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Background : CD44 is a cell surface receptor that has been implicated in tumor cell invasion and metastasis in a range of tumors of various organs, including breast, ovary, colon, lung, and brain. CD44 stimulates the invasive ability by interacting with matrix metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14). The expression of MMP14 on the cell surface is thought to trigger multiple proteinase cascades and to stimulate cell migration. Methods : A total 54 astrocytoma patients were eligible for this study. We performed a retrospective clinicopathological review and CD44 and MMP14 immunohistochemistry. Results : The expressions of CD44 and MMP14 were significantly correlated with the World Health Organization (WHO) grade. On univariate analysis, the WHO grade and the expression of CD44 were the significant prognostic factors affecting overall survival (OS) and disease progression free survival (DPFS). On the multivariate analysis by the Cox regression model, the only WHO grade was shown to be a significant independent prognostic factor for predicting the DPFS and OS. Conclusions : In this study, the CD44 and MMP14 expressions were related to the WHO grade of astrocytoma. The CD44 expression status was a prognostic factor for DPFS and OS on univariate analysis, but it was not an independent prognostic factor on the multivariate analysis.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of secondary preservice teachers' interpersonal problems on leadership and to verify the mediating effect of sense of calling to teaching in this process. For this purpose, the relationships among the interpersonal problems, sense of calling to teaching, and leadership of preservice teachers were analyzed by Pearson's correlation coefficient, and the mediating effect of sense of calling to teaching was examined by multiple regression analysis and Sobel test. The study sample comprised 224 secondary preservice teachers attending two universities in Seoul, South Korea. The results of the study were as follows. First, statistically significant negative correlations were found between interpersonal problems and leadership, and between interpersonal problems and sense of calling to teaching. In addition, sense of calling and leadership showed a statistically significant positive correlation. Second, the interpersonal problems of the preservice teachers appeared to be a significant explanatory variable affecting leadership. In this process, sense of calling to teaching was proved to have a partial mediating effect. Therefore, the importance of sense of calling as a mediating factor in the relationship between interpersonal problems and leadership, necessitates considering both interpersonal relations and calling to teaching when developing the curriculum of teacher education in order to enhance the leadership of preservice teachers.