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Naturalism in literature is the product o despair, In this thesis, the present Writer triced to look into Emile Zola and Naturalism in America. Romanticism was prevailing in American literature in the half of the 19th Century, but after the Civil War, realism began to emerge with Mark Twain, local Colorists and William Dean Howells, But it failed to penetrate into the innumerable social happings which had brought many social problems. At that time, in Europe Waturalism influenced many Writes, Particularly the novelists who were much interested in naturalistics theories of Spencer, Darwin, Marx, Frcud and many other Scientist, Philosophers and Writers. The young writes of America began to look toward Naturalism of Zurope. Stepher Crane, Frank Noris and Jack London Studied Emile Zola and the new Scientific determinism with grew out of the theory of evolution and read the works of Russian Writers. They published quite different novels with the thems of determinism, Survival, Violence, Sex, disease, poverty, instinct and many other which were largely avoided in romanticism. They all tried to reveal the American Social problems Centering their attention on individuals of the lower Class. Crane showed the fateful life of a girl whose environment forced her to lead a tragic life. Noris presented the struggle for Survival between wheat growing farmer and Capitalists represented by railroad. Jack London depicted the instinct of dog destined to answer the call of the wild to become a number of wolves. Theodore Dreiser, established naturalism in America, also depicted that An American Tragedy is the study of a young man who is caught in and finally destroyed by the crush of Conflicting forces.
The removal of fruit cluster leaves was shown to be a valuable method for controlling fruit quality and producing high-grade apples. A chemical defoliant that functions as an activation switch was shown to turn on the genes necessary for fruit cluster leaf defoliation. Elucidating the mechanism involved in leaf defoliation is crucial to our understanding of the use of chemical defoliants in fruit trees. To gain insight into chemical defoliant-mediated leaf defoliation, we first confirmed the occurrence of ethylene production by applying a chemical defoliant on fruit cluster leaves. Then, we used RNA-seq analysis to obtain a series of transcriptome profiles for genes and proteins involved in leaf senescence induction. Within 2 days of applying the chemical defoliant to apple trees, 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase, ACC synthase, a chlorophyll binding protein, and polygalacturonase-related genes were up-regulated at least sixfold. An in vitro enzyme assay showed that lanolin oil activates ACC synthase activity, a key regulatory enzyme in the ethylene pathway. We also showed that chemical defoliant decreased the light saturation point and total chlorophyll content. Then, we used a polygalacturonase activity assay to confirm the effects of chemical defoliant on leaf senescence in vivo. Furthermore, treatment with chemical defoliant resulted in a significant increase in the chromaticity value of a*, whereas L* and b* decreased in the apple fruit. Taken together, we conclude that chemical defoliant could selectively affect fruit cluster leaves, which suggested that it can be used as a selective defoliant.