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Neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult subventricular zone (SVZ) are regionally specified and have distinct molecular gene expression signatures. Recently, we identified the subcallosal zone (SCZ) as a novel brain region where adult NSCs maintain and spontaneously produce neuroblasts. In an attempt to isolate genes specifically expressed in the SCZ or SVZ, microarray analyses of their differentially expressing transcripts were done. The comparison between neurospheres generated from SVZ and SCZ revealed differential expression >1.5-fold in two groups in only 83 genes, representing <0.03% of the genes examined, suggesting that these two populations are largely similar. The differential expression patterns SCZ and SVZ genes were confirmed by RTPCR and Western blots. The selective expressions of two genes (CRBP1, HMGA1) in SVZ-NSCs were further confirmed by immunohistochemistry. These molecular markers could be useful for further molecular and cellular characterization of NSCs.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of web-based learning on the reading comprehension of Korean EFL learners. To be specific, this study attempts to understand how web-based reading programs influence learners’ identification of global ideas and specific details. For eight weeks, EFL learners were instructed to read three passages and complete a number of accompanying online post-reading tasks. To examine their achievement, the scores of reading comprehension tests were collected. Student’s achievement was estimated by their performance on the reading post-tests. The results indicated that the general reading comprehension of L2 learners was enhanced at a statistical significance level when employing blended learning environments and combined type of post-reading tasks designed for enhancing both receptive and productive skills. In a similar manner, blended learning environments more significantly improved specific reading skills for both identifying global ideas and recognizing local information in reading passages. As regards the types of post-reading tasks, the results partially verified positive effects for the combined types. From the improvements measured in total scores, combined type tasks were shown to enhance learners’ reading abilities. However, the results of measuring respective reading abilities of identifying global ideas and specific details did not support their impacts. The pedagogical implications of implementing blended learning in L2 reading are suggested.
The report shows the effectiveness of involving a paper pause to improve fluency of phonetic language among Korean Japanese Learners, especially elementary level students. After teaching pause's teaching, we can confirm the next result. It is to lengthen speaking rate and to increase numbers of mora within speaking rate. And in spite of shorten entire period of speaking, the ratio of pause increases, in spite of increasing of pause ratio, frequency of pause decreases. And according to learning of students, speaking speed accelerates to aim similar of Japanese native speakers in spite of differences of Japanese native speakers. After paues's teaching we guess to diminish to put pause on unsuitable position and to speed up speech rate. This study show it is not sufficient meaningful result after pause's teaching, through putting pause on paper position for beginners, to confirm to close situation of speaking of Japanese speakers, it suggests the effectiveness. Only this study we can't understand the effectiveness of pause's teaching exactly, through examining the meaningful characteristics, we have foundations of persuing a effective way of pause's teaching.
Background: Any real application of Bayesian inference must acknowledge that both prior distribution and likelihood function have only been specified as more or less convenient approximations to whatever the analyzer’s true belief might be. If the inferences from the Bayesian analysis are to be trusted, it is important to determine that they are robust to such variations of prior and likelihood as might also be consistent with the analyzer’s stated beliefs. Materials and Methods: The robust Bayesian inference was applied to atmospheric dispersion assessment using Gaussian plume model. The scopes of contaminations were specified as the uncertainties of distribution type and parametric variability. The probabilistic distribution of model parameters was assumed to be contaminated as the symmetric unimodal and unimodal distributions. The distribution of the sector-averaged relative concentrations was then calculated by applying the contaminated priors to the model parameters. Results and Discussion: The sector-averaged concentrations for stability class were compared by applying the symmetric unimodal and unimodal priors, respectively, as the contaminated one based on the class of ε-contamination. Though ε was assumed as 10%, the medians reflecting the symmetric unimodal priors were nearly approximated within 10% compared with ones reflecting the plausible ones. However, the medians reflecting the unimodal priors were approximated within 20% for a few downwind distances compared with ones reflecting the plausible ones. Conclusion: The robustness has been answered by estimating how the results of the Bayesian inferences are robust to reasonable variations of the plausible priors. From these robust inferences, it is reasonable to apply the symmetric unimodal priors for analyzing the robustness of the Bayesian inferences.
Background: Radiation accidents having occurred in recent containing the accident in Fukushima nuclear power plants of Japan were resulted to the increase in some public concern, anxiety and confusion for radiation or nuclear safety. The public anxiety for radiation is not being decreased though the announcements done in radiation research institutes in Korea. Therefore, this study aims at providing an effective system for radiation publicity to the public members by the clipping analysis for the radiation articles reported in the media. And, the relation between those radiation issues and the radiation perception to the public members is analyzed. Materials and Methods: The radiation articles reported by them in 2013 and 2014 have been collected, and they are then classified with the article characteristic, field and tendency. Classified articles have been reviewed by dividing as two year. The 210 articles have been compared for their tendencies, characteristics and fields by year reported, and their characteristic comparison by reported year are then reviewed. Results and Discussion: Though the frequency that the radiological accidents have occurred in worldwide is far low compared to the accidental frequencies occurred in the general industrial fields, the radiation perception is being still deteriorated because of its special problem, which is defined as exposure, contamination or radioactivity, about radiation. The basic principles for radiation communication were suggested for preventing some unnecessary misunderstanding due to the variation of understanding for radiation issues. Conclusion: It is necessary to perform a variety of strategies for the publicity in improving the radiation perception, to build a relationship with the press or the media and then to consistently interact with them. Radiation communication must be performed by radiation experts or complete charge department, and must be consistently performed and be taken predictable patterns.
This study was conducted to identify the relationship between negative emotion and obesity and provide adequate information to enable effective nursing intervention in elderly. Participants were 216 elderly who had been attending two geriatric welfare facilities in Chungbuk. The data were collected between 14 and 30 August, 2017 with a structured questionnaire and body measurement. The questionnaires were CES-D, RULS, BPS and collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-tests, χ2-tests, Fisher' exact tests, Pearson's correlation, and logistic regression with SPSS/WIN 22.0. The mean BMI of participants was 23.59±3.48 and the prevalence of obesity was 31.9%. Significant differences were observed in age (χ2=8.16, p=.003), gender (χ2= 9.27, p=.002), smoking (χ2=7.78, p=.004), depression (t=2.54, p=.012) and social isolation (t=2.98, p=.003) between the normal and obesity groups. Depression (OR,1.04; 95% CI, 1.00-1.09) and social isolation (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02-1.11) was associated with an increased risk obesity. Therefore, it was necessary to measure and quantify the depression and social isolation for weight management among the elderly. Moreover, it is necessary to develop health promotion programs and nursing intervention, including the need for physical, mental, and social relationships. 본 연구의 목적은 노인의 부정적 정서와 비만과의 관계를 파악하여 적정 체중관리를 위한 간호중재 개발 시 기초자료를 제공하기 위함이다. 연구 대상자는 충청북도 J시에 위치한 2개소의 노인 복지관을 이용하는 65세 이상의 노인 216명 이었으며, 자료수집은 2017년 8월 14일부터 8월 30일까지 설문지 조사와 신체계측을 통하여 이루어졌다. 연구도구는 CES-D, RULS, BPS를 사용하였으며 수집된 자료는 SPSS 22.0통계프로그램을 이용하여 기술통계, t-test, χ2-test, Fisher’ exact test, Pearson’s correlation, Logistic regression을 분석하였다. 연구결과 대상자들의 체질량지수의 평균은 23.59±3.48이었으며, 31.9%가 비만인 것으로 나타났다. 정상군과 비만군 사이에 통계적으로 유의한 차이를 보였던 변수는 연령(χ2=8.16, p=.003), 성별(χ2=9.27, p=.002), 흡연 유무(χ2=7.78, p=.004), 우울(t=2.54, p=.012)과 사회적 고립감(t=2.98, p=.003)이었고, 우울 (OR,1.04; 95% CI,1.00-1.09)과 사회적 고립감(OR,1.06; 95%CI,1.02-1.11)은 비만의 위험을 높이는 심리적 요인으로 나타났다. 따라서 노인 인구에서의 비만관리를 위하여 우울과 사회적 관계를 적절히 파악하고 측정해야 하며, 신체적, 정신적, 사회적 영역의 요구를 모두 충족시키는 체중관리 프로그램 및 간호중재의 개발이 필요하다.
本稿では韓国人日本語学習者を対象に話し手の表現意図による終助詞 「ね」のイントネーションを音響音声学的な側面から考察し、日本語のイントネーションの教育のための実証的で、基礎的な資料を提供しようとしたものである。 このような点を考察するために、話し手の認識について聞き手に確認したり同意を求める「ね」に上昇のイントネーションが加わることにより聞き手に確認する意味が現れる場合、疑問上昇のイントネーションが加わることにより聞き手に確認し返事を求める場合、下降のイントネーションが加わることにより話し手の認識が現れる場合、上昇下降のイントネーションが加わることにより話し手の感嘆の気持が現れる場合に分けて考察をしようとした。 その結果、韓国人日本語学習者は、特に「ね」の高さの幅の実現とピッチパターンが、日本語音声と異なる点において、発音のための判断基準を持っておらず、混乱を起こしているということがわかった。 以上の結果を通して、より円滑な意思疏通のために、韓国人学習の「ね」の発音の問題点を把握し、改善案を工夫する必要があるといえよう。 The report main shows objectively of the sentence-final particles’s which is expressed among pronunciation of Korean learner, has basic data to teach systematically relevance between expressive intention and intonation. It is difficult for Korean learner to acquire usage of the sentence-final particles’s ‘NE’ according to speaker's intention of expression, not acquired naturally in the process of learning. One of this reason, it is nat made to express standard how to speak intonation according to expressive intention. So, the study is going to examine more objectively problem of learner's pronunciation in the process of a natural intonation usage and an effective teaching. For this, we have studied problem of learner's pronunciation (1) ‘NE’ shows intention to confirm toward listener (2) ‘NE’ shows to require response with confirming listener (3) ‘NE’ emphasizes my opinion to express (4) ‘NE’ shows intention to appeal my feelings to listener. Through the result, we have common good to help communication between Japanese learner and native speakers to teach intonation effectively as an useful data.