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Tasan put camera obscura which is a perspective of the pin-hole camera to the test and testimony in 1987, and there is a possibility of using in the portrait paintings drawn by Lee Myunggi. The fact that Lee drew portrait paintings using camera obscura would be just a hypothesis until the real documents come out. However the portrait paintings made by Lee having a expression of a three-dimentional effect on corrugation, taking a pose exposed hands, and handling oblique lines on the floor similar to perspective, have a new change by something external. At a guess the thing changed Lee`s art of drawing would be the influence of camera obscura coming from China. Especially at Yu Unho painting made in 1789 there is a phrase that YongCheJangHwal(容體長闊) ShiWonShinGamIlBan(視元身減一半) which it means the reduction ratio of a portrait. Making the recuction ratio of a portrait clear and the beauty of form show the certain fact of using camera obscura. Needless to say, by Tasan`s testimony we can be proud that camera obscura was used in the late Chosun. There are little cases on the evidence or document using camera obscura in the 16th to 19th centuries Western painting history. In this point, the thing which Tasan tested camera obscura and the portraits by it drew, is very valuable in the world scientific history and the painting history. In a way, Tasan and Lee`s test and testimony were very important, as the entering 19th century their achievements remained obscure. Choi Hangi, Lee Kyugyong, and others partly tested optical instruments, but realism of paintings rapidly declined. Lee`s portraits are simple and plain in comparison with Western portraits taking well lighting. But In Lee`s portraits are worth well seeing the using of camera obscura. In the view of exposing the truth of the object, the exploiting on the stereography suitable for our face and clothing is brilliant artistry. So Lee`s portraits can be a good classical example having realism and modernity in the late Chosun cultural history.
This paper is a study on the mode of expression used in Late wee Kingdoms period mural paintings depicting the Four Gods (四神), the four divine imaginary animals that safeguard the four directions. The Four Gods was a common theme on mural paintings in Goguryeo tombs (高句麗古墳) from the second half of the sixth century to the first half of the seventh, and the four imaginary animals, the blue dragon (靑龍) painted on the eastern wall, the white tiger (白虎) in the west, the red phoenix (朱雀) in the south, and Hyeonmu (玄武), a black creature being a combining the features of a snake and a turtle in the north, were symbols of protection and the repulsion of evil spirits. Due to their exquisite artistic qualities these mural paintings have received attention both nationally and abroad since their discovery and they have been the subject of many studies, but the trend has mainly been to analyze their content. In 1998 I was able to see some of the tombs in the Pyeongyang (平壤) area in person. I analyzed one aspect of these mural paintings that so far has been overlooked, their mode of expression, and based on this I have tried to make a unified reappraisal of the chronology of the Four-Gods Mural Paintings of both Late wee Kingdoms Period Goguryeo and Baekje (百濟). First of all I show that the Late Three Kingdoms Period method of arranging the Four Gods on each wall of the one-chamber tombs didn't appear in Goguryeo first, but rather in the early sixth-century Baekje Song-san-ri tombs No.6 (宋山里6號墳). The people of Baekje developed this Four-Gods tomb style for the first time in the Song-san-ri tomb No.6, being influence by the Chinese Yang Dynasy (梁), a feature it shares with the tomb of king Mu-nyeong (武寧王陵). Furthermore, they invented the unique technique of plastering only the forms of the Four Gods on the brick walls to later paint them. This method was later continued in the late sixth century Goguryeo Four-Gods Tomb of Ho-nam-ri (湖南里四神塚). The Four Gods had been a common motif since the Chinese Han Dynasty (漢), and had appeared as part of mural tomb paintings in Goguryeo for over two hundred years. They grew in relative importance in the late fifth and early sixth century, being no less important than the human-genre paintings and other decorative paintings, and we cannot disregard the possibility that mural paintings depicting only the Four Gods might have emerged in the extension of this. The Four Gods mural paintings of Late Goguryeo rested on a 200 years old tradition of Fresco painting, in the early sixth century adopting and modifying the forms of the Four Gods in the tomb style of the Northerm and Southern Dynasties (南北朝時代), following after Northern Wei (北魏) in China. Moreover, recently cases have been discovered in China from the Sui (隋) and Tang (唐) Dynasties that resemble the Four Gods paintings of late-sixth to early-seventh century Goguryeo, indicating that they also were very active in adopting new modes of expression from abroad. This active attitude gave the people of Goguryeo the momentum to invent independent techniques of mural painting, such as the method of painting directly on the stone surface, as can be found in the Ho-nam-ri Four-Gods tomb, the Tong-gu Four-Gods tomb (通溝四神塚), and the O-hoe tombs Nos.4 and 5 (通溝五??墳 4號ㆍ5號墓), or the method of painting on stone surfaces in slight relief, as can be found in the Gang-seo-dae tomb (江西大墓) and Gang-seo-jung tomb (江西中墓). If we re-arrange the chronology of the tombs into early sixth century, middle and late sixth century, end of the sixth to early seventh century, according to the modes of expression of Four-Gods Mural Paintings of the Late Three Kingdoms as outlined above, it will look as follows. In the early sixth century, the Four Gods motif first appeared in the Song-san-ri tomb of Baekje, and this was continued in the middle and late sixth century in the Ho-nam-ri Four-Gods tomb and jin-pa-ri tombs Nos.4 and 1 (眞坡里4號ㆍ1號墳) of Goguryeo. In this process
An change model of the administration of juvenile protection can be summarized to prevent a juvenile delinquency by expanding social role and prevent critical juvenile delinquency. A development direction of the administration of juvenile protection will be developed through out, firstly the change of the administration of juvenile protection, and secondly advancement of probation, and thirdly building a Youth Training School system that centers on open-minded education, and fourth small scale, specialization and simplification of organization, and fifthly improving operation of the Juvenile Classification and Judge Institution and sixthly improving operation of the Youth Training School, and seventhly focus on competence and need adequate support to center for delinquency prevention, and so on.
경상분지 퇴적층의 퇴적연령을 한정하기 위하여 신동층군의 진주층 최하부 역질사암과 하양층군 신라역암의 쇄설성 저어콘에 대한 SHRIMP U-Pb 연령측정을 수행하였다. 분리한 저어콘에서 구한 일치곡선(concordia) 연령은 진주층 표품이 112.4±1.3(2σ) Ma 그리고 신라역암 표품이 110.4±2.0(2σ) Ma의 값을 보인다. 이러한 연령은 진주층 하부와 신라역암의 최고 퇴적시기를 한정하는 것으로 해석된다. 진주층은 압티안(Aptian) 후기에서 알비안(Albian) 초기까지 퇴적이 진행되었으며 그 후 몇 백만년 이내인 알비안 시기 동안에 층후가 비교적 얇은 칠곡층과 신라역암층이 퇴적되었음을 의미한다. 분석된 쇄설성 저어콘들이 나타내는 연령분포는 퇴적물 근원지에 중생대로부터 시생대에 이르는 다양한 화성활동 시기를 갖는 암석 또는 그로부터 유래한 쇄설성 저어콘들이 존재했음을 나타낸다. 이 중에서 경상분지의 주변에서는 물론 한반도 어느 곳에서도 현재까지는 발견되지 않았거나 또는 매우 드물게 나타나는 중원생대, 신원생대 및 고생대의 화성활동연령들이 포함되는 것은 퇴적시기에 이러한 연령의 암석들이 한반도에 존재했을 가능성 또는 상당한 길이를 갖는 하천을 통해 더욱 먼 대륙 내부로부터 해당 연령의 퇴적물이 유래하였을 가능성을 시사한다. To constrain the depositional ages of the Gyeongsang sedimeantary formations, SHRIMP U-Pb ages were determined from detrital zircons in three samples: (1) a pebble-bearing sandstone from the lowermost Jinju Formation of the Sindong Group and (2) two conglomerates from the Silla Conglomerate of the Hayang Group. Their concordia ages are 112.4±1.3 Ma and 110.4±2.0 Ma respectively. Such ages represent the maximum deposition ages for the lowermost Jinju Formation and Silla Conglomerate, indicating the deposition of the Jinju Formation started from late Aptian and lasted to early Albian, then deposition of the rather thin Chilgok Formation and Silla Conglomerate was followed during the Albian. The age distribution of the analyzed detrital zircons indicates the presence of protoliths, or zircons derived from them, regarding a wide span of igneous activities from Mesozoic to Archean. Among such ages, there are Mesoproterozoic, Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic igneous activities, which have not been known or seldom reported from Korean peninsula. These ages further suggest the possible presence of rocks with such ages during the deposition periods or their derivation through a long river system developed into the continents at the time of deposition.
본 논문은 이온빔 기술에 대하여 발표된 논문을 중심으로 조사하였다. 이온빔의 기술은 기질이나 가공물에서 표면을 깎아내는 기법과 이와 반대로 표면에 이온을 증착 개질 시키는 두 가지로 크게 대별할 수 있고 문헌상으로는 후자가 더욱 활발하다. In this paper, ion beam technology was investigated mainly through the published papers. There are two different types of method application. One method is to remove the material from the substrate, the other one is deposited to the surface of the substrate or specimen. Based on the literature review there are 3-4 times more published research papers related to the deposition than those of the removal.
In this study, the fabrication of ultra fine grained Mo bulk was conducted. MoO3 nanopowders were prepared by a high energy ball-milling process and then reduced at the temperature of 800℃ without holding time in H2 atmosphere. The particle size of Mo nanopowder was ~150 nm and grain size was ~40 nm. The two-step process was employed for the sintering of Mo nanopowder to obtain fine grain size. The densification over 90% could be obtained by the two-step sintering with a grain size of less than 660 nm. For higher density, modified two-step sintering was designed. 95% of theoretical density with the grain size of 730 nm was obtained by the modified two-step sintering.