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This study examined the perception and behavior of fast food restaurant customers toward ordering kiosk nutrition information. Specifically, the influence of nutrition information transparency and information quality on behavioral intention and revisit intention were identified. In addition, the difference in the nutrition information transparency and information quality was analyzed according to the health consciousness of the customers. The study employed a self-administered survey that was distributed both online and offline from November 8∼22, 2018. The sample of the study was customers who had experienced ordering from the kiosk in a fast food restaurant in the six months prior to taking the survey. A total of 250 (98.0%) respondents completed the survey, which was used for data analysis. As a result, there was a significant relation between transparency and nutrition information quality (P<0.001). The higher the visibility and inferability of the nutrition information, the better the nutrition information quality. Nutrition information quality has a significant impact on the levels of customer satisfaction and revisit intention (P<0.001). For the differences in the transparency and nutrition information quality by health consciousness of customers, the results indicated that groups with high health consciousness (3.74 or higher) perceived a higher transparency and nutritional information quality than those with a lower health consciousness. These findings can form the basis of a strategy in developing nutrition information of ordering kiosks in restaurants. In addition, it can be applied to academia and industry.
Although Wallace Stevens presents very intriguing sound events in many of his poems, scholars have focused more on his ocular-centric metaphorics than his sound-scape and its symbolism. Thus, this paper makes an attempt to examine the sound-marks in “The Man with the Blue Guitar” within the Eastern metaphysical frame of ‘Mu-wuy-Ja-Yeon’ (無爲自然). In particular, drawing on the influence of Okakura Kakuzo’s The Book of Tea on Stevens’s cosmopolitan sensibility, it takes a close look at Taoist and Zen-Buddhist notions of becoming, relativity, artless art and makes a parallel between a Taoist artist Peiwoh and the musician-poet in The Man with the Blue Guitar. Then it tries to explicate how Stevens adapts the sound-marks of Eastern metaphysics and aesthetics in his modernist experimentation to summon up something that is not quite expressible in the ocular-centric metaphorics. Ultimately, this paper aims to suggest an alternative approach to appreciate the Eastern sound-marks as part of the modern song of America Stevens played with his blue guitar.
Jihee Han (Gyeongsang National U)Walt Whitman has long been identified as the representative American poetwhom Ralph Waldo Emerson expected in his famous essays “Nature” and “ThePoet” and also who manifested Emerson’s transcendental poetic vision of theAmerican Self in Leaves of Grass. However, in many of his poems Whitmanexpresses his poetic purpose of singing of “the form complete,” and as much ashe sings of one’s soul, he sings of the physiognomy and physiology of one’sbody. Given his clear announcement of a new poetic project of “materialism,” itis only doing justice to Whitman that we approach his sense of the Americanself in terms of his conception of “the form complete.”Thus in this essay I try to sublimate both the conservative approach to iden-tify Whitman’s poetic project in the frame of Emersonian transcendental poet-ics and the political approach to emphasize Whitman’s radical poetic vision ofbody, gender, and sexuality. Rather, noticing the fact that some scholars stillconsider Whitman’s discourse of the body and Sexuality not proper to be talkedin the classroom setting, I will focus on the cultural politics surrounding themaking of Whitman as the representative American poet. With Greenblatt’snotion of “cultural poetics” and Graff’s notion of “repressive tolerance,” I willfirst contextualize Whitman’s discourse of “materialism” as a counter-cultureto Boston-based mainstream genteel culture. Then examining Whitman’s con-ception of “the form complete” from Merleau-Pontyian phenomenology, I willtry to highlight the point that his materialism is something beyond the level of the“cultural distintion” that Beach formulates. Secondly, I will trace the history ofWhitman scholarship and examine how the very genteel class, who hadrepressed Whitman in the nineteenth century, now in the twentieth century
Irish contemporary poet Eavan Boland mounts the starting point of her poetry to a very practical issue of how to imagine women’s lives inside Irish history. Given E. H. Carr’s modern notion of the ‘historiography’ of history, history that used to record the progress in the public sphere can be regarded as masculine. And in such masculine history women, who have often been associated with Nature due to their biological function, have never been imagined as active contributors to historical progress. Likewise, Irish women’s domestic experiences have been discarded as worthless while Irish men’s public experiences have been integrated to the progress of Irish history. Troubled by the fact that Irish women's lived experiences have been silenced in Irish history, Boland has been exploring the possibility of eroticizing such masculine history and creating a livable space for real-life Irish women in her poetry. Therefore in this essay I'll look into Outside History (1990) among her many books of poems published since 1962. Outside History, which comprises of three parts, is especially significant in her poetic career because in it Boland’s individual and communal concerns as a woman and woman poet are intricately woven and expanded to the issue of the historiography of Irish history. Specifically, I will examine how Boland engages in a very creative project of diving into Irish history and emerging with a body of lived experiences of women that have been silenced and treated as non-existence. I will also illuminate the fact that Boland’s erotics of history suggests a new alternative way of writing political poetry in Ireland. Ultimately, I aim to show that Boland, not by romanticizing past women in a new myth and legend but by etching out an original poetic space, has successively swerved from the formidable influence of W. B. Yeats and become a representative poet of her own.
Study on effluent organic matter (EfOM) characteristic and removal efficiency is required, because EfOM is important in regard to the stability of effluents reuse, quality issues of artificial recharge and water conservation of aqueous system. UV technology is widely used in wastewater treatment. Many reports have been conducted on microbial disinfection and micro pollutant reduction with UV treatment. However, the study on EfOM with UV has limited because low/medium pressure UV lamp is not sufficient to affect refractory organics. The high intensity of pulsed UV would mineralize EfOM itself as well as change the characteristics of EfOM. Chlorine demand and DBPs formation is affected on the changed amounts and properties of EfOM. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect on EfOM, chlorine residual, and chlorinated DBPs formation with low pressure and pulsed UV treatment. The removal of organic matter through low pressure UV treatment is insignificant effect. Pulsed UV treatment effectively removes/transforms EfOM. As a result, the chlorine consumption is changed and chlorine DBPs formation is decreased. However, excessive UV treatment caused problems of increasing chlorine consumption and generating unknown by-products.
Robert Frost has rarely been named in a pantheon of American modernist poets, where Ezra Pound, T. S. Eliot, Wallace Stevens, and Marianne Moore all have a place. Rather, he has often been associated with Georgian poets of the late nineteenth century and categorized as “a gentle farmer poet” of New England nature poetry or “a New England folkie” who celebrated the local Yankee spirit. Reading his biography, however, it is surprising to find that Frost actively attended all the lectures on Eastern poetry and arts and was busy with eavesdropping the latest news and avant-garde trends in New Poetry during his stay in England. This paper, thus, re-views Frost’s conscious choice to walk on the local road even after having experienced the world sentiments in London, the heart of Anglo-American literature. In particular, paying attention to his third volume, Mountain Interval, it analyses how Frost uses a common, local ovenbird as a symbol for his modernist artistic soul and how he presents his ambition to become a world-class poet by consciously becoming a local American poet and taking a flight to a new plateau through deterritorializing the spaces of literary traditions. Ultimately, it aims to examine the efficacy of a current discursive model of the core and the periphery in world literature through Frost’s modernist paradox.
The beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is difficult to control using chemical insecticidesbecause of the development of insecticide resistance. Several pest control agents are used to control the beet armyworm. Entomopathogenic fungi are one of the candidates for eco-friendly pest control instead of chemical control agents. In this study,among various entomopathogenic fungal strains isolated from soil two isolates were selected as high virulence pathogens againstlarva of beet armyworm. Control efficacy of fungal conidia was influenced by conidia concentration, temperature, and relativehumidity (RH). The isolates Metarhizium anisopliae FT83 showed 100% cumulative mortality against second instar larvae of S. exigua 3 days after treatment at 1 × 107 conidia/mL and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus FG340 caused 100% mortality 6 days aftertreatment at 1 × 104 conidia/mL. Both M. anisopliae FT83 and P. fumosoroseus FG340 effectively controlled the moth at 20~30oC. M. anisopliae FT83 was significantly affected mortality by RH: mortality was 86.7% at 85% RH and 13.4% at 45% RH. P. fumosoroseus FG340 showed high mortality as 90% at 45% RH and 100% at 75% RH 6 days after conidia treatments. Theseresults suggest that P. fumosoroseus FG340 and M. anisopliae FT83 have high potential to develop as a biocontrol agent againstthe beet armyworm.