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煙草栽培地를 중심으로 감자나방 (Phthorimaea operculella Zeller )의 發生分布와 被害狀況을 調査한 결과 현재 慶北의 盈德, 達城 全南의 城 珍島地域 一圓에 分布되었고 煙草의 被害株率은 50%에 달하였으며 珍島地域이 767%로서 가장 심하였다. 葉位別로는 基部로 부터 3葉까지가 82.4%의 높은 被害株率을 보이며 下葉일수록피해가 심한 경향이였으며 葉當 1 ∼3마리 棲息加害하는 葉이 87.9%로 가장 많고 葉當 11마리 以上 棲息하는 葉도 있었다. The potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella Zeller ) was surveyed for its distribution and damage to tobacco plants in field. The insect was found in all four localities examined ; Dalseong and youngdeog of Gyeongbuk Province, and Boseong and Jindo island of Cheongnam Province. About half of the tobacco plants examined contained the larvae with the highest level (76.7%)of larvae infestation in the Jindo island. In a given tobacco plant the larvae were concentrated on the first three leaves, from bottom, with 82.4 5 of the total number, and a single leaf usually has one to three larval.
우리나라 煙草耕作地의 담배모자이크 바이러스(TMV)病의 時期別 感染率 變化를 調査하고 傳染源 究明을 爲하여 越冬後 담배와 고추뿌리, 雜草類, 담배 果皮에서 生物學的 및 血淸反應에 따라TMV를 檢定하였던바 그 結果를 要約하면 다음과 같다. 1. 本國에서 TMV 初期感染은 改良말칭栽培의 경우 移植 및 一般말칭으로의 轉換時, 一般말칭栽培의 의 경우는 移植 및 1次 腋弟除去時가 가장 重要한 時期로 判斷된다. 2. 越冬後 土壤中의 담배 및 고추뿌리에서 活性 TMV가 檢出되었으며, 부기된 뿌리일수록 그 濃度가 낮았다. 3. 22科 38種의 雜草를 檢定한 結果 TMV에 自然感染되어 있는 것은 까마중과 꽈리 2種이었다. 4. 담배의 果皮에서 TMV가 檢出되었으며 어린 葯에서는 感染이 認定되지 않았다. Biological and serological assays were conducted with overwintered roots of tobacco and red pepper, capsule of tobacco, and several species of weeds in order to check whether those tissue could serve as a natural source of effection of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) to field tobacco plants in the spring. Also in this study TMV occurrence was surveyed at several different stages of tobacco growth to see if a natural source discussed above has anything to do with actual appearance of TMV at fields. The results are as follows 1) The most critical period for TMV infection was the time when tobacco plants were handled with human hands; in the case of the modified polyethylene film mulching system it was at transplantation and when this modified system was changed to the regular system, and, in the case of the regular polyethylene film mulching system, the time was at transplanting and at primary sucker control by hands. 2) Roots of tobacco and red pepper were found to carry infective TMV even after overwintering in the soil. 3) Out of 38 weed species belonging to 22 families examined, only two species, Solanum nigrum and Physalis alkekengi var. franchetii were shown to be naturally infected with TMV. 4) TMV was isolated from capsule tissue, but not from immature anther of tobacco.
In order to obtain the basic information for the successful breeding of aromatic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), the heterosis, combining ability and gene distributions in 28 Fl hybrids by diallel crosses between Korea local and Oriental varieties were investigated. The yield were higher, stalk height, leaf length and leaf width were larger and days to flower was shorter for the Fl hybrids when compared to mid-parent. Estimates of general combining ability were significant for all characters investigated, and specific combining ability were significant for yield, stalk height, leaves Per Plant, leaf width and days to flower. In vr-wr graph, partial dominane was exhibited by all characters investigated.
In order to obtain the basic information for the successful breeding of aromatic tobacco (N. tabacum L.), the combining ability and the mode of inheritance in 28 $F_2$ hybrids by diallel crosses between Korea local and oriental varieties were investigated. Estimates of general combining ability were significant for all characters investigated, and the specific combining ability was significant for stalk height, leaves per plant, leaf length, leaf width and days to flower. The partial dominance was exhibited by all characters investigated as well as additive effects were larger than dominance effects for all characters.
The study was conducted to obtain the genetic informations for some useful characters in tobacco breeding. The eight parents and a set of 28 crosses of F1's and F2's were used as materials, and planted on two different cultivated systems, i. e., oriental's and burley systems, during 1986-1988 at taegu Experiment Station, Korea Ginseng & Tobacco Research Institute. The observed characters were six agronomic characters which were plant height, number of leaves per plant, leaf length, leaf width, days to flowering, yield and five chemical components, nicotine, total nitrogen, protein nitrogen, total volatile base and pet, ether extract. The results obtaining are summarized as follows: 1. The higher heritabilities were found for days to flowering yield and nicotine in both generations, but values for number of leaves per plant, leaf length, total nitrogen and protein nitrogen were lower than other characters. 2. Genotypic correlation coefficients among all pairs of characters were slightly higher than the corresponding phenotypic correlations in F1's and F2's on two different cultivated systems. The relationship between leaf length and leaf width was the positive correlation, but that between number of leaves per plant and leaf width was negative. 3. From the genotypic correlations between yield and other characters, a conclusion that the yield was highly correlated with plant height, leaf length, leaf width and days to flowering was given. 4. Quality was positively correlated with number of leaves per plant and nicotine, but negatively with the other agronomic characters and chemical components.
The purpose of this study was to establish the origin of Korea tobacco, by homogeneity of the names and folk tales for the tobaccos introduced among three countries. According to the literatures that had written the origin concerning tobacco during the survival period of the Korean author, Korea tobacco came from Japan, for the first time, in 1611~1612. Six year s after the tobacco was introduced, in 1617~1618, tobacco seed also came from Japan. And 10 year safter the tobacco was introduced, in 1621~1622, there was no person that do not smoke. The Korea tobacco name, Dambago(淡婆姑), was the same as Japan tobacco name, Dambago(淡婆姑), but it was not the same as China tobacco name, Tambaku(淡巴菰). The Korea tobacco's folk tale, Dambago(淡婆姑) story, was the same as Japan tobacco's folk tale, Dambago(淡婆姑) story, but it was not the same as China tobacco's folk tale, Tambaku(淡巴菰) or Banhonhyang(返魂香) stories. This finding suggests that Korea tobacco may surely came from Japan, considering homogeneities of the names and the folk tales in the tobaccos introduced among three countries.
This experiment was conducted to examine characteristics of agronomic characters and estimate of gene effect for several mutant characters. The genetic populations were derived from cross between 83H-5 and Hicks. There were significant difference for plant height, stlk height, leaf shape and bacterial wilt disease index except leaf number, leaf length, and what is more, F3 variance is more than Bl and B2 generation from cross 83H-5 X Hicks. Gene actions for stalk height and bacterial wilt disease were estimated by 3-parameter, and by 6- parameter model for all characters except above two characters but stalk height and bacterial wilt disease index are not significant in the additive and dominance effects. Dominant$\times$dominant epitasis for plant height, dominant and dominant$\times$dominant epistasis for leaf length, additive and additive$\times$additive and dominant$\times$dominant epistasis for leaf width, and additive and additive$\times$dominant epistasis for days to flower were appeared significant in gene action.
Protoplasts were isolated from mesophyll of tobacco(Nicotiana glauca) transformed with kanamycin-resistant gene (NPT II gene) and potato hairy root callus containing Ri plasmid of Agrobacterium rhiEogenes, and protoplasm fusion was made between the isolated protoplasts. The transgenic tobacco leaf tissue could grow on the media containing high concentrations of kanamycin, but not on the phytohormone-free media. On the other hand, the potato hairy root calli could be cultured on the phytohormone-free media but not on media containing more than 40 ㎍/ml kanamycin. In these conditions, the viability of both protoplasts were above 90%, These selection markers were used for the selection of protoplasts fused between the two, i.e. protoplast fusion was detected using selection media containing 100㎍/ml kanamycin and with no phytohormone. The mixture of 1.0% cellulase, 0.3% macerozyme, and 0.7M mannitol was best for the maximum protoplast production for tobacco, and that of 2.0% cellulase, 2.0% macerozyme, 1.0% dricelase, and 0.5M mannitol for potato. Both tobacco mesophyll and potato callus protoplasts were fused by using PEG solution on the selectable medium. Cell walls were regenerated after 5 days in this medium, and colonies were alive until 4 weeks after cultural, but died after 6 weeks.
To obtain the genetic information about DVT( $\alpha$- and $\beta$-4,8,13- duvatriene-1,3-diols) and cis-abienol contents, two burley(Burley 21, KB 108), three sun-cured cultivars(N. tabacum L. cv. Yonbyun 3, Jahengyon and Jaraehong), TI 1068, and thirty F$_1$ hybrids derived from them were sampled and the diterpenes were analysed using thin layer chromatography (TLC) procedures. DVT exudation from the leaf scerface could Ie detected in all coltivars and F$_1$ hybrids tested. TI 1068 and Yonbyun 3 had cis-abienol exdudates. Burley 21, KB 108, Jaheungyon, and Jaraehong had no spot of cis-abienol. It is considered that cis-abienol exdudation might be controlled by dominant gene(s). The cytoplasmic effect on the cis-abienol exdudation was not detected.
Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), TMV-common strain, causes severe damage on flue-cured tobacco in Korea. As the results, breeding programs were conducted to transfer the TMV resistance from NC567 to other cultivars. Advantage of F1, hybrid may not lie only in their heterotic value but also in directly combining of valuable dominant traits, e.g. for disease resistance, either in pairs or as groups already assembled in the two parents. A new TMV resistant flue-cured tobacco variety KF114 was developed from a cross as maternal parent MSNC567 and NC82 at the Suwon Experiment Station. KF114 was more vigorous growth characteristics in early stage than that of NC82, standard variety in Korea, and other characters were similar to those of NC82. It os high resistance to TMV, but bacterial wilt(Pseudomonas solanacerum) and black shank (Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae) is comparable to NC82. It should adapt well to the flue-cured production area and can reduce premature flowering under unfavorable weather conditions. Yield of KF114 is 1% to 5% higher, and nearly equal in value per KG compared with NC82. This variety, F1 hybrid, met acceptable standards for chemical and physical characteristics of cured leaf and high ranked good smoking taste by panel members in Korea Ginseng and Tobacco Research Institute.