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      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        광화학증착법에 의한 직접패턴 PZT 박막의 제조 및 특성

        박형호,박형호,김태송,Park, Hyeong-Ho,Park, Hyung-Ho,Kim, Tae-Song,Hill, Ross-H. 한국재료학회 2008 한국재료학회지 Vol.18 No.2

        The ferroelectric properties of UV irradiated and non-irradiated PZT films prepared via photochemical metal-organic deposition using photosensitive precursors were characterized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that complete removal of organic groups was possible through UV exposure of the spin-coated PZT precursor films at room temperature. The measured remnant polarization values of UV-irradiated and non-irradiated PZT films after annealing at $650^{\circ}C$ were 29 and $23\;{\mu}C/cm^2$, respectively. The UV irradiation was found to be effective for the enhancement of the <111> growth orientation and ferroelectric property of PZT film and in the direct patterning in the fabrication of micro-patterned systems without dry etching.

      • KCI등재

        반도체 노광 공정의 DI 세정과 Oxide의 HF 식각 과정이 실리콘 표면에 미치는 영향

        박형호,백정헌,최선규 한국재료학회 2010 한국재료학회지 Vol.20 No.8

        This study shows the effects of deionized (DI) rinse and oxide HF wet etch processes on silicon substrate during a photolithography process. We found a fail at the wafer center after DI rinse step, called Si pits, during the fabrication of a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) device. We tried to find out the mechanism of the Si pits by using the silicon wafer on CMOS fabrication and analyzing the effects of the friction charge induced by the DI rinsing. The key parameters of this experiment were revolution per minute (rpm) and time. An incubation time of above 10 sec was observed for the formation of Si pits and the rinsing time was more effective than rpm on the formation of the Si pits. The formation mechanism of the Si pits and optimized rinsing process parameters were investigated by measuring the charging level using a plasma density monitor. The DI rinse could affect the oxide substrate by a friction charging phenomenon on the photolithography process. Si pits were found to be formed on the micro structural defective site on the Si substrate under acceleration by developed and accumulated charges during DI rinsing. The optimum process conditions of DI rinse time and rpm could be established through a systematic study of various rinsing conditions.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        $CHF_3/C_2F_6$ 반응성이온 건식식각에 의한 실리콘 표면의 변형에 관한 연구

        박형호,권광호,곽병화,이수민,권오준,김보우,성영권,Park, Hyeong-Ho,Gwon, Gwang-Ho,Gwak, Byeong-Hwa,Lee, Su-Min,Gwon, O-Jun,Kim, Bo-U,Seong, Yeong-Gwon 한국재료학회 1991 한국재료학회지 Vol.1 No.4

        실리콘 산화막을 $CHF_{3/}C_2F_6$ 혼합가스를 사용하여 반응성이온 건식식각을 행할 때 실리콘 표면에 형성되는 잔류막과 손상층을 X-선 광전자 분광기(XPS)와 이차이온 질량 분석기(SIMS)를 사용, 연구하였다. 실리콘, 탄소, 산소 및 불소의 angle-resolved XPS분석기술을 이용한 비파괴적 화학결합상태의 깊이분포 분석을 통하여 잔류막의 표면부에 O-F 결합이 존재하며 잔류막은 주로 탄소와 불소의 결합체인 C-F 플리머로 구성되어져 있고 Si-O, Si-C 및 Si-F 결합 등이 존재함을 알았다. 손상층은 실리콘 표면에서 약 60nm 깊이까지 탄소와 불소의 침투에 의해 형성되어져 있음을 알았다. The effects of $SiO_2$ reactive ion etching (RIE) in $CHF_{3/}C_2F_6$ on the surface properties of the underlying Si substrate were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry(SIMS) techniques. Angle-resolved XPS analysis was carried out as non-destructive depth profile one for investigating the chemical bonding states of silicion, carbon, oxygen and fluorine. The residue layer consists of C-F polymer. O-F bond was found on the top of the polymer layer and Si-O, Si-C and Si-F bonds were detected between Si substrate and polymer film. A 60nm thick damaged layer of silicon surface mainly contains carbon and fluorine.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        용융염 전해질에서 용융탄산염 연료전지 분리재의 고온 특성

        박형호,이규택,후등정치 (後藤政治) ( Hyeoung Ho Park,Kyu Taek Lee,Shoji Goto ) 한국공업화학회 1995 공업화학 Vol.6 No.2

        본 연구에서는 분리재로 오스테나이트계 스테인레스강 중 310S, 316강을 사용하여 전해질 분위기하에서 분리재의 내식성, 부식거동, 부식산물 형성과정 및 합금원소들의 영향 등을 SEM-EPMA와 X-RD분석을 통해 조사하였다. 내식성은 316강에 비해 310S강이 우수하였으며, 부식 진행과정은 부식산물 형성단계와 부식 억제단계 및 부식 진행단계의 3단계 과정을 경유하였다. 원소들의 거동은 부식산물 형성영역에서는 Fe가, 부식 방어영역에서는 Cr이, 그리고 Ni은 Cr고갈영역과 기지 안쪽에서 부하게 형성되었으며, Mo은 Cr과 같은 거동을 보였다. 부식산물의 형성과정은 부식초기 단계에서는 LiFe_5O_8과 LiFeO₂였으나 최종 안정 부식산물은 LiFeO₂였다. 310S, 316 among the austenitic stainless steel were used as separator material in this study. Corrosion resistance, corrosion behavior, the formation of corrosion products and the effects of alloying elements were examined by the SEM-EPMA and XRD on the separator material at the electrolyte condition. Corrosion resistance of the 310S was higher than that of the 316. Corrosion proceeded via three steps; a formation step of corrosion products, a protection step against corrosion and a advance step of corrosion. From the standpoint of the behavior of the elements in the specimen, Fe, and Cr, Ni were formed richly in the region of corrosion product, in the region of corrosion protection, and at the Cr-depleted zone respectively. Mo showed the same behavior as Cr. With respect to the formation of corrosion products, LiFe_5O_8 and LiFeO₂were the corrosion products at the corrosion initial stage, but LiFeO₂was the final corrosion product.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        저온 저압성형 융융탄산염 연료전지용 전해질판의 제조 및 특성

        박형호,권오성,이규택 ( Hyeoung Ho Park,Oh Sung Kwon,Kyu Taek Lee ) 한국공업화학회 1995 공업화학 Vol.6 No.6

        용융탄산염 연료전지에 유용한 저온 저압성형 전해질 matrix를 제조하기 위해 결합제로서 polyethylene을 사용하여 성형온도, 압력, 전해질 조성 및 결합제의 양의 변화가 전해질 matrix 특성에 미치는 영향을 조사하였다. 전해질 matrix의 상온 제조시 최적 성형압력은 150㎏/㎠였으며, 160℃에서는 150㎏/㎠이상의 성형 압력하에서 발생되는 전해질 matrix내 polyethylene의 응집현상과 열응력으로 인해 최적 성형압력은 100㎏/㎠였다. 160℃에서 제조된 전해질 matrix의 강도는 결합제로 첨가된 polyethylene의 영향을 받아 상온 제조시보다 높았다. 또한 상온에서 전해질 matrix의 특성에 가장 큰 영향을 미치는 인자는 전해질 함량이었으며, 160℃에서는 polyethylene의 함량이었다. The electrolyte matrix for MCFC was fabricated by using a polyethylene as a binder under low-temperature and low-pressure. The effects of compaction temperature, pressure, composition of electrolyte matrix and amount of binder on characteristics of electrolyte matrix were investigated in this study. The optimum compaction pressure was 150㎏/㎠ at 25℃, 100㎏/㎠ at 160℃ because of the cluster of polyethylene and thermal stress beyond 150㎏/㎠, respectively. The strength of electrolyte matrix fabricated at 160℃ was higher than that of electrolyte matrix fabricated at 25℃ due to the effect of polyethylene. The most important factor effecting on the characteristics of electrolyte matrix was the amount of electrolyte at 25℃, amount of polyethylene at 160℃ respectively.

      • KCI등재
      • KCI등재

        용융탄산염 연료전지용 스테인리스강 분리판의 부식거동

        박형호,윤재식,배인성,김병일 대한금속재료학회 2003 대한금속·재료학회지 Vol.41 No.12

        In order to investigate the corrosion resistance at the anode side separator for molten carbonate fuel cell, STS310S and SC-STS310S (chromium and aluminum were simultaneously deposited by diffusion into STS310S austenitic stainless steel substrate by pack-cementation process) were used as the separator material. In case of STS310S, corrosion proceeded via three steps; a formation step of corrosion product, a protection step against corrosion, an advance step of corrosion after breakaway. From the standpoint of the behavior of the elements in the specimen, Fe, Cr and Ni were formed richly in the region of corrosion product, in the region of corrosion protection, and at the Cr-deplete zone respectively. Especially, STS310S would be impossible to be used as a separator without suitable surface modification because of rapid corrosion rate after formation of corrosion product, making the severe problem on stability of cell during long-time operation. Whereas, SC-STS310S showed higher corrosion resistance than the present separator, STS310S. And SC-STS 310S can be expected to use for an alternative separator at the anode side by developing coating and pre-treatment process which can lead to dense coating layer and very high corrosion resistance respectively.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        $CHF_3/C_2F_6$ 반응성이온 건식식각에 의해 변형된 실리콘 표면의 열적 거동에 관한 연구

        박형호,권광호,곽병화,이중환,이수민,권오준,김보우,성영권,Park, Hyung-Ho,Kwon, Kwang-Ho,Koak, Byong-Hwa,Lee, Joong-Whan,Lee, Soo-Min,Kwon, Oh-Joon,Kim, Bo-Woo,Seong, Yeong-Gwon 한국재료학회 1992 한국재료학회지 Vol.2 No.1

        실릴콘 산화막을 $CHF_3/C_2F_6$ 혼합가스를 사용하여 반응성이온 건식식각을 행할 때 실리콘 표면에 형성되는 잔류막과 손상충의 열적 거동을 X-선 광전자 분광기(XPS)와 이차이온 질량 분석기 (SIMS)를 사용, 연구하였다. 저항가열을 통한 in-situ 분석에 의해 폴리머 잔류막은 $200^{\circ}C$부터 분해가 시작되고 $400^{\circ}C$ 이상의 가열에서는 graphite 형태의 탄소 결합체를 형성하며 분해됨을 알았다. 질소 분위기하의 급속 열처리를 통해 잔류막의 열분해는 $800^{\circ}C$ 이상에서 완료되고 손상층을 형성하는 침투 불순원소의 기판 외부로의 확산이 관찰되었다. Thermal behavior of residue and damaged layer formed by reactive ion etching (RIE) in $CHF_3/C_2F_6$ were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS) and secondary ion mass spec-trometry(SIMS) techniques. Decomposition of polymer residue film begins at $200^{\circ}C$ and above $400^{\circ}C$ carbon compound as graphite mainly forms by in-situ resistive heating. It reveals that thermal decomposition of residue can be completed by rapid thermal anneal treatment above $800^{\circ}C$ under nitrogen atmosphere and out-diffusion of carbon and fluorine of damaged layer is observed.

      • 開發途上國에 있어서의 多國籍企業에 관한 硏究

        朴炯昊 全南大學校企業經營硏究所 1974 産業經濟硏究 Vol.1 No.1

        The term “Multinational Coporation, ”a product of the 20th century, has been popularized in recent years, but that type of enterprise was already begun in the 1870s. In general, the developing countries want to develop their economy, but they are lacking in capital, technology, management skills, etc. On the other hand, the MC seeks for the maximization of profits with sufficient capital, advanced technology and management skills. Under the circumstances, the DCs and the MC can help each other for the mutual advantages. If so, the MC is bound to transfer its capital, technology, and management skills to the DCs and helps to make them develop the undeveloped economy. The MC engages in various international activities and operates plant in a number of countries with different political, economic, and cultural environments; it has a substantial financial commitment overseas and derives considerable profits from this business; and it has a worldwide perspective in marketing, investments, and other opportunies. It is natural that the investment effects of the MC should depend on the policies of host country and, in the end, upon all the negotiation abilities of both sides. Taking into consideration the investment motives and the nature of capital, the disadvantages of the MC on the DCs may be inevitable. Nevertheless, the host country should try to take measures in order to reduce those harms as far as possible. The first thing to be considered is to fortify its ability to absorb the foreign direct investment. And then, the MC ought to be advised to take self-restriction. In case this self-control is not effective, the host country can take the following restrictions; the determination of specific investment scope and definite investment ratios, management participation, the adoption of shrinking tariff system and “Calvo” clause, and so forth. Thirdly,, it is quite desirable that the host country makes an agreement, like GATT or IMF, with the investing country on a national basis. The agreement is related to the restriction of the MC activities which might hurt the economic and political sovereignty of the host country. In addition, we can consider the transnational international institution. But, in the near future, it seems to be difficult to expect its establishment. That is the reason why the world economy has not yet become a perfect economic community and each nation-state has not yet developed into a simple international nation institution. Those various restrictions might make the MC inactive temporarily and, in the long run, it will play the greater part in the world economy and, especially, in the DCs owing to its necessity and growth tendency. The MC will ultimately evolve into the “Transnational Enterprise” and, futhermore, the 21th century will be called “the century of the MC.”

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