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본 연구는 바람아래 할미섬 특별보호구역의 자연해안 복원 연구를 위하여 현재의 해빈의 높이, 면적, 해안 의 길이, 사구정상의 높이 등 정확한 지형의 현황을 분석하고 지형특성에 따른 사구·염생식물 분포를 분석하고자 하였다. 할미섬 지형의 최고높이는 17m이며 제일 낮은 높이는 평균 3m에서 5m로 섬 남단 만입에서 남동쪽 니질 조간대 지역이다. 연구지역내 총 소산식물은 17목 23과 40속 49종 3변종 8외래종이 생육하고 있으며 곰솔군락, 갈 참나무군락, 보리장나무군락, 아까시나무군락, 순비기나무군락 등 5개 목본군락과 띠군락, 갯그령군락, 갯잔디군락, 나문재군락, 왕잔디군락, 갯메꽃군락, 해홍나물군락, 천일사초군락, 갯쇠보리군락, 통보리사초군락 등 10개 염생·사구 식물군락이 분포하고 있으며 갯그령-띠군락, 띠-갯메꽃군락, 띠-갯그령군락, 띠-은백양나무군락 등 4개의 혼합군락이 분포하고 있다. 식물의 공간적 분포 특성은 곰솔(Pt1), 갯그령(Em2,3,4), 갯잔디(Zs5)를 제외한 식생군락의 대부분이 10m2에서 500m2의 작은 패치형태를 띄고 있으며 높이는 평균 4m에서 6m 사이, 해안선으로부터 거리는 100m에서 150m 사이에 분포하고 잇는 것으로 분석되었다.
Nanocyrstals are widely studied for their physical properties and utilized in biology, electronics, optics, and catalyst. However, most of nanocrystal synthesis and their uses are developed empirically with a limited mechanistic understanding. It is mainly because of their size and heterogeneity in structures and physical properties which cannot be easily accessible by conventional analytical methods. Here, we introduce direct observations of the growth and resulting 3D atomic structures of individual nanocrystals observed by using liquid phase transmission electron microscopy (LTEM). Unique mechanisms underlying colloidal growth of nanoparticles that are deviated from classical expectations will be discussed. In addition, our efforts to extend the dimension of our understanding to 4D will be introduced.
Objectives: To assess the relationship between baseline lipoprotein (a) [Lp (a)] levels and the development of subsequent major adverse cardiac event (MACE) in patient with coronary artery disease (CAD). Method: Patients were devided quiartile by baseline Lp (a) level. The relationship between levels of Lp(a) and major adverse cardiac event (MACE) in each group were evaluated. Results: Baseline total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and ApoA were no significant difference by Lp(a) quartile. The mean triglyceride (TG) of first quartile was higher than other quartle (p<0.01) and the mean ApoB of fifth quartile was higher than other quartile (p=0.02). MACE free survival of 3rd and 4th quartile group was lower than 2nd quartile group (p value were 0.04 and 0.03 respectively). Conclusions: Low Lp (a) was associated with high triglyceride (TG) level. High Lp(a) was associated with increased CV risk in patient with PCI.
Understanding details of atomic structures and changes of nanoparticles during growth, structure changes is very important since they determine physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles. However, due to their small size and heterogeneity, static and dynamic structure information of nanoparticles in their native solution phase cannot be easily accessible by conventional analytical methods. We observe the diffraction patterns from individual Pt nanoparticles as they rotate in the liquid cell, and we are able to align those images to obtain the 3D atomic structure of individual particles freely moving in liquid. We also perform time-resolved 3D structure reconstruction of a nanoparticle while the particle undergoes structural changes in solution. The time-resolved 3D density map shows details of spatial fluctuation of individual atoms during structural transition of a single nanoparticle.
The population increase in urban areas causes many problems One of them is the shortage of housing. The government has supplied many high-rise apartment houses to solve the lack of housing. It has many advantages that enhance the efficient landuse and supplies sufficient houses, but it has many disadvantages at the same time. It is necessary to regulate high-rise housing policies to protect the urban landscape. It, however, has brought damage to properties of land owners or developers. The study analyzed the correlation between the number of floors and capacity of the development after setting up constant conditions. The result showed that capacity of the development from 10th to 15th floors changed about 10%, and from 5th to 9th floors changed more than 10%. The analysis of the correlation between the number of floors and capacity of the development depends of H = -0.638 + 14.4C^2 (r = 0.963) In other words, the capacity of the development decreased about one-ninth when the number of floors decreased about one-third. Therefore, it was proven that urban landscape and the citizens' property right can be protected through the appropriate incentives. Differences can appear in the apartment built in the real site because that model used in the study was based on special conditions. Therefore, the case study in the real site and the advanced study through variable set-ups of the number of floors are required.
Growth management means specific regulatory policies aimed at influencing future growth so that it occurs in a more rational manner than would occur without any overall planning. Currently, thirteen U.S. states have adopted state growth management regulation (SGMR). The contemporary SGMR provides the statewide planning programs and goals that reduce negative externality and spillover effects and emphasize balanced sustainable development. The mediating role of SGMR is well matched with the explanatory framework of institutional analysis and development (IAD) in terms of solving social dilemmas in social contextual circumstances. This paper seeks to explain what factors account for the adoption of SGMR. By applying the IAD framework, the authors analyze the impact of political party ideology, community characteristics, and physical conditions. Through event history analysis, the authors found influencing important factors: political party ideology and citizen liberalism, real estate interest, and growth pressure.