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The IIS(Internal Insulation System) is typically applied in most Korean apartment buildings. Consequently, there exist many thermal bridges at the wall-slab and wall-wall joints in tile envelope. It is expected that the EIFS(External Insulation and Finish System) is tile solution to this problem. The aim of this study is to suggest external insulation design schemes suitable for Korean apartment buildings in order to facilitate the application of EIFS. After making 37 alternatives for 12 parts, each alternative's relative insulation performance and constructability were then evaluated. As results, 12 design schemes for 12 parts were suggested.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to provide fundamental data to develop an educational program for the development of nurses" core competences, and to improve the curriculum in nursing education institutions. Methods: This study, based on a descriptive survey, was conducted with 1,019 nurses working in a tertiary hospital in Seoul. Among 47 core nursing practice items, core nursing practices as perceived by the participants and relevant educational requirements were measured on a four-point scale. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics for the mean and standard deviation, one way ANOVA, and Duncan test as post-hoc test. Results: Regarding the core nursing practice perceived as by the nurses, there were statistically significant differences in 43 out of 47 items according to nursing unit, and in 15 items according to clinical career. Regarding the educational requirements for core nursing practice, there were also statistically significant difference for the same items as perception differences according to nursing unit and clinical career. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest further study on the development of educational programs to advance the clinical expertise of nurses and for the development of curriculum reflecting the actual conditions and requirements in clinical nursing practice fields.
This study examines the Gungyehakjodan(軍械學造團), a corps of 38 technicians, dispatched to Tianjin, China, in October 1881 by the government of Joseon to acquire new arms production technique of the Qing dynasty. The Yeongseonsahaeng(領選使行), a large-scale weapons-system “modernisation” project undertaken by the government of Joseon?of which Gungyehakjodan was a part, contrary to the widely held perception which sees them as synonymous?has been accorded with a negative reputation in the prevailing assessment. The established view is not without cause, as only 18 of the 38 technicians of the Gungyehakjodan were able to adapt to the training regime and the study team returned within one year of departure without adequately mastering the advanced technology. A detailed reappraisal of the various factors identified in the prevailing literature as the sources of the study team's failure reveals that these factors could not be forwarded as a full-developed and just explanation for its failure. A more engaging assessment needs to be made for the fact that Kim Yunsik(金允植), the leader of the Yeongseonsahaeng, prevailed with the training project, ruling out early return, despite the series of ordeals and discouraging turn of events, such as, the difficulty of having to travel on foot to Tianjin, the inadequate qualification and aptitude of the participating trainee-technicians, illness among the trainees which led to premature return for some of the study team members, the sorry state of financial resources, and even the eruption of an armed insurrection in Joseon, known as Imogullan(壬午軍亂). It should not be overlooked that the study-team had fulfilled the originally scheduled one year of training despite the various unfavourable turn of events that befell it, and the Leader of the study team returned to Joseon with a plan for home-based training programme which could substitute for training abroad. The pivotal cause of the eventual failure of the Gungyehakjodan efforts to achieve its stated goal needs to be found in the delays in the planned establishment of the weapons manufacturing factory. This delay had led to other chain of events and difficulties, which saw the ultimate collapse of the project. One key consequence of the delay was the inability to secure the facilities for training and workshop for weapons production. This had meant the newly acquired technology and skills had no place to put them to use. At the same time, it meant that there were no erstwhile jobs for the technicians who had been trained in new technology. As a result, the technicians who had returned from China were forced to go on their separate ways, leading to the disbandment of the core of trained personnel. The cause for the delay in the construction of the weapons manufacturing system stemmed from another factor which had an overarching impact on the broader reform initiative, which had inspired the Gungyehakjodan and the Yeongseonsahaeng. It took the form of a shift in Qing's defence policy with regard to Joseon. The shift saw the establishment of Qing's military presence within Joseon, instigating the abandonment of the overall reform policy of “enlightenment” envisioned by the Joseon government. The disposition of the government of Joseon, which had resulted in repeated submission to external pressures, was a key factor also in the postponement of the establishment of new weapons factory. These factors should not be overlooked in assessing the eventual and overall failure of the Yeongseonsahaeng project.
Modern cultural Assets are products of people in the modern society during their ordinary lives of political, economic, social and artistic behavior. They are omnifarious, a little different from the traditional cultural heritage and play an important role and function as a bridge between the old and the new. Studies on how to preserve and utilize the modern architectural heritages have been conducted ceaselessly but it seems that there are not many of them pinpointed on educational architectures. This Study reviewed theories and precedent case studies on architectural characteristics of registered modern cultural assets of domestic college buildings and put a small step to proceed further research on how to securely preserve and effectively utilize those assets in college according to the educational function and the ideology.
디지털 영상에서 그림자는 영산 분석에 부정적인 영향을 미칠 수 있기 때문에 효과적으로 이동물체 검출 및 추적을 위해서는 그림자 제거가 필수적인 전처리 과정이다. 본 논문에서는 색도 영상, 밝기 변화 및 이동물체의 그림자 방향 특성을 이용해 그림자를 제거하는 알고리즘을 제안하였다. 제안하는 방법은 크게 두 단계로 구성이 되며, 첫 번째 단계로 현재 영상의 색도와 밝기 변화를 이용해 그림자 후보 영역을 제거하고, 두 번째 단계에서 이동물체의 최하위 화소 위치를 구하여그림자의 방향에 해당하는 그림자를 제거하였다. 그림자는 이동물체의 아래 영역에 위치하기 때문에 이동물체의 최하위 화소와 그림자의 방향을 알면 그림자를 제거할 수 있다. 실험 결과, 실제 이동물체 영역과 그림자 영역의 분리가 효과적으로 이루어졌으며, 이동물체 검출 및 추적 성능이 향상되었다. Shadow is a common physical phenomenon in natural images and may cause problems in computer vision tasks. Therefore, shadow removal is an essential preprocessing process for effective moving object tracking in video image. In this paper, we proposed the method of shadow removal algorithm using chromaticity, brightness distortion and direction of shadow candidate. The proposed method consists of two steps. First, removal process of primary shadow candidate region by using chromaticity, brightness and distortion. The second stage applies the final shadow candidate region to obtain a direction feature of shadow which is estimated by the thinning algorithm after calculating the lowest pixel position of the moving object. To verify the proposed approach, some experiments are conducted to draw a compare between conventional method and that of proposed. Experimental results showed that proposed methodology is simple, but robust and well adaptive to be need to remove a shadow removal operation.
Purpose: This study was conducted to develop a nurse-learning program for the pain management of cancer patients. Methods: In this methodological study, a learning program was developed between January and June 2011, following the methodological procedure based on the ADDIE Instructional System Design. Results: The learning program consists of 4 parts: learning goal, learning outcomes, learning method, and evaluation method. Learner-centered learning goal and learning outcomes were established, and lecturebased group learning and self-directed study were combined as the learning method. For the evaluation, we developed a written test, a nursing skill checklist, and a case report evaluation tool. After a pilot test, the learning program was assessed by an expert group for its construct validity and content-related conformance. Moreover, the effectiveness of the program was validated by the results of the learning outcomes evaluation and the achievement levels of 40 trainees who participated in the program. Conclusion: On the basis of the results of this study, we suggest that this unit-based core nursing practice learning program, comprising 202 nursing units developed by a research institute nursing department since 2010, be shared by all nurses in clinical nursing care settings to improve their practical performance and ensure necessary specialization.
Purpose: This study was conducted to examine the adaptation experience of male nurses working in general wards. Methods: Experiential data was collected from 16 general ward nurses through in-depth interviews. Participants were selected from male nurses working in the general wards with over one year of clinical experience at a tertiary university hospital. The main question was “Can you describe your adaptation experience in the general ward as a nurse?” All interviews were recorded and transcribed, then analyzed using Colaizzi's method. Results: Four categories were derived from the analysis: ‘difficulties from task adaptation by characteristics', ‘limited nursing situation and circumstance as a male nurse', ‘efforts to adapt at general nursing unit", and ‘self-worth, and worry about something as a male nurse'. Conclusion: Male nurses had a difficulty adapting to work in wards due to lack of multi-tasking skills, as well as some social prejudice or negative views on male nurses. Establishing reasonable guidelines for male nurses in practice, promoting their responsibilities to patients, developing mentoring programs, and reassessing the policy of assigning male nurses to general wards are recommended to help in better adaptation.
The future variability of Wind Energy Density (WED) over the Korean Peninsula under RCP climate change scenario is projected using ensemble analysis. As for the projection of the future WED, changes between the historical period (1981~2005) and the future projection (2021~2050) are examined by analyzing annual and seasonal mean, and Coefficient of Variation (CV) of WED. The annual mean of WED in the future is expected to decrease compared to the past ones in RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 respectively. However, the CV is expected to increase in RCP 8.5. WEDs in spring and summer are expected to increase in both scenarios RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5. In particular, it is predicted that the variation of CV for WED in winter is larger than other seasons. The time series of WED for three major wind farms in Korea exhibit a decrease trend over the future period (2021~2050) in Gochang for autumn, in Daegwanryeong for spring, and in Jeju for autumn. Through analyses of the relationship between changes in wind energy and pressure gradients, the fact that changes in pressure gradients would affect changes in WED is identified. Our results can be used as a background data for devising a plan to develop and operate wind farm over the Korean Peninsula.