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Busan was exposed to outsider’s views as it was opened to the outside world. Sakrurai Kunnoske(1894) didn’t stop viewing the city under colonization from the imperialistic perspective. He clearly discriminated the colonial city and its peripheries by defining them as civilized and barbarian, respectively, or specifically, healthy and sick or clean and dirt. Meanwhile, George Lynch(1903) predicted that Japan and Russia would struggle with each other in colonizing Joseon, resulting in the annexation of Joseon into Japan. For him, Busan was like a prism through which he could see the dynamics of the then global powers. At that time, thus, Busan was never free from outsiders’ biased views. It was Lee In Jik(1906) who made literary writings about colonial marine city, Busan for the first time in this country. He depicted Busan as a newly formed markets or a window open to the civilized world. This clearly suggests that he formed his own world view orienting outsiders, not insiders as he observed the Sino-Japanese and the Russo-Japanese Wars. Without insiders’ self-awareness of outsiders, Lee In Jik’s novel is devoid of viewing the city from the geopolitical perspective. The novel provides a panoramic view of the openness of Busan, sometimes depicting the city as a place where criminals hide themselves or a place that they cross through to escape. Choi Chan Sik(1912) associated Busan with cultural hybridization that became the focus of his novel. However, his novel shows little or no attention to the dualistic aspects or their unequal developments. Yeom Sang Seop(1922) looked substantially into the colonial marine city as he stood himself upon so-called the theory of imperial reorganization that emerged after the 1st World War. In his novel, the main character as an urban promenader tries to be not obsessed with the particulars of Busan while examining the substantial reality of the city. The promenade finds that the dualistic aspects of Busan were being unequally developed and that the colonial city as the central area was being hybridized with its peripheral areas by interacting with them. In the novel, the author suggests that Busan has a substantial or total quality as the miniature of colonized Joseon. As implied by spaces, characters’ facial expressions and a half-blooded woman of a restaurant that are described in the novel, the author sees the city as dark like the inside of a tomb. Ironically, it may be attributed to the fact that he came to hope for world and imperial reorganization after the 1st World War
Synecdoche is an organic reasoning of wholeness. It is a form of thinking that defines the idea of central vitality or the wholeness of circulatory order as the very principle of universe. With a metaphysical paradigm which is explained as correlations between microcosm and macrocosm or between individuality and wholeness, synecdoche is truly based on a principle that all forms of beings are connected among them in organic and continuous ways. Underlying poetics are ideas about comprehensive nature the process of life, which is developed in itself, and the continuous development of creativity. Here, no distinction is made between material and spirit. The very material of universe is not either spirit or material, but vitality that integrates both of them. In this sense, synecdoche is clearly distinct from reasoning of the modern West which is based on dichotomy between spirit and material. Poetry is an expression of universal life. The world of poetry consists of individual lives. Because the individuality of life is a synecdochical expression of universal life, the wholeness of life is naturally immanent in the individuality of life. This suggests that poet, poetry and universal life are connected on a continuum. The life nature of the poet and the universal life of universe are internally related into wholeness. Under such synecdochical association, poetry has its own internal continuity that allows it to move from individuality to universality and from partiality to wholeness, finally reaching the embodiment of the natural principle of universe. The movement starts from creating a microcosm. This means going beyond a chaotic experiential world and creating a new world of harmony and order. A piece of poem is in itself a reproduction of the harmony and order of universe. Synecdochical rhetoric does not criticize modernity as it is. From the aesthetic view, what was intended to be drawn out from negating modernity is not aesthetic modernity. In fact, the poetics of life has not developed any substantial scheme. But rather it has intended to endure the disorder and chaos of the modern times by using nature as a means. The poetic possibility of synecdoche is related with an alternative view of modernity. Synecdochical perceptions of nature and universe are now becoming an alternative to the metonymic view of world based on modern mechanism. This can be explained as eco-poetry, or the post-modern perspective of synedochical rhetoric.
19세기말 여러 나라 외국인의 여행기를 통하여 부산을 경유하는 다차원의 항로를 알 수 있다. 나가사키가 동아시아 해역의 거점항로라면 부산은 하나의 결절지에 해당한다. 청일전쟁을 거치면서 로컬 부산은 지역적이고 세계적인 공간으로 부상한다. 부산을 향하는 제국의 시선이 뜨겁다. 퍼시벌 노웰, 샤를 바라, 사쿠라이 군노스케, 헤세 바르텍, 이사벨라 비숍, 카르네프의 여행기는 조선과 부산에 대한 지정학적 관심을 대변한다. 일본인 전관거류지를 향한 이들의 시선은 일본도시를 상상한다. 나가사키와 같은 일본도시의 경험을 다시 확인할 수 있기 때문이다. 이들의 시선에서 여러 가지 이중성이 드러난다. 식민도시 부산과 자연경관, 일본인 거주지와 조선인 거주지, 부산과 주변부 동래 등은 비대칭적인 양상을 보인다. 문명화 담론과 오리엔탈리즘이 중층화된 형태로 작동한다. 도시와 경관을 접근하는 태도도 부감의 시점을 견지하거나 원근법적 인식을 활용한다. 이로써 보는 자와 보이는 자의 권력관계가 형성된다. 이 지점에서 인종적 위계담론이 기입된다. 여행의 시기와 여행자의 입장에 따라서 식민도시의 이중 공간을 바라보는 시선에 편차가 생기기도 한다. 헤세 바르텍과 카르네프 등은 일본인과 조선인, 일본인 거주지와 조선인 거주지를 명료하게 구분하는 한편 그 경계의 혼종 양상을 주목한다. 이중도시와 혼종화는 식민도시를 이해하는 데 필수적인 두 측면이다. 하지만 제국의 시선은 이항대립적 논리로 차이와 갈등을은폐하고 차단한다. 회화적 글쓰기를 통하여 풍경과 경관 그리고 생활양식을 개관함으로써 타자에 대한 지배와 소유를 강화한다. 다섯 사람의 여행기는 접촉지대 부산의 모습을 이해하는 데 도움이 된다. 전관거류지가 식민도시로 발전하는 양상이 구체적으로 서술되고 있다. 이들이 제국의 상상으로 서술의 편향을 보이거나 잘못된 인식지도를 그리고 있는 사실을 피할 방법은 없다. 번역과 문화교섭의 가능성이 비대칭적인 권력관계에 의하여 봉쇄되고 있다. 식민도시 부산에 내재한 일본적 근대가 유럽과 일본의 혼재로 이해될 수 있다면 그 외부 또한 새롭게 인식되어야 한다. 부산과 주변부 동래가 철저하게 다른 공간으로 그려지고 있는 사실을 알 수 있다. 이는 조선의 인식과 큰 편차를 지닌다. 그럼에도 식민도시 부산의 형성과 발전에 개입하는 제국의 시선을 다층적인 스케일로 이해하는 일이 중요하다. 로컬은 지역과 세계의 개입으로 팽창한다. 여러 여행기들을 통하여 식민도시 부산이 변화하는 과정의 구체를 이해할 수 있다. By the end of the 19th century, it was possible to find a multi-dimensional route to Busan through foreign tourists from various countries. If Nagasaki is the hub of East Asian sea, Busan is a nodal point. Through the Sino-Japanese War, local Busan becomes a regional and global space. The Imperial eyes toward Busan are hot. The travel writings of Percival Norwell, Charlevar, Gunoske Sakurai, Hesebartek, Isabella Bishop, and Carnev represent geopolitical interests in Korea and Busan. Their visions toward Japanese concession see as a Japanese city. Because they can confirm the experience of a Japanese city such as Nagasaki again. There are various dualities in their eyes. The colonial city of Busan and its natural landscape, Japanese residence and Korean residence, Busan and Dongrae of the periphery are asymmetrical. The civilization discourse and Orientalism work in a layered form. Attitudes toward city and landscape also stand at the point of time of the depreciation or utilize perspective recognition. This creates a power relationship between the viewer and the viewer. At this point, a racial hierarchy discourse is entered. Depending on the time of travel and the position of the traveler, The colonial city of Busan and its natural landscape, Japanese residence and Korean residence, Busan and Dongrae of the periphery are asymmetrical. The civilization discourse and Orientalism work in a layered form. Attitudes toward city and landscape also stand at the point of time of the depreciation or utilize perspective recognition. This creates a power relationship between the viewer and the viewer. At this point, a racial hierarchy discourse is entered. Depending on the time of the trip and the position of the traveler, there may be a deviation in the sight of the double space of the colonial city. Hesebartek and Carnev clearly distinguish Japanese, Korean, Japanese and Korean settlements, and note the hybrid pattern of the boundary. Dual cities and hybridization are two aspects that are essential to understanding colonial cities. However, the empire "s gaze conceals and blocks differences and conflicts with binary oppositional logic. Strengthen dominance and ownership of others by opening scenery, landscape and life style through painting writing. The travel writings of the five people help to understand the appearance of the contact zone Busan. The pattern of development of colonial settlement is described in detail. There is no way to avoid the fact that they are biased or misinterpreted in the imagination of the empire. This is because the possibility of translation and cultural bargaining is blocked by asymmetrical power relations. If the Japanese modernity inherent in the colonial city of Busan can be understood as a mixture of Europe and Japan, the outside must also be newly recognized. It can be seen that Busan and the surrounding area Dongrae are being drawn into a completely different
윤동주의 시는 미완으로 읽혀야 한다. 특히 디아스포라로서의 주체와 타자에 인식이라는 시각으로 접근할 필요가 있다. 이럴 때 그의 시작 처음과 끝에 놓여 있는 희생의 의미를 정확하게 읽을 수 있다. 또한 그의 시적 지평이 어떠한 지향으로 확장되고 있는가 살필 수 있다. 확실히 윤동주라는 이름에는 억울한 희생이라는 의미가 드리워져 있으며 이로써 저항적 민족주의가 호명되는 경향이 크다. 하지만 식민지와 제국 혹은 민족주의와 제국주의라는 이항대립 구도는 윤동주 이해의 전제조건이 아니다. 그는 시인으로서 주체를 형성해 가는 과정에서 희생된다. 따라서 그의 시적 과정을 세심하고 추적하는 일이 중요하다. 윤동주의 시를 따라 읽으면 디아스포라로서의 조건이 만드는 시적 지평을 이해할 수 있게 된다. 다시 말해서 고향으로 돌아갈 수 없다는 사실로 인하여 세계와 타자를 향하여 시적 지평을 열어갈 수밖에 역설적 조건을 만나게 되는 것이다. 이처럼 디아스포라의 조건은 주체와 타자에 대한 인식을 심화한다. 디아스포라의 위치는 주체의 정체성에 대한 갈등과 혼란을 야기하기도 하지만 주체의 동일성으로 환원되지 않는 인식의 확대를 이끈다. 스스로 이방인이라는 생각은 타자에 대하여 이해하고 배려하며 존재를 숙고하는 인간성을 형성한다. 우리는 그의 시를 통해 슬픔, 고난, 고통 등을 내용으로 하는 그의 경험 유형이나 고향과 세계를 향한 그의 의식에서 `디아스포라로서의 주체성`과 만나게 된다. 이러한 주체는 궁극적으로 타자의 고통을 공감하는 주체이다. 윤동주의 시를 미완으로 이해하는 것은 그의 시적 성취에 대한 평가와 무관하다. 이 보다 향수와 동심을 통하여 나르시시즘적인 주체, 혹은 위선적인 자기를 넘어서면서 자기를 배려함과 동시에 타자의 지평으로 나아가는 과정이 지닌 의의를 생각하자는 것이다. 이럴 때 그가 시사한 고통의 인식을 통한 주체와 타자의 연대라는 문제의식이 크게 부각된다. 또한 그가 열어가고자 한 고통과 사랑의 시학이 21세기의 디아스포라의 시대에 재평가되고 계승되고 발전되어야 할 과제임을 알 수 있게 되는 것이다. Yoon Dong-joo`s poems should be read as sort of uncompleted process. Especially, they need to be approached based on the recognition of the subject as diaspora and others. In doing so, we can exactly understand the meaning of sacrifice implied in the beginning and end of his writing of poems. And in doing so, we can find where and how his poetic horizon was oriented and expanded. Clearly, the name of Yoon Dong-joo implies a false sacrifice. Thus, the name is usually called to represent resistive nationalism. But the dichotomy, that is, confrontation between colony and empire, or between nationalism and imperialism can`t be a prerequisite for understanding Yoon Dong-joo. He was victimized while establishing himself, that is, his subjectivity as a poet. As we read his poems, we find he was in a paradox that he couldn`t avoid trying to overcome narcissism from the view of the expelled he didn`t want and expanding his poetic horizon toward the world and others just because he couldn`t be back home. Thus, he was in the condition of diaspora that allowed him to deeply perceive the subject and others. The position of disapora causes conflicts and confusions over the identity of the subject on one hand, but on the other hand, it leads cognitive expansion without converging into the subject itself. We find that Yoon Dong-joo came to have a human nature of his own that was more understandable and considerative of others and more reflective of their being only after thinking of himself as an alien. As we read poems by Yoon Dong-joo, we meet not only his experiences like sorrows, agonies and pains, but also his perceptions of the world and others from the view of subject as diaspora. This subject ultimately means a subject that sympathizes with others` pain.
식민지 시대와 해방 이후의 사회를 구분하는 가장 주된 준거는 민족(국민)-국가(nation-state)라 할 수 있다. 해방 공간(1945~1948)은 ‘국가부재’라는 상황에서 민족-국가 형성에 대한 가능성이 전면적으로 열리는 역사적 맥락을 갖는다. 이러한 역사적 단절의 의미를 고려하여 해방이후의 비평을 현대비평이라고 할 수 있다. 해방 이후 현대비평은 그 처음부터 민족-국가 이데올로기에 비평의 이데올로기가 종속되게 된다. 이러한 경향은 두 개의 민족-국가로 나누어지고 고착화되어 현대비평의 지체와 왜곡을 파생시킨다. 한국현대비평은 항상 국가(state)의 상태(state)에 대한 탐문과 분리될 수 없고 이러한 이유에서 ‘민족문학’이 현대 한국비평사의 가장 중요한 개념으로 자리 잡게 된다. 국가의 상태와 관련하여 민족문학의 비평적 주류화는 국가주의에 상응하여 현대 한국문학비평을 한정하는 요인이 되는데 이와 같은 비평적 문제틀은 그 발생론적인 차원에서 대부분 해방 이후 10년 동안 형성된다. 한국현대비평은 그 기원에서 민족-국가에 포박되었다. 민족의 이상과 국가의 이념에 종속된 것이다. 해방공간의 좌우 비평은 남북한이 각기 다른 체제의 국가를 형성함과 더불어 나누어진다. 국가의 탄생과 비평의 선택이 일치하고 있는 것이다. 한국의 현대 문학비평은 분단체제 혹은 두 개의 민족-국가에 대한 문제의식에서 벗어나지 못한다. 식민지에서 벗어나 민족-국가가 형성되면서 제국과 식민의 관계는 일국 내에서 국민과 비국민의 관계로 변전된다. 좌파 문인들이 추방되거나 배제되면서 민족-국가는 제국에 의해 추진되었던 1940년대의 ‘국민문학’을 새로운 역사적 문맥에서 부활시킨다. 그리고 한국전쟁은 반공주의 체제에 기반을 둔 국민문학의 이데올로기를 더욱 강화하는 방향으로 나아간다. 자연스럽게 ‘민족문학’은 사라지거나 침묵하고 ‘국민문학’ 중심의 흐름이 전면화되는 것이다. 한국현대비평은 그 기원에서 민족문학이라는 이상 형태를 내면화하면서 미학의 국가 종속이라는 문제를 발생시켰다. 그런데 해방공간의 비평은 현대비평의 원형이라 할 수 있는 이론적 거점들을 지니고 있다. (A)본질주의와 사회구성주의 (B)유기론과 유물론 (C)근대 초극과 근대 기획. 이들 가운데 한국 현대비평에서 전자들의 지향이 주류화되는 양상이 나타난다. 본질주의의 미학은 다른 영역에 대한 미적 지배 혹은 미적 기득권을 보장하는 정치적 논리를 내포하게 되고 유기론은 이론적 유연성을 상실하고 단의성 체계로 경화된다. 근대 초극론 또한 민족-국가의 구체적인 역사와 이반된 매우 추상적인 관념형태로 존속한다. 한국현대비평의 기원에서 제기된 비평적 논리들은 현대비평사에서 순수-참여론, 구조주의와 문학사회학, 민족문학론, 근대성론 등의 과정을 통해 지속적으로 반복되고 심화된다. 그 기원에서 국민-국가에 포위된 이론적 단순성이 다양하게 변주된 것이다. 그러나 이러한 비평적 다양성과 이론적 수준은 1950년대 민족-국가의 상태에 대한 다각적인 반성과 비판을 통해 얻어진다. 다시 말해서 4월 혁명은 민족-국가의 족쇄에서 현대 한국비평이 비록 완전한 상태는 아니나 상대적인 자율성을 획득하는 계기라 할 수 있다. 이러한 점에서 현대비평의 기원을 4월 이후로 보는 관점이 제기될 수도 있다. 비평의 다양성, 이론의 전개, 각기 다른 지향의 많은 비평가들의 해석 공동체 형성 등이 이뤄지는 것이다. 그 외형과 내용에서 비평의 현대성이 형성되었다 하겠다. 그럼에도 민족-국가와 비평이라는 관점에서 아무래도 현대 한국비평의 기원은 해방이라는 역사적 단층 위에 있다고 보아야 할 것이다. In Korean history, what clearly discriminated the colonial period and post-liberation was forming the nation-state. Some time after the liberation(1945~1948) was when no state existed, but historically, there was a full possibility of nation-state formation. If such discrimination as above is considered true, modem criticism in this country didn't start until the liberation. From its start after the liberation, Korean modem criticism became ideologically dependent on the very ideology of the nation-state. This relationship became more firmly established as this country was divided into twos, resultantly making Korean modem criticism less developed and distorted. Modem criticism is not separable from inquiring about the state of a state. In a similar vein, 'national literature' has been one of the most concepts in the history of Korean modem criticism. In this country, a mainstream of the criticism was based on nationalism. In other words, nationalism became the very factor on which the criticism of modem Korean literature was dependent. From a standpoint of embryology, such framework of criticism was formed for a decade since the liberation. In terms of origin, Korean modem criticism got locked in the concept of nature-state, depending itself on the ideal of the nation and the ideology of the state. Post-liberation criticism was divided into rightist and leftist ones when Korea was divided into two different political regimes, South and North Korea. In other words, Korean modem criticism's choice of its own way coincided with the foundation of the two Koreas. In Korea, modem literature criticism is not still beyond the awareness of South-North division, that is, the existence of two nations and two states. As Korea became a nation-state after the liberation, relationships between the empire and the colony was substituted by those between nation and non-nation in one state. Expelling or excluding literary leftists led this nation-state to form a new historical context of 'state-oriented literature that was originally sought in the 1940s of the imperialism. The Korean War made the ideology of state-oriented literature more strengthened based on anti-communism. Naturally, 'national literature' was disappeared or kept silent and 'state-oriented literature emerged itself as a mainstream. Ideally, Korean modem criticism internalized national literature, but actually it became what was aesthetically dependent on the state. Post-liberation criticism had some theoretical bases on which the archetype of modem criticism was formed. Out of them, today, (A) essentialism and social constructionism, (B) organology and materialism and (C) overcoming the modem and planning the modem are regarded as main basic theories of modem criticism. In nature, aesthetics has a political logic that ensures an aesthetic rule or vested rights over other fields. Organism is likely to be less theoretically flexible, but more simplified and hardened. Overcoming the modem is a very abstract concept that is seemingly far from the history of a nation-state. Arisen in relation to the origin of Korean modem criticism, critical logics have been continuously reiterated and deepened as they have made exchanges with the principle of purity-participation, constructionism, literal sociology, the theory of national literature and the theory of modernity all of which are found in the history of modern criticism. This means that Korean modern criticism has been theoretically diversified escaping from its theoretical simpleness based on the ideology of the nation-state. In fact, such diversity is an outcome of reflecting on and criticizing in many respects what the nation-state was like in the 1950s. The April revolution made Korean modern criticism free from its dependence on the nation-state relatively, though not completely. In this sense, some may say that Korean modern criticism started after the April incident. After the incident, a number of critics wh
The sea is an outcome of the modern times. It was discovered by modernity. Therefore, it is difficult to discuss sea culture or sea literature with the modern times and modernity excluded. For this reason, modern sea literature should be approached from cultural perspectives. In other words, it is necessary to explore lifestyle newly formed along with the sea and maritime cities, not that fromed from ancient times. Thus the purpose of this study is to research the sea literature of Busan, which opened itself earlier and developed into a maritime city, from cultural perspectives. As far as this researcher is concerned, sea literature is purely a modern style of literature. The sea we are now facing is an outcome of the modern times. It is what was discovered by the modern system of representation. Pre-modern and modern seas are different with each other in so-called imaginary geography. When the sea is accepted as a modern representation, sea literature becomes an outcome of modernity. The literature is based mainly on the formation and growth of the seamen class. It is critically defined as literature that reproduces lifestyles of seamen. The literature consists of sea poem and sea novel. The sea, ship and navigation are critical, essential motifs that comprise sea literature. Modern sea literature is advanced keeping pace with modernization. This becomes what should be studied from the view of regional culture. In Busan, modern sea literature began as the city was developed into a modern maritime city. Kim Sung Sik expressed maritime experiences as captain through sea poems. Chun Keum Sung wrote sea novels to describe his experiences in deep-ocean fishery. The sea literature of the city was a result from the city's development into a modern maritime city and emergence of the seamen class. Historically, the urban space of Busan was distorted two times through colonization and modernization. Busan corresponded to a colonial city. In Busan, sea literature began to be activated from late 1960s. Dependent urbanization formed new areas and styles and changed consciousness and practices. This led to the emergence of new classes. In Busan, sea literature began to be activated from late 1960s. Sea poems by Kim Sung Sik can be regarded a poetic adventure towards modern sea. He described lifestyles of seamen, separation between the modern world and hometown and the sea as an existential salvation from captain's view. Chun Keum Sung concentrated himself on describing lifestyles of seamen. He understood struggle with nature during deep-ocean fishery from views of seamen as group members. The sea literature of Busan was developed along with modernization in late 1960s and prospered in 1970s. But the literature has been staggered since 1980s. It is probably due to changes in people's needs brought by the development of capitalism in this nation. Sea culture and sea literature should be promoted through governmental politics because the new maritime age of the 21st century requires sea-friendly culture.
Previous studies about Oh Young Soo(1909-1979) mostly focused on the lyric characteristics and naturalism of his novels. Recently, there`s a tendency to read his writings from the viewpoint of ecological criticism. This suggests that the novelist is being researched in a new direction other than before. The purpose of this study is to reconsider Oh Young Soo`s literature. For the purpose, this researcher examined how the novelist started his career as a literary man and how his idea of literature was formed, especially from the viewpoint of genealogy. Underlying the novelist`s literature were so-called the Greater East Asia War(the Pacific War) and his own view of the world which was opposed to the foresaid violent image of the world. Anti-modernism, anti-urbanism, homeland, nature and life were the main themes of his literature. Ideologically, Oh Young Soo belonged to the genealogy of organicism that was pursued by Kim Dong Ri, Cho Yeon Hyeon and so on. But unlke them, Oh Young Soo practiced non-separation between literature and life by returning to the farm. This is because his literature became what was considered from the viewpoint of ecological criticism. Anti-modernism found in Oh Young Soo`s literature was to criticize modernity by means of the beauty of nature. In this sense, his literature might be criticized as an epigone of aesthetic modernity. But since he tried to embody his own agricultural view of the world, his literature can be reevaluated as having led ecologism. In association, much attention may be paid to the novelist`s inner sense of place suggested in his literal works. Contrast between homeland and city, place and space or experience and practice is an effective way to explain Oh Young Soo`s literature. His literature oriented a place that could arouse an inner sense of homeland or existence. In other words, his literature oriented and tried to maintain so-called the world of collective experience. Keeping in mind a certain permanent, mythical place he mentally experienced in the homeland, Oh Young Soo provided a way to another place that could be truly meaningful while enduring unfamiliarity and non-humanity he faced in the city. or Oh Young Soo, the power to create literal works was closely related with his own inner sense of places of insideness. On conclusion, his novels orient lyricism about the collective experience of place and stories that share such experience.
The purpose of this study is to methodologically approach some themes of Busan studies from cultural perspectives. In general, etymology contributes to creating myths about the origin. There has been often a tendency of relating Busan with Jeungsan and denying the fact that Busan was a colonial city of Japan. Most attempts to deny the fact through viewing the city spatially are based on so-called the theory of Dongrae origin. By claiming that Dongrae is the origin of Busan, the theory denies legacies of the colonial city, but makes firm national qualities of the city. But it is clear that the discourse has some ideological limitations. The theory of Waegwan origin is as much persuasive as that of Dongrae origin. It can escape from not only the assertion that Busan was a colonial city into which a foreign concession of Japan was developed, but also the theory of Dongrae origin in which nationalism is reflected. The theory of Waegwan origin can be also a basis on which the vision of Busan is re-established. Now it is necessary to comprehensively look into Busan that was developed from a colonial into modern city. In the past, it was internationally general that colonialism greatly influenced the spatial composition and urban system of a colony as a whole. Busan is the gate or node that connects between Japan and the continent. The colonial city of Busan was developed through several stages since its opening to the outside. The above mentioned foreign concession of Japan expanded in 1901 when Busan could have its area decently formed. In 1902, an urban plan of the city began to be earnestly implemented. The colonial city of Busan dramatically changed itself since the Busanbu system was implemented in 1914. In the 1930s, Busanjin industrial complex was formed around Seomyeon. In the 1940s, Dongrae was annexed to Busanbu. In 1937, a general urban plan of the city, whose goal year was up to 1965, was established for the first time. The entire frame of Busan when it was a colony is not so different from that of the city as it is. But the two is different in the location of downtown. This clearly means that the city was spatially distorted when it was a colony. In other words, Busan couldn't help being modernized under the Japanese colonialism. Under the Japanese colonial rule, Busan was spatially distorted and at the same time had modern systems settled in it, rapidly changing the life styles of people of the city. Today the region of Busan as a whole is best characterized by so-called duality which was also best characteristic of the city when it was a colony. Busan came to have lots of industrial complexes behind as it was industrialized. And the city became a multi-layer, complex city as it was metropolitanized. During its modernization, Busan rapidly grew as the starting point of so-called the Kyeongbu development axis. Under the national division system as the subordinate of the Cold War system, Busan played a roles as the advance base of Korea's export-oriented industry as a whole. This led to forming so-called the ideology of the nation's 2nd largest city. In the period of the East-West ideological confrontation, Korea was like an island. At that time, Busan was one of the main axes of Korean economy and, undoubtedly, maintained its position as Korea's second largest city. Changes of Busan were brought by some factors. As Korea moved to the post-capitalism, major industries of Busan including the labor-intensive footwear industry became stagnant. Increase in trade between Korea and China since the collapse of the Cold War system put an economically important role onto Incheon, not Busan. One of the chronic problems of Korea, that is, concentration into the national capital region is still bringing a continuous drain of human resources of Busan. Even under these circumstances, residents of Busan are still caught by the ideology of the 2nd largest city as above mentioned. Today most basic sentiments of the residents like feeling