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우리 정부와 해운기업은 해상에서의 인명 및 환경보호를 위해 노력하고 있지만 아직까지 내항선에서의 안전관리가 미흡하여 내항선에 맞는 체계적이고 현실적인 안전관리체제 운영의 내실화 방안이 절실하다. 본 논문은 관련기관 및 해운기업에 설문조사를 하였으며, 실증분석을 통하여 현 내항선안전관리의 문제점을 파악하고 개선하여 우리나라 내항해운에 적합한 안전관리체제의 내실화 방안을 제시하고자 한다. We badly need the plans to promote practical and systematic utilization of safety management system as the safety management in coasters is not yet sufficient although the government and shipping companies are making efforts to protect human life and environment in ocean. This thesis executed questionnaire survey on related organizations and shipping companies followed by proof analysis and suggest plans to make it useful safety management system suitable to coastal marine transport of the country through grasping and improving the points of problems in current safety management on coastwise vessels.
The aim of this paper is to discuss the comparative method in the practical field of John Dryden`s literary criticism. John Dryden(1631-1700) is properly considered as "the father of English criticism" and "the writer who first taught us to determine upon principles the merit of composition" by another great literary critic, Samuel Johnson in the Eighteenth century. Dryden was truly a man of letters in the latter part of the Seventeenth century England: a poet, playwright, critic, and translator. He wrote various kinds of writings in the great tradition of English Empiricism. He was a so-called poet-critic who was not a purely literary critic but an utterly practical critic. He wrote his literary criticism only on the basis of his various experiences as a writer in general. He was never a theoretical or speculative critic, compared with the prescriptive French critics in the age of Neoclassicism in Europe. Dryden deals with his literary discourse by comparing Greek and Roman writers with Italian, French and English poets. Dryden`s comparative method enhances awareness of difference, from country to country and age to age. Dryden tries to establish the proper identity of English literature in the whole history of European literature from the Greek period to his contemporary period. His method of comparison in his literary criticism hada strong influence on the later English literary critics such Samuel Johnson and T. S. Eliot. Dryden set up the great tradition of comparative method in the history of English literary criticism. Now our era is the age of glocalism and cosmopolitanism, when the ethics of comparison is badly needed. The comparative method in literary criticism could be the comparative criticism in the widest sense of comparative literature. It is the very great legacy of John Dryden`s criticism for the 21st century.
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This essay is an attempt to incorporate "critical pedagogy" into English literary education and propose a critical English language and literature education in the university English classroom for the 21st century. I explore the recent attention to English literature in the field of language and literature education. French post-structuralist philosopher Gilles Deleuze-an empiricist and plurist-values the Anglo-American tradition for its experimental qualities, multiplicitous hybridity, and most importantly, transformation into becoming. He contends that the Anglo- American literature is superior to any Western literature because of its traits, among others, of rhizome, nomadity, body without organs, deterritorization. In tandem, these characteristics are closely related to reflection, interference, transgression, resistance and critique. Deleuzian fascination of the Anglo-American literature prompts us to apply" critical pedagogy" in teaching English literature. Accordingly, we should consider incorporating the superiority of the Anglo-American literature into all levels of English literary education. Paulo Freire, a prominent Brazilian philosopher of popular education, initiated "critical pedagogy" which strongly argues that every student is capable of looking critically at advanced capitalist and technological society in a dialogical encounter with others. "Critical pedagogy" empowers students as critical citizens who can perceive and consequently deal with their personal and social reality and the world. As university teachers of Anglo- American literature. we should inculcate this critical consciousness in students' mind in and out of the classroom. The English professors in Korea are, on a fundamental level. all the teachers of English as a foreign language(EFL). In addition to teaching English grammar and structure, translation and interpretation, we EFL teachers should italicize how English language is used to structure expectation, participation and exclusion in our society and world outside. By equipping our students with social advocacy and critical thinking, the EFL pedagogy in the English literature classroom will better prepare them for a social world of the 21st century. As critical intellectuals, we should create a cultural politics of English literary education through critical pedagogy, critical language education, and critical EFL pedagogy.
Wook Song(1925-1980) was the first comparativist in the latter part of the 20th-century literary studies in Korea. He published several major scholarly books on comparative methodology, poetics and criticism in the 1960's and 70's. He approached to literary background and philosophical interrelations between Korean and Chinese thought, East Asian and Western, and Korean and the Western literature in terms of comparative method. His comparative studies did start comparative poetics and thought in literary criticism and literature in Korea. Now we are living in the age of globalization and cosmopolitanism, and we need to learn Song's exemplary comparative method in literary studies for the comparative world literature. The aim of this paper thus is to discuss his pioneering comparative practice in the field of literary and cultural studies. From Song's comparative performance in his concrete critical and literary activities, I will submit several memos to Korean Comparative Literature in the 21st century. First we need to institutionalize comparative literature at undergraduate and graduate level in Korean University. Second, we have to establish the comparative method as the interdisciplinary and consilient approach in the crisis of the Humanities. Third, We'd better form an academic community of Korea, China and Japan to challenge the Euro-centered comparative literary and cultural studies. Fourth, we may start International Association of World literature to promote the cooperation of Non-Western literatures. Fifth, we may develop the close ties between comparative literature and cultural studies in the literary departments. To achieve this long-awaited project successfully, we now must study Wook Song as comparativist in a more detailed and concrete way.
본 연구의 목적은 백철의 문학적 업적에 대한 논의와 연구에 있어서 간과되어온 부분인 국제문화교류자로서의 백철에 관해 시론적으로 접근하는 것이다. 1930년대부터 50여 년 간 한국 근대문학사에서 문학평론가로서, 문학사가로서, 국문학과 교수로 커다란 족적을 남긴 백철에 대한 연구가 동시대 다른 문인들에 비해 불공평할 정도로 활성화 되지 못하고 있다. 백철의 후반기 문학적 삶에서 특히 한국문학을 위한 국제적 교류 활동 부분은 당대 어느 누구보다 눈부셨고 시대를 앞서는 선견 지명적인 업적이었으나 그 체계적인 연구가 단편적인 것을 제외하고는 전무한 상태에 있다. 백철은 한국문학의 근대화를 위해 선진 외국문학의 도입과 소개를 위해 노력하였고 후일에는 한국 문학의 세계화를 위해 비교문학과 세계문학 그리고 번역에 대한 관심을 기울였다. 이를 위한 기초 작업으로 여러 곳에 산재해 있는 국제 문화교류 활동에 관한 자료들을 모으고 분류해야 한다. 이러한 기초 작업의 토대로 이루어진 백철 연구라야 정상궤도에 진입할 수 있을 것이다. 그런 뒤에 종합적인 연구 작업이 이루어질 때 백철이 50년 간 한국근대문학에 끼친 영향이 온전하게 재평가를 받을 수 있을 것이다. 나아가 오늘날 한국문학의 세계화 작업을 위해서 백철의 선구자적 활동은 우리에게 새로운 전략의 수립과 구체적인 방법들을 개발하는데 매우 유익한 사례를 제공할 것이다. The year of 2008 is the centenary year of Baik Cheol's birth. Now is the right time to do him justice as man of letters. Baik Cheol had been working very hard as literary critic, historian of Korean Literature and professor of Korean Literature for almost fifty years since the 1930's. But it is regrettable that Baik Cheol' great achievement in Modern Korean Literature has not been amply studied and rightly evaluated in comparison with his contemporary men of letters. Any misunderstanding and prejudice against Baik Cheol should be cleared up for more balanced view of him in the history of Korean Literature. In addition to this, we have not paid much attention to Baik Cheol's activities of international cultural exchange which should be crucially significant in the age of globalization for the 21st century. His various activities are as follows: introduction of modern foreign literatures into Korea by writing and translating essays and books into Korean; becoming as active member of International PEN Club, and serving as the president of Korean PEN center for almost 18 years; and reorientation of comparative literature and world literature for the globalization of Korean literature in later years of his literary life. The aim of this paper thus is to study Baik Cheol's important role in exchanging international cultures and literatures. To recognize Baik Cheol as great man of letters in modern history of Korean Literature, first we must collect basic materials scattered in various books, magazines and newspapers for his activities of international cultural exchange. We must then establish those materials for our productive use and finally do our research exhaustively on Baik Cheol's cultural and diplomatic activities for Korean Literature in the world. Only after that, could we appreciate and evaluate Baik Cheol' great achievement as a whole in modem Korean Literature.