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      • KCI등재

        굴비의 가공 및 저장중의 N - Nitrosamine 에 관한 연구 : 1 . 굴비의 가공 및 저장중 질산중 질산염 , 아질산염 및 아민류의 변화 1 . Changes in Nitrate , Nitrite and Amines of Yellow Corvenia during Gulbi Processing and Storage

        성낙주,양한철 한국수산학회 1984 한국수산과학회지 Vol.17 No.4

        굴비의 加工 및 貯藏中 發癌性物質로 알려진 nitrosamine 의 前驅物質인 亞窒酸鹽窒素 및 DMA 窒素의 生成을 억제하기 위하여 鹽藏時 몇몇種의 保存料를 添加하여 이들의 變化를 分析 檢討하였고, 同時에 이들의 生成에 關聯이 있다고 생각되는 窒酸鹽窒素, TMAO 및 TMA窒素의 變化를 實驗하였다. 굴비의 加工 및 貯藏中 窒酸鹽窒素는 계속해서 減少하였고, 反面에 亞窒酸鹽窒素는 增加하는 傾向이었다. 그러나 ASC區, CYS區 및 BEN區는 窒酸鹽의 還元을 억제시켰고, TET區는 오히려 촉진시키는 結果였다. TMAO 窒素는 鹽藏 및 天日乾燥中 減少하다가 貯藏中 약간 增加하였으나 TMA 窒素는 加工 및 貯藏工程中 계속해서 增加하였다. 保存料의 添加가 TMA窒素의 生成은 크게 억제시키지 못하였다. DMA窒素는 굴비의 加工 및 貯藏工程中 계속해서 增加하여 對照區의 경우 貯藏 7日後에는 生試料에 比해 3.2倍, 乾燥 20日後에는 3.6倍, 貯藏 30日後에는 11.6倍에 달하였다. ASC區, CYS區 및 BEN區에서는 DMA 窒素의 生成을 크게 억제하여 對照區에 대하여 절반値에 가까왔으나, TET區에서는 오히려 DMA 窒素의 生成을 촉진시키는 結果를 나타내었다. In recent years, the occurrence of nitrosamine, which are produced by the interaction of nitrite and secondary amine, in foods has been the subject of considerable interest and controversy. In this experiment, changes in nitrate, nitrite, TMAO, TMA and DMA nitrogen of salted and dried corvenia, which were incorporated with sodium benzoate, ascorbic acid, cysteine and tetracycline in salt, during processing and storage were analyzed. Levels of nitrate nitrogen was decreased while those of nitrite was increased in salted and dried products during processing and storage, but sample was incorporated with ascorbic acid, cysteine and sodium benzoate in salt inhibited the reduction of nitrate to nitrite while with tetracycline in salt accelerated this reduction in salted and dried products during processing and storage. Contents of TMAO nitrogen in all salted and dried products as well as in the control was decreased, but was increased during storage, while TMA nitrogen was increased in salted and dried products during processing and storage. Contents of DMA nitrogen was increased in all salted and dried products during processing and storage, DMA contents of raw in the control was increased to more than 11.6 times after storage for 30 days, but sample was incorporated with ascorbic acid, cysteine and sodium benzoate in salt inhibited the production of DMA nitrogen while with tetracycline in salt accelerated in salted and dried products during processing and storage.

      • KCI등재

        새우젓 숙성중 아질산염과 아스코르브산이 N-Nitrosamine 의 생성에 미치는 영향

        성낙주,김정균,이수정 한국수산학회 1998 한국수산과학회지 Vol.31 No.1

        새우에 일정량의 식염, 아질산염, 질산염 및 아스코르브산을 첨가하여 숙성시키면서, NA생성에 미치는 영향에 대해 조사한 결과는 다음과 같다. pH는 담금직후 8.1에서 숙성 110일 후 6.5로 산성화되었다. TMAO질소는 숙성중 감소한 반면, TMA 및 DMA질소는 증가하였다. 아질산염첨가구는 숙성중 NDMA함량이 증가하였고, 아스코르브산첨가구는 NDMA생성이 억제되었다. 모델계실험 결과, 새우젓의 니트로소화 최적 pH는 3.5이었고, 아스코르브산은 NDMA생성을 크게 억제시킨 반면 thiocyanate는 촉진시켰다. 본 실험 결과, 새우젓 자체에는 NDMA가 거의 검출되지 않았으나, 질산염이나 아질산염의 함량이 많은 물질과 함께 섭취된다면 위내에서 NDMA가 생성될 가능성이 충분한 것으로 판단되었다. The changes of contents of trimethylamine oxide nitrogen(TMAO-N), trimethylamine nitrogen(TMA-N), dimethylamine nitrogen(DMA-N), nitrite nitrogen(nitrite-N), nitrate nitrogen(nitrate-N) and N-nitrosamine(NA) of salt-fermented small shrimp were investigated during fermentation. The contents of TMAO-N decreased, while TMA-N and DMA-N increased during fermentation in all samples. Contents of nitrite-N decreased in the samples supplemented with sodium nitrite during fermentation, whereas the formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine(NDMA) increased. Treatment of ascorbic acid revealed inhibiting effect on NDMA formation compared with the control. The model system was used for the evaluation of ascorbic acid(inhibitor) or thiocyanate(promoter) on the formation of NDMA using salt-fermented small shrimp supplemented with sodium nitrite. The optimum pH for the formation of NDMA was 3.5, and ascorbic acid inhibited the formation of NDMA whereas thiocyanate promoted.

      • KCI등재후보

        ‘에밀레종 傳說’의 政治學的 讀解

        성낙주 동국대학교 한국문학연구소 2006 한국문학연구 Vol.0 No.31

        The Legend on The Emmille Bell is a tragic story that a little boy was put into a furnace by his mother, which is related to manufacturing The Divine Bell of King Seongdeok. It shows a mode of body offering in sacrifice to a deity. However, It is my opinion that the legend is not a real story as it is from the context, but 'a political satire' reorganized 'an archetype' of veiled enmity for the authority in the form of the literature. First, the result of analyzing the characters in the legend in the viewpoint of psychology is consistent with the disposition of King Hyegong's Royal Familiy members shown in Samguksagi, Samgukyusa, and the inscription of The Divine Bell of King Seongdeok. Second, King Hyegong ascending the throne at the age of 8, kept deviant behaviors under his Mother Queen Manwol's tight suppression. She had a desire to establish new dynasty of her maiden familiy. Third, Mother Queen Manwol's desire ended in failure. Then King Hyegong lost his life and that resulted the ruin of the middle of Shilla Dynasty. 에밀레종전설은 성덕대왕신종(聖德大王神鐘)의 주성(鑄成)에 얽힌 비극적 스토리로, 어미에 의해 철부지 아이가 도가니 속에 던져진다는 인신공희(人身供犧)의 전형을 보여준다. 그러나 그것은 문맥 그대로의 실화가 아니라 신라 혜공왕(惠恭王) 대를 장식한 권력암투 과정의 어떤 ‘원형적 사건’을 문학적 장치를 빌려 재가공한 ‘정치고발설화’라는 게 필자의 판단이다. 첫째, 채록된 여러 유형을 종합한 결과 등장인물의 캐릭터 및 가계도가 우연의 일치일지 모르나 삼국사기와 삼국유사 및 성덕신종의 명문(銘文) 등의 사료에 나타난 혜공왕 대 왕실 주변 인물들의 성향 및 가계도와 흡사하다는 사실이 확인된다. 둘째, 혜공왕 대의 권력구조 및 정치상황이 기존 역사학계의 이해와는 확연히 다르다는 가설을 도출해낼 수 있었다. 곧 8살에 즉위한 혜공왕(惠恭王)은 모후 만월부인(滿月夫人)의 핍박 아래 무기력한 일탈 행위를 일삼게 되었으며, 그녀는 오라비인 김옹(金邕)과 더불어 국정을 농단하다가 최종적으로 자신의 친정 왕조를 개창하려다가 김양상(金良相) 등의 반발로 실패로 돌아간 것으로 보인다. 그 과정에서 혜공왕까지 목숨을 잃어 중대왕실이 몰락한다. 셋째, 당대인들은 중대신라의 파멸과 하대신라의 출범 과정을 목도하면서 혜공왕에게는 연민을, 만월부인에게는 분노를 품게 되었으며, 그러한 정서적 흐름이 뒷날 에밀레종전설의 탄생에 직접적인 배경으로 작동한 것으로 보인다. 결론적으로 서라벌 백성, 혹은 비판적 지식인은 자신들이 목도한 혜공왕 대의 정치사화를 전래의 인신공희담을 차용해 모자간의 갈등이 축을 이루는, 구원받을 수 없는 아이와 저주받는 어미의 이야기를 창조해낸 것으로 추정된다.

      • KCI등재

        명태의 건조중 N-nitrosamine 의 생성

        성낙주,김정균,이수정,신정혜 한국수산학회 1997 한국수산과학회지 Vol.30 No.5

        우리나라의 대표적인 건제품중의 하나인 건조명태의 안전성 평가를 위한 기초자료를 얻고져, 명태 건조중 건조방법이 발암성 N-nitrosamine 및 그 전구물질의 생성에 미치는 영향을 조사하였다. 명태의 생시료중 질산염 및 아질산염 질소는 각각 1.5, <1.0㎎/㎏이었으나 건제품에서는 각각 3.0-4.2, 1.4-2.7㎎/㎏의 범위였으며, 대체로 열풍건제품에서 그 함량이 높았다. 명태 건조중 아민류의 함량변화를 보면 betaine은 건조중 별다른 양적 변화를 보이지 않았고, TMAO는 건조중 감소하는 반면에 TMA 및 DMA는 계속 증가하는 경향을 보였다. 검출된 NA는 N-nitrosodimethylamine(NDMA)뿐이었고, 10㎍/㎏의 N-nitrosodipropylamine(NDPA)을 시료에 첨가하여 회수율을 시험한 결과 87.2-107.4%였다. 명태의 생시료중 NDMA는 평균 2.8㎍/㎏이었으나 건제품에서는 8.7-51.4㎍/㎏으로서 건조방법에 따라 상당한 함량차를 보여 천일건제품은 생시료에 비해 평균 9.0배, 열풍건제품은 평균 15.5배 그리고 동결건제품은 평균 4.4배였다. 일반적으로 NDMA의 생성을 최소화시키기 위해서는 동결건조법이 효과적이었다. Dried alaska pollack is one of the representatives among dried marine fish and shellfish products in our country. This study was performed to obtain the basic data about the effect of drying method on the formation of N-nitrosamine and its precursor to ensure the safety of dried alaska pollack. The contents of nitrate and nitrite were detected 1.5 and <1.0㎎/㎏ in raw samples, and 3.0-4.2, 1.4-2.7㎎/㎏ in dried products, respectively. There was no significant change of betaine contents during drying while TMAO decreased, TMA and DMA increased in alaska pollack during drying. N-nitrosodimethylamine(NDMA) was only detected in alaska pollack and its dried products, and recovery from above samples spiked with 10㎍/㎏ for N-nitrosodipropylamine was 87.2-107.4%. The levels of NDMA were found to be 2.8㎍/㎏ on an average in raw samples, but the levels of NDMA increased remarkably during drying of alaska pollack and its content in dried products was 8.7-51.4㎍/㎏. Regardless of drying methods, NDMA tend to increased in dried products, and its contents were 15.5 times higher in hot-air dried than raw samples, 9.0 times in sun dried and 4.4 times in freeze dried products. Less NDMA was produced in the freeze dried products, so it is believed that freeze drying method is effective to decrease the NDMA levels in the dried products of alaska pollack.

      • KCI등재

        천연식물성분이 아질산염 소거에 미치는 영향

        성낙주,이수정,정미자,신정혜 한국식품위생안전성학회 2000 한국식품위생안전성학회지 Vol.15 No.2

        he purpose of this presents is to investigate, using natural food extracts(Green tea; Camellia sinesis, Du'chung; Eucommia ulmoides Oliver, Eu sung cho; Houttuynia cordata Thunb, Sam back cho; Saurus Chinensis, Baek hwa sa seal cho; Oldenladia diffusa Roxb., Laver; Porphyra tenera, Sea mustard; Undaria pinnatifida and Sea staghorn; Condium fragile) and juices(Sweet pepper; Capsicum annuum var. angulosum, Kale; Brassia oleracea var. acephala, Cucumber; Cucumis satiuus, Onion; Allium cepa, Tomato; Lycopericon esculentum, Maesil; Prunus mume, Plum; Prunus salicina and Grape; Vitis spp.), the effect of natural plant components on the nitrite-scavenging under the different levels of pH. From the above mentioned extracts and juices, tl1i; content of vitamin C was detected, containing 65.1∼77.1 ㎎/100 g, at the highest level in the Green tea, and followed by vegetables and fruits in order. The nitrite scavenging effect of teas, medicinal plants, and seaweed extracts, in the reaction system under the condition of pH 1.2, were 57.0∼100%, 50.0∼100%, and 18.0∼99.0%, respectively. Especially, the nitrite was scavenged to the level of 100%1 when 10 ㎖ of kale and 5 ㎖ of maesil juice

      • KCI등재

        염건조기의 인공소화시 Nitrite , Thiocyanate 및 Ascorbic acid 가 N - nitrosamine 의 생성에 미치는 영향

        성낙주,김정균,이수정,신정혜 한국식품위생안전성학회 2000 한국식품위생안전성학회지 Vol.15 No.2

        The effect of natural foods, utilizing the extracts or juices of teas(Green tea; Camellia sinesis, Du' thong; Eucommia ulmoides Oliver), medicinal plants(Eu sung cho; Houttuynia cordata Thunb, Sam back cho; Saurus Chinensis, Baek hwa sa seal cho; Oldenladia diffusa Roxb.) seaweeds(Laver; Porphyra tenera, Sea mustard; Undaria pinnatifida, Sea staghorn; Condium fragile) and vegetables(Sweet pepper; Capsicum annuum var. angulosum, Kale; Brassier oleracea var. acephala, Cucumber; Cucumis satiaus, Onion; Album cepa) and fruits(Tomato; Lycopericon esculentum, Maesil; Prunus mume, Plum; Prunus salicina and Grape; Vitis sppJon the inhibition of N-Nitrosodimethylamine(NDMA) formation was investigated from the various conditions. The inhibition effect was observed in vitro using the reaction fluids of pH 1.2, 4.2 and 6.0. )mom the teas and medicinal plants, there was a positive response of NDMA formation; however, from the seaweed extracts, there was a negative response of the inhibition effect of NDMA formation, and as the pH of reaction fluids and the amount of materials increase, the inhibition of NDMA formation was strengthened. The inhibition ratios by the level of pH are as follows: under pH 1.2 vegetable juice were 57.6 99.7% and fruits were 35.9 99.7%; under pH 4.2 vegetable juice were 55.0-97.5% and fruits were 21.3 96.8%. All of the materials observed has been proved and shown the inhibition effect of NDMA formation.

      • KCI등재

        굴비 가공중 N-nitrosamine의 생성

        성낙주,이수정,정미자 한국식품위생안전성학회 1997 한국식품위생안전성학회지 Vol.12 No.2

        Gulbi, salted and dried yellow corvenia, is a favorite diet food in Korea from the ancient times. A Few studies have dealt with sanitary concerns related to its products, while a number of investigators studied its taste compounds. This study attemps to establish the basic data for ensuring the safety of Gulbi. The contents of nitrate and nitrite were detected 1.2 and <0.1 mg/kg in raw sample, but their contents were detected 3.6~3.9 and 1.2~2.0 mg/kg during its processing and storage of Gulbi, respectively. TMAO contents decreased while betaine, TMA, DMA and formaldehyde increased in yellow corvenia during its processing and storage. Recovery from raw, salted, salt-dried and stored sample spiked with 10$\mu\textrm{g}$/kg for NDBA was 83.2~102.7% average 92.7%). N-nitrosamine such as NDMA, NDEA and NDPA was not detected in raw sample and drastically increased during Gulbi processing and storage. The levels of NDMA, NDEA and NDPA in Gulbi stored for 30 days were about 2.7,4.5 and 5.3 times higher than those in salted sample, respectively. Regardless of cooking methods, NDMA, NDEA and NDPA during cooking when sample were cooked using direct heating methods such as a gas and a briquet fire than when sample were cooked using indirect methods such as an microwave oven and a fried pan. Indirect cooking methods was effective to minimize the N-nitrosamine formation such as NDMA, NDEA and NDPA during cooking of Gulbi.

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