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During the nervous system development, immature neuroblasts have a strong potential to migrate toward their destination. In the adult brain, new neurons are continuously generated in the neurogenic niche located near the ventricle, and the newly generated cells actively migrate toward their destination, olfactory bulb, via highly specialized migratory route called rostral migratory stream (RMS). Neuroblasts in the RMS form chains by their homophilic interactions, and the neuroblasts in chains continually migrate through the tunnels formed by meshwork of astrocytes, glial tube. This review focuses on the development and structure of RMS and the regulation of neuroblast migration in the RMS. Better understanding of RMS migration may be crucial for improving functional replacement therapy by supplying endogenous neuronal cells to the injury sites more efficiently.
최근에 이루어진 세포생물학적, 유전학적 연구들을 통하여 미토콘드리아의 구조 변화가 매우 역동적이며, dynamin- related protein(DRP)와 같은 다양한 단백질에 의해 조절 된다는 것이 알려지게 되었다. 미토콘드리아가 ATP 합성을 통한 세포내 신진대사에 관여하며, 소포체와 상호작용을 통하여 칼슘이온농도의 항상성 유지, 그리고 세포 사멸에서 중요한 역할을 한다는 사실을 고려해 볼 때, 미토콘드리아 구조 역동성 조절은 정상적인 세포의 성장과 항상성 유지와 매우 밀접한 관계에 있다. 이러한 점에서, 미토콘드리아의 구조 역동성 변화가 신경세포의 발달에 큰 영향을 줄 것으로 생각된다. 이 논문에서는 미토콘드리아의 구조 역동성을 조절하는 단백질들을 소개하고, 신경세포의 발달과정에서 미토콘드리아의 구조 역동성 조절의 중요성에 대하여 전망하고자한다.
Neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult subventricular zone (SVZ) are regionally specified and have distinct molecular gene expression signatures. Recently, we identified the subcallosal zone (SCZ) as a novel brain region where adult NSCs maintain and spontaneously produce neuroblasts. In an attempt to isolate genes specifically expressed in the SCZ or SVZ, microarray analyses of their differentially expressing transcripts were done. The comparison between neurospheres generated from SVZ and SCZ revealed differential expression >1.5-fold in two groups in only 83 genes, representing <0.03% of the genes examined, suggesting that these two populations are largely similar. The differential expression patterns SCZ and SVZ genes were confirmed by RTPCR and Western blots. The selective expressions of two genes (CRBP1, HMGA1) in SVZ-NSCs were further confirmed by immunohistochemistry. These molecular markers could be useful for further molecular and cellular characterization of NSCs.
Mitochondria have evolutionarily, functionally and structurally distinct outer- (OMM) and inner-membranes (IMM). Thus, mitochondrial morphology is controlled by independent but coordinated activity of fission and fusion of the OMM and IMM. Constriction and division of the OMM are mediated by endocytosis-like machineries, which include dynamin-related protein 1 with additional cytosolic vesicle scissoring machineries such as actin filament and Dynamin 2. However, structural alteration of the IMM during mitochondrial division has been poorly understood. Recently, we found that the IMM and the inner compartments undergo transient and reversible constriction prior to the OMM division, which we termed CoMIC, Constriction of Mitochondrial Inner Compartment. In this short review, we further discuss the evolutionary perspective and the regulatory mechanism of CoMIC during mitochondrial division.
Human cyclin D3 gene (CCND3) located on 6p21.1 is important for the regulation of the G1-S phase transition of the cell cycle by modulating the activity of the cyclin-dependent kinases Cdk4 and Cdk6. Because little is known about the effect of cyclin D3 in various human cancers, we evaluated the intricate relationship between expression of cyclin D3 and the process of HCC development using immunohistochemistry and TUNEL assay on 43 paraffin embedded tissues. Cyclin D3 immunoreactivity was more frequently observed in the tumors with high histologic grade and the tumors with metastasis, and more frequently expressed in HCCs with cirrhotic background and gain of 6p21.1 when compared with those with non-neoplastic tissue. Apoptotic cells were more common in tumor with cirrhotic background, amplification of 6p21.1 and expression of cyclin D3 when compared with HCCs with lower level of cyclin D3 expression. Also, we observed that some of the cyclin D3 positive cell and apoptotic cell were co-localized. From these results, it is suggested that over-expression of cyclin D3 may contribute to more rapid cell turn-over in the background of HCC, and balance between proliferation and apoptosis is a role in the progression of HCC with cirrhotic background.
Mitochondrial dysfunction critically impairs cellular health and often causes or affects the progression of several diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Thus, cells must have several ways to monitor the condition of mitochondrial quality and maintain mitochondrial health. Accumulating evidence suggests that the molecular machinery responding to spontaneous changes in mitochondrial morphology is associated with the routine mitochondrial quality control system. In this short review, we discuss recent progress made in linking mitochondrial structural dynamics and the quality control system.
Mitochondrial morphology is known to be continuously changing via fusion and fission, but it is unclear what the biological importance of this energy-consuming process is and how it develops. Several data have suggested that mitochondrial fission executed by Drp1 is necessary to select out a damaged spot from the interconnected mitochondrial network, but the precise mechanism for the recognition and isolation of a damaged sub-mitochondrial region during mitochondrial fission is yet unclear. Recently, Cho et al. found that the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) is transiently reduced by the physical interaction of Drp1 and mitochondrial Zinc transporter, Zip1, at the fission site prior to the typical mitochondrial division, and we found that this event is essential for a mitochondrial quality surveillance. In this review, Cho et al. discuss the role of a mitochondrial fission in the mitochondrial quality surveillance system.