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Purpose About 10% of all gastric cancers (GCs) are Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated. However, the oncogene of EBV in gastric carcinogenesis has not yet been established. In the present study,we investigated the virus-derived transcripts in the EBV-infected GC cell line to explore the viral oncogene of EBV-positive GCs. Materials and Methods We used the SNU719 cell line, a naturally derived EBV-infected GC cell line. The individual expressed sequence tags from the cDNA libraries of SNU719 were searched against the mRNA subset extracted from the GenBank data base. Sequence reaction was carried out for the EBVassociated clones. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed after cells were partitioned into nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. Results Using bioinformatic tools, we selected 13 EBV-associated clones from cDNA libraries of SNU719. By sequencing analysis, we revealed that they were all associated with RPMS1, one of the BamHIA rightward transcripts (BART) of EBV. Some BART cDNAs such as RPMS1 and A73 are known to be translated into protein in vitro, and have been shown to have some biochemical functions relevant to tumorigenesis. But, presently, the BART transcripts were expressed only in the nucleus and not in the cytoplasm, arguing against their role as messenger RNAs. Some other BART transcripts expressed in GCs (BARF0, CST, vIL, BARF1, BLLF1, and BcLF1) were also extensively detected in the nucleus. Conclusion BART transcripts are the predominant viral transcripts expressed in EBV-associated GCs, and they are located only in the nucleus. Therefore, it seems less likely that BART transcripts produce functional proteins to play a role in carcinogenesis of EBV-associated GCs.
Background: A receptor tyrosine kinase for ephrin ligands, EPHB2, is expressed in normal colorectal tissues and colorectal cancers (CRCs). The aim of this study was to investigate EPHB2 expression over CRC progression and determine its prognostic significance in CRC. Methods: To measure EPHB2 mRNA and protein expression, real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry were performed in 32 fresh-frozen and 567 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded CRC samples, respectively. We further investigated clinicopathological features and overall and recurrence-free survival according to EPHB2 protein expression. Results: The EPHB2 level was upregulated in CRC samples compared to non-cancerous tissue in most samples and showed a strong positive correlation with AXIN2. Notably, CD44 had a positive association with both mRNA and protein levels of EPHB2. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed no difference in EPHB2 expression between adenoma and carcinoma areas. Although EPHB2 expression was slightly lower in invasive fronts compared to surface area (p < .05), there was no difference between superficial and metastatic areas. EPHB2 positivity was associated with lymphatic (p < .001) and venous (p = .001) invasion, TNM stage (p < .001), and microsatellite instability (p = .036). Kaplan–Meier analysis demonstrated that CRC patients with EPHB2 positivity showed better clinical outcomes in both overall (p = .049) and recurrence-free survival (p = .015). However, multivariate analysis failed to show that EPHB2 is an independent prognostic marker in CRCs (hazard ratio, 0.692; p = .692). Conclusions: Our results suggest that EPHB2 is overexpressed in a subset of CRCs and is a significant prognostic marker.
Bo-Geun Jang(장보근), Jong-Ho Choi(최종호), Sung-Kyu Kim(김성규), Jin-Geun Kim(김진근), Minwon Park(박민원), In-Keun Yu(유인근), Byeongmo Yang(양병모), Hyun-Man Jang(장현만), Chang-Yeol Choi(최창열) 대한전기학회 2013 대한전기학회 학술대회 논문집 Vol.2013 No.7
ackground: Aurora kinase A (AURKA), or STK15/BTAK, is a member of the serine/threonine kinase family and plays important roles in mitosis and chromosome stability. This study investigated the clinical significance of AURKA expression in colorectal cancer patients in Korea. Methods: AURKA protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 151 patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma using tissue microarray blocks. We analyzed the relationship between clinicopathological characteristics and AURKA expression. In addition, the prognostic significance of various clinicopathological data for progression-free survival (PFS) was assessed. Also we evaluated copy number variations by array comparative genomic hybridization and AURKA gene amplification using fluorescence in situ hybridization in colorectal carcinoma tissues. Results: AURKA gene amplification was found more frequently in the 20q13.2–13.33 gain-positive group than the group with no significant gain on the AURKA-containing locus. AURKA protein expression was detected in 45% of the cases (68/151). Positive staining for AURKA was observed more often in male patients (p = .035) and distally located tumors (p = .021). PFS was shorter in patients with AURKA expression compared to those with low-level AURKA expression (p < .001). Univariate analysis revealed that AURKA expression (p = .001), age (p = .034), lymphatic invasion (p = .001), perineural invasion (p = .002), and TNM stage (p = .013) significantly affected PFS. In a multivariate analysis of PFS, a Cox proportional hazard model confirmed that AURKA expression was an independent and significant prognostic factor in colorectal adenocarcinoma (hazard ratio, 3.944; p < .001). Conclusions: AURKA could serve as an independent factor to
Background : CD44 is a cell surface receptor that has been implicated in tumor cell invasion and metastasis in a range of tumors of various organs, including breast, ovary, colon, lung, and brain. CD44 stimulates the invasive ability by interacting with matrix metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14). The expression of MMP14 on the cell surface is thought to trigger multiple proteinase cascades and to stimulate cell migration. Methods : A total 54 astrocytoma patients were eligible for this study. We performed a retrospective clinicopathological review and CD44 and MMP14 immunohistochemistry. Results : The expressions of CD44 and MMP14 were significantly correlated with the World Health Organization (WHO) grade. On univariate analysis, the WHO grade and the expression of CD44 were the significant prognostic factors affecting overall survival (OS) and disease progression free survival (DPFS). On the multivariate analysis by the Cox regression model, the only WHO grade was shown to be a significant independent prognostic factor for predicting the DPFS and OS. Conclusions : In this study, the CD44 and MMP14 expressions were related to the WHO grade of astrocytoma. The CD44 expression status was a prognostic factor for DPFS and OS on univariate analysis, but it was not an independent prognostic factor on the multivariate analysis.
Background: During specimen processing in surgical pathology laboratories, specimen-related adverse events (SRAEs), such as mislabeling and specimen mixed-up might occur. In these situations, molecular techniques using short tandem repeat (STR) loci are required to identify the personal identity. Microsatellite instability (MSI) test is widely used for screening the hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer (Lynch syndrome) in surgical pathologies using polymorphic STR markers. We tried to evaluate the applicability of the MSI test for SRAEs. Methods: We obtained 253 MSI test results to analyze the allele frequencies. After calibrating the estimated nucleotide lengths, we calculated the allele frequencies, a random match probability, and a likelihood ratio (LR) of three dinucleotide STR markers (D5S349, D17S250, and D2S123). Results: The distribution of LR was 136.38 to 5,606,213.10. There was no case of LR<100. In addition, there were 153 cases (60.5%) of LR ranging from 100 to 10,000 and 100 cases (39.5%) of LR>10,000. Furthermore, the combined probability of identity was 9.23×10-4 and the combined power of exclusion was 0.99908. Conclusions: Using the three STR markers that are recommended for MSI test, all the cases were positively identified in 1% range and about one-third cases showed high LR (>10,000). These results showed that MSI tests are useful to screen the personal identity in case of SRAE in pathology laboratories.