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Rome has now become the city with economic and cultural wealth, not a city of gypsy anymore. The movie ‘The Great Beauty’ that is released in 2013 clearly describes this aspect. The great landscape of Rome and the picture of the people who have luxurious life are revealed in the movie. This paper will discuss the new ethnicity of Romans. They so called the intellectual class who classified themselves as a ‘Modern Romans’, are creating the communal self-deception space with the perspective of ‘new-aristocracy’. The intellectuals set up indigent self-identity because of their isolated and unsociable values. However, if they caused the envious perspectives that the general public has, they have to experience the considerations on the virtues that the intellectuals must have. Furthermore, the intellectuals can establish the appropriate self-identity, if there is a freedom of ideology with generous acceptance and respect.
Laryngeal involvement is a rare complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and can range from mild mucosal inflammation, vocal cord paralysis, and edema to necrotizing vasculitis with airway obstruction. Cricoarytenoid arthropathy is rare cause of severe airway obstruction in laryngeal involvement of SLE. In contrast to patients with rheumatoid arthritis, patients with SLE typically present with acute arthritis of cricoarytenoid joints and respond to corticosteroid therapy alone. We describe here a 13-year-old girl with SLE who presented with intermittent fever, swallowing difficulty, vocal cord paralysis and acute dyspnea required emergent tracheostomy as the sole manifestation of active SLE. She was diagnosed as having SLE based on the findings of positive anti-nuclear antibody and anti-ds DNA antibody with high titers, hypocomplementemia, leukocytopenia, and transient polyarthritis and proteinuria. No other clinical symptoms were found. Endoscopic findings showed edema of aryepiglottic fold, bilateral fixation of the vocal cords and edematous supraglottic structure with engorged vessels. Computered tomography scan of the neck showed diffuse soft tissue edema around the arytenoid and cricoid cartilages and enhancement of the aryepiglottic fold.
The incidence of metabolic syndrome (MS) has increased significantly worldwide including Korea over the past decade. Recent studies have shown that the MS develops during childhood and is highly prevalent among overweight children and adolescents. Thus, it is important for physicians to be acquainted with the definition, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, and pathophysiology of MS for early identification and management of the MS in children and adolescents, which would be helpful to decrease the burden of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adults. The aim of this review is to provide adequate guidelines for screening and managing strategies on MS based on recent findings. Proper and effective control of MS needs close cooperation among patients, physician, family members, school, society, and government,and it should be based on a thorough evaluation of medical system on obesity and MS.
Background The purpose of this research is to take a look at the relationships between the emotional labors, the job satisfaction, and the intentions to change the jobs of the beauty treatment employees and to present a plan for reducing the intentions to change jobs by analyzing the mediating effects of the job satisfaction in the relationship between the emotional labor and the intention to change the job. Methods Emotional labor as an independent variable, intention to change the job as a dependent variable, and job satisfaction as parameters. A questionnaire was conducted on 204 employees of the beauty salon. SPSS and AMOS were used for analysis. Result The route from the emotional labor to the job satisfaction had the negative (-) influence, the route from the job satisfaction to the intention to change the job was showing a negative (-) influence, and the route from the emotional labor to the intention to change the job was having a positive (+) influence. As a result of analyzing the mediating effects of the job satisfaction regarding the influences of the emotional labor to the intention to change the job, it was showing a partial mediating effect. Conclusion As a result, the improvement of the working environment is necessary. And the education for improving the self-regard of the employees at the beauty parlors is necessary. Also, the meticulous customer management and the plans for the active coping regarding the bad customers are necessary. 연구배경 본 연구의 목적은 미용종사원의 감정노동, 직무만족, 이직의도간의 관계를 살펴보고, 감정노동과 이직의도의 관계에서 직무만족의 매개효과를 분석하여 이직의도를 감소시킬 수 있는 방안을 제시하는 것이다. 연구방법 독립변수로 감정노동, 종속변수로 이직의도, 매개변수로 직무만족을 설정하였다. 미용실 직원 204명을 대상으로 설문을 진행하였다. SPSS와 AMOS를 사용하여 분석을 실시하였다. 연구결과 감정노동→직무만족 경로는 부(-)의 영향, 직무만족→이직의도는 부(-)의 영향, 감정노동→이직의도는 정(+)의 영향을 미치고 있었다. 감정노동이 이직의도에 미치는 영향에 대한 직무만족의 매개효과를 분석한 결과, 부분매개효과를 보이고 있었다. 결론 근무환경의 개선이 필요하며, 미용실 종사원의 자존감을 향상시키기 위한 교육이 필요하다. 또한 불량고객에 대한 철저한 고객관리 및 적극적인 대응 방안이 필요하다.
The purpose of this study was analyze how korean adult women\`s swimming suit buying behavior varied according to consumer characteristics. Especially, it was intended to provide basic materials for swimming suit product development and quality improvement appropriate to consumer characteristics with a focus on product evaluation criteria. Questionnaire research was conducted for 850 adult women resident in Seoul, to whom questionnaire were distributed and who were asked to complete their questionnaires. 1. As for buying motive, of swimming suit buying behavior, it was shown that the highest proportion of adult women bought their new swimming suit because their old swimming suit was wornout and most adult women tended to buy their new swimming suit or their own will rather than at others\` suggestion. 2. As for the source of information at a time. of swimming suit purchase, adult women collected information from the product on display most and bought their swimming suit in a planned way in relation to the degree of purchase planning. 3. As for product evaluation criteria, adult women showed the high scores in order of the type and quality of material, activity and functionalism, dimensions and fitness. 4. In many cases actual swimming suit purchasers were the adult women who bought their swimming suit, and they used the department store or the large shopping center as the place of purchasing the swimming suit. Its reason was that the department store or the large shopping center had a diverse assortment of products. As for the degree of their travelling companion\`s influence, it was found that most adult women were influenced by their travelling companions when purchasing their swimming suits. 5. As for the level of satisfaction with swimming suit purchase, it was shown that adult women were generally satisfied with their swimming suit purchase. It was found that their level of satisfaction was higher in order of activity and functionalism, the type and quality of swimming suit materials, and ease in washing management while they showed the low level of satisfaction with price, the fastness of color to washing, light and detergents and durability.
This paper aims to elucidate social contexts of Korea influenced in the immigration and adaptation of the Korean-Chinese. The social contexts include immigration policies supporting or restricting the life of the Korean- Chinese immigrants and social perceptions on Korean-Chinese ethnic clusters. This paper classifies immigration transition into four phases and explains the change of immigration policies, the development of the ethnic clusters, and the change of social perception on the Korean-Chinese neighborhoods. The immigration policies have shifted from exclusion to inclusion and, consequently, the immigrants are gradually able to settle down in Korea with stable stay and diverse jobs. Meanwhile, social perceptions on the ethnic clusters have worsened from hospitality to discrimination. The negative perception is more strong on Daerim-dong as an ethnic enclave than Jayang-dong assimilated to the major society to some degree. This paper finds the gap between the inclusive immigration policy and the exclusive social awareness. As a consequence, this paper suggests the acceptance and hospitality of Korean Chinese community in order to prevent social conflicts and contribute to multicultural society. 본 논문은 이주와 적응 과정에 작동한 거주국의 사회적 조건을 밝히는 것을 목적으로 한다. 거주국으로서 우리나라의 사회적 조건을, 이주를 제한하거나 지원하는 제도적 조건과 중국동포 이주민의 적응 전략으로 형성된 이주민 밀집지역에 대한 사회적 인식으로 구분하였다. 본 논문은 중국동포 이주민의 인구 변화를 4단계로 구분하여, 단계별로 이민정책의 변화, 이주민의 적응 전략, 중국동포 밀집지역에 대한 사회적 인식 변화를 고찰하였다. 분석결과 배제에서 포용으로 방향이 전환되는 이민정책에 대해 중국동포 이주민은 개인에서 가족 단위로 정착하고 다양한 분야에 취업하면서 안정적인 체류로 적응하였다. 반면 중국동포 밀집지역에 대한 사회적 인식은 단계별, 지역별로 차별이 강화되고 뚜렷해지는 경향이 나타나, 이민정책과 사회적 인식 간 괴리가 있음을 발견하였다. 결론적으로 사회적 갈등을 최소화하고 포용적인 다문화 사회로 나아가기 위해서는 중국동포 밀집지역에 대한 인정과 환대의 윤리가 필요함을 주장한다.
彌勒信仰は五五二年’ 百濟から日本に佛敎が傳わった時から古代日本人に廣く受けられて’ 彌勒菩薩の補處の兜率天は代表的な淨土の一つとして信仰された. 「日本書紀」によると’ 蘇我馬子が彌勒石像を安置して法會を開いたのが佛法の始まりだとしている.つまり' 日本の佛敎は彌勒信仰からはじまったのである. 古代日本人は古來から天’ 海’ 山’ 地下という他界から幸福と豊?をもたらす神樣が降臨するという他界觀をもっていた. 彌勒信仰はこのような古代人の他界觀と習合して日本化していつた. その結果' 彌勒の淨土である兜率天は天上界の第四天ではなく’ 神話的他界である日本の高天原として思われた. さらには’ 山中’ 海にも兜率天があると思われた. 天上他界との習合は太陽信仰との習合現象から著しくみられる.そして’ 太陽神の天照大御神の住處の高天原が兜率天とされた. 山中他界との習合現象は修驗道の開祖役行者と空海の入定信仰と納骨信仰に明らかに現れている. なかでも’ 納骨信仰は高野山を兜率天と信じて’ 自分たちの家族や知り合いが兜率天に往生してほしいという念願をもって死者の骨を葬るということである. ところで' その納骨の儀禮をみると傳統的な死後の他界觀に支えられているということがわかる. 本稿の硏究結果によると’ 彌勒信仰に對する古代日本人の理解は傳統信仰の構造の中で捉えられていることがわかる. つまり' 彌勒淨土の兜率天は天上他界で’ 彌勒佛は太陽神’ そして彌勒佛の下生は天孫降臨という神話的構造として捉えられていた. そして' 基層信仰では' 祖神のこもっている山中に兜率天という他界を想定して’ 彌勒佛の祖神が自分たちに幸福をくだすと信じた. 彌勒信仰の他界に對する古代日本人の捉え方は’ 衆生の救いという佛敎本來の敎えからはなれて’ 兜率天は祖神のすむあの世’ そして’ 往生は再生の意味として受けられるようになった. このような捉え方は複合的ㆍ重層的な日本文化の特色ともいえる.
「から」と「ので」を教える場合にいつも遭遇するのは、日本人社会の現実の使用が、教室で教わったとおりではないという学習者の不満であると富田(1991)は言う。その原因の一つを「永野論文以降の研究の主観/客観の区別の代案の多く─私の論理/対象の論理、またphenomenal knowledge / structural knowledgeなど─が、結局は主観/客観の区別に還元できてしまう」と指摘する岩崎(1955)の問題意識に見ることができる。 本稿では、主観/客観の区別に還元されない道具立てとして、意味論的接続と語用論的接続という次元の異なる捉え方を援用することを提案する。つまり、多くの先行研究で大同小異に言及されている「から」の「強すぎる感じ」と「ので」の「和らげる感じ」というものの根本的な性格の違いをどこに求めるべきなのか、また、「から」と「ので」の使用条件として必ず引き合いに出される文体(だ体/丁寧体)に絡む問題をどう捉えるかについて、「から」には命題性が、「ので」には待遇性が特徴づけられることを指摘した。また、以下の引用の如く、接続語を捉える概念の違いは、結局のところvan Dijk(1981)の接続を捉える二つの次元に行き着くものであり、同時に、意味論的接続と語用論的接続という次元の異なる捉え方の援用によってのみ、「から」と「ので」の微妙な違いを説明できることを述べた。 言葉を用いる実際の言語使用において、「から」と「ので」という似たような選択肢を使い分ける基準は、何かを伝えるための発話者の趣が、命題寄りなのか、聞き手寄りなのか、というレベルの差として捉えるべきことを認めてはじめて両者の違いの説明がつくものなのである。 An adequate theory of natural connectives involves both a semantic and a pragmatic account. At the first level they represent all kinds of connecting relations between ‘facts’(the values of propositions), and at the second level they represent more the relations between speech acts. Thus, connectives may function as semantic or pragmatic connectives. 自然言語の接続語を扱う適切な理論は、意味論的説明と語用論的説明の両方を含む。第一の次元では、接続語は「諸事実」(命題の真理値)間のあらゆる接続関係を表示し、第二の次元では、それよりも発話行為間の関係を表示する。よって、接続語は意味論的または語用論的接続語として機能することができる。(vanDijk,T.(1981)StudiesinthePragmaticsof Discourse.(p.23) 日本語は筆者訳。)
temp 弥勒信仰は五五二年' 百済か ら 日 本に仏教が伝わった時か ら古代 日 本人に 広 く 受けられて ' 弥勒菩薩の 補 処 の兜率天は 代 表的な浄土の一つとして信仰された。 「日本 書 紀 」 によると ' 蘇 我馬子が弥勒石像を安置して法会を開いたのが仏法の始まり だとしている。つまり ' 日本 の 仏教 は弥 勒信仰から はじまっ たので ある。古代 日本人は古来から天' 海' 山' 地下と いう 他界から幸福と 豊穣を もたらす神様が降臨す る という 他界観を もっ ていた°弥勒信仰はこのような古代人の他界#iと習合して日本化していった。その結果' 弥勒の浄土である兜率天は天上界の第四天ではなぐ 神話的他界である日本の高天原として思われた° さらには' 山中' 海にも兜率天があると思われた °天上他界との習合は太陽信仰との習合現象から著しくみられる° そして'太陽神の天照大御神の住処の高天原が兜率天とされた°山中他界との習合現象は修験道の開祖役行者と空海の入定信仰と納骨信仰に明らかに現れている° なかでも' 納骨信仰は高野山を兜率天と信じて' 自分たち の家族や知 り 合いが兜率天に往生して ほ しいと いう 念願を も つ て死者の骨を葬るという ことである。ところで ' その納骨の儀礼をみると伝統的な死後の他界観に支えられているという ことがわかる。本稿の研究結果による と' 弥勒信仰に対する古代日本人の理解は伝統信仰の構造の中で捉えられていることがわかる。つまり' 弥勒浄土の兜率天は天上他界でノ 弥勒仏は太陽神' そして弥勒仏の下生は天孫降臨という神話的構造として捉えられていた° そして' 基層信仰では' 祖神のこもつている山中に兜率天という他界を想定して' 弥勒仏の祖神が自分たちに幸福をくだすと信じた°弥勒信仰の他界に対する古代日本人の捉え方は' 衆生の救いという仏教本来の教えからはなれて' 兜率天は祖神のすむあの世' そして' 往生は再生の意味として受けられるよ うになった° このよ うな捉え方は複合的•重層的な日本文化の特色と もいえる°