-activated ATPases were negligible during the period of time from diestrus to estrous while the little activities (0.04-0.05μM/mg protein/ hr in average, 6-7% of the total enzyme activityof these enzymes appeared at the time of metaestrus. On the other hand. at the time of estrus, the activities of ??-dependent phosphatase, transport ATPase and alkaline phosphatase were rapidly and tremendously increased to be 0.69(35%), 0.42(21%) and 1.58(79%), respectively. The activity of alkaline phosphatase was in the range of 0.60-1.58(79-90%) and and predominant throughout the estrous cycle. The activity of ??-dependent alkaline phosphatase was estimatedas 12-16% of the total enzyme activity. Therefore, it is assumed likely that ??-dependent and ??, ??-activated ATPases are not the main factors to control the fluid accumulation at the time of estrus, but may be the factors, to reabsorb the luminal fluid into the uterine epithelium at the time of metaestrus, and that ??-dependent phosphatase, transport ATPases and alkaline phospatase must be closely involved in the secretion of luminal fluid from the epithelial cells of the mouse uterus.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the problems and to make a solution for the management of subject teacher system (particularly, physical education, music education, and art education) in elementary school. The subjects were 980 elementary school teachers who were randomized by researchers. They reported their perceptions and opinions with a questionaire that was developed by researchers and some other teachers were interviewed on the problems and means of sattling that of the management of subject teacher system in elementary schools. The results of this study were as follows. 1. School Principals should be have a new understanding about the purpose of subject teacher system that could be devote to improve the quality of subject-matter education and the effectiveness of instruction. 2. Subject teacher system have to be applied in 4-6 grade in elementary school. 3. Preferentially, subject teacher system should be applied for physical education, music education, and art education. 4. The references of selection for subject teacher should be restricted within volunteers and effective teacher on the selected subjects. 5. The school hours of subject teacher should be limitted to under 22 hours per week, and in the case of physical education, music education, and art education teachers should be limitted to below 18 hours. It is necessary that educational facilities, materials, and rest space for subject teachers should be expanded. 7. To attract physical education, music education, and art education teachers, new incentive system should be adopted. 8. To improve human relationship between subject teachers and class teachers, cooperative program should be developed. 9. It is necessary for subject teachers that the opportunity involved solf-improvement and self-realization should be offered. 10. In the last analysis, physical education teacher, music education teacher, 문 art education teacher should be educated in the major courses at the teachers college.
It has been reported that erector spinae plane block (ESPB), which was performed at the mid-thoracic level, can be effective for the visceral and somatic pain of the thoracic region. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images showed the diffusion of the contrast medium into the transforaminal and epidural spaces after ESPB, and these MRI findings helped to understand the mechanism of the analgesic effect. There have also been reports that ESPB at the upper thoracic level can reduce the pain of the shoulder and upper extremities. However, no MRI images have been reported to support the mechanism of analgesic effect in the cervical region. We report for the first time the MRI images of local anesthetic spread after ESPB at the T2 level.
The model experiments were carried out to observe the variation of lateral earth pressure acting on the wall as vary the constraint of retaining wall, geometry of wall, and backfill width. For the experiments, a soil-box, model wall, and a rainer were designed and manufactured. The experiments were carried out with two different types of constraint on wall movement: i.e. first with completely fixed wall and second with movable wall depending on soil pressure. The measured lateral earth pressure was compared with that by an extended silo and wedge theories. The test results are summarized as follows: The measured lateral earth pressure approached to that from the extended silo theory as a narrower backfill width was used. Both experimental and theoretical results showed a good coincidence when the backfill width is Bc tan(45 -?? DS/2)H. But much deviated from that by an extended wedge theory. (원문을 참조하세요)
Background: Allogeneic BMT is the first choice of treatment in childhood AML. But because of the lack of the donor, many patients with AML cannot be treated by allogeneic BMT. Other treatments are autologous BMT or intensive consolidation chemotherapy. But both of these treatments have a high rate of relapse. The immunotherapy with interleukin-2 (IL-2) had a slow but steady progress and it is now known that IL-2 therapy is more effective when the leukemia is minimal. To prevent the relapse and to have a better survival, we treated the AML patients with interleukin-2 (IL-2) after autologous PBSCT. Methods: Six AML patients without a matched family donor were enrolled in the study. After induction chemotherapy, 1-2 times of consolidation chemotherapy was done and the peripheral blood stem cell was collected mobilized by G-CSF. Within 3-4 months, all patients underwent autologous PBSCT with the regimen BuCy (busulfan 4 mg/kg for 4days, cyclophosphamide 60 mg/kg for 2 days). After stable engraftment, IL-2 was infused continuously by central line at the starting dose and then increased as high as 9.0×10^(6) U/m² for 4-5 days. Vital signs were checked during IL-2 infusion and T cell subset study was done before and after IL-2 treatment. Results: All patients were in remission state after induction chemotherapy. One patient was delayed due to infection. After consolidation chemotherapy, PBSCT was done at the stem cell dosage of MNC 3.5±0.7×10^(8)/kg, CD34^(+) 9.6±3.4×10^(6)/kg, CFU-GM 15.9±8.9×10⁴/kg. The engraftment happened at 10.2±2.2 day (ANC), 20.2±14.4 day (Platelet). Total 9 courses of IL-2 therapy was done and all patients had fever and thrombocytopenia but subsided when IL-2 was stopped. Total lymphocyte, NK cell, CD4, CD8, IL-2R were markedly increased after IL-2 therapy. One patient relapsed 8 months after PBSCT and all other patients are still in remission status. Conclusion: IL-2 was well tolerated in the patients who underwent autologous PBSCT. It seems that IL-2 increases the activity of NK cells and other cytotoxic T cells to suppress the minimal residual leukemia. If there is no matched family donor for AML patients, IL-2 therapy after autologous PBSCT may be a therapy to consider.