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본고는 農隱 金汶株(1859~1935)의 삶과 문학에 대해 살펴보았다. 김문주는 구한말 제주문인으로, 무과에 합격하여 40대까지 여러 관직을 거쳤다. 하지만 시대가 어지러워지면서 관직을 버리고 은둔의 삶을 선택하였다. 그는 陶淵明을 처신의 기준으로 삼았다. 그의 교유관계는 화갑시에 차운한 인물을 중심으로 정리하였다. 교유관계의 이면에 浮海 安秉宅과의 밀접한 관계를 확인할 수 있었다. 이를 통해 간접적으로 일본에 대해 비판적이었던 그의 마음을 읽을 수 있었다. 이런 그의 인식은 勉庵 崔益鉉ㆍ忠武公 李舜臣등을 제재로 한 작품에서 보다 분명하게 표현되었다. 하지만 김문주는 많은 나이로 인해 실제 항일투쟁을 옮길 수 없었다. 김문주의 의식과 암담한 현실은 분명히 달랐기 때문이다. 실질적인 행동은 다음세대에서 이루어 졌다. 아들인 金明植ㆍ金瀅植, 손자인 金允煥 등은 여러 방식으로 항일의지를 실천했다. 하지만 일제는 이들을 철저히 탄압했고, 결국 좌절되고 말았다. 김문주는 이 지점에서 무력한 자아에 대해 비통한 감정을 토로하였다. 이것은 어쩌면 당대 지식인의 무력감을 상징적으로 보여주는 것이라고 할 수 있다. 제주풍광의 기술 역시 주목할 만한 사항이었다. 김문주는 기존에 있던 『瀛州十景』을 중심으로 재창작하였다. 하지만 이를 그대로 따른 것은 아니었다. 그는 예전의 영주십경을 기준으로 보다 자유롭게 제주풍광을 해석하였다. 그 중에서 「漢拏山」·「龍淵夜帆」 등에 대해서는 특별한 의미를 담고 창작하였다. 김문주의 이런 창작방식은 당시에 제주풍광에 대한 새로운 관점을 제시했다는 점에서 그 의미를 찾을 수 있을 것이다. This paper studied the life and works of Nong Eun Kim Mun-Joo (here after Kim). Kim went through several governmental posts after he passed the military service exam. However, as the time became troubled, he gave up his governmental post and decided to lead the life a recluse. Kim referred Doh Yeun-Myoung for making such decisions. His companionship was organized through the figures recited in poems. It was identified that Kim had a close relationship with Boohae Ahn Byung-Taek, which indicates his fighting spirit against Japan's colonial power. Such spirit was clearly described in the works that discussed Myun Ahm Choi Ik-Hyun, Admiral Yee Sun-Shin However, Kim could not act himself against Japan's power as he became already older. Kim's fighting spirit could not come along with those days in dark, hopeless situations. Real actions were made by his offspring. His two sons Myung-Shik and Hyung-Shik and his grandson Yun-Whan practiced in diverse ways the fighting spirit against Japan. However, Japan's colonial power persecuted them severely and Kim's sons and grandson could not help but giving the anti-Japan movement. Kim expressed his bitter emotional pains about his powerless self. This might represent symbolically the powerlessness of intellectuals at those days. It is also worthwhile to pay attention to his descriptions of Jeju Island's landscape. Kim recreated Jeju's landscape by focusing up Youngjushipgyung (The Ten Great Landscapes of Jeju). However, he did not follow simply the previous styes. He interpreted on his own styles with more freedom the landscapes of Jeju. Of particular, he created Halla Mt and Yongyeonyabum (also known as youngyeon pedestrian overpass) by giving special meanings to them. Kim creation styles with full of free spirit can be said meaningful in that they suggest new perspectives on Jeju's landscape at those days.
Jeju is quickly becoming a multicultural society. As a result, some problems that marriage-based immigrants are suffering from have increased. They are mainly caused by the lack of communication. Therefore, Korean education is essential to become an actual integrated society. This study shows the current situations of Korean Education in Jeju and six ways to solve present problems of it. First, there are not enough Korean classes in Jeju for the rising number of married immigrant. 28 Korean classes 22 classes for Korean language, 4 classes for understanding Korean society and 2 classes for Jeju dialect and 84 Home visiting classes of Korean and Korean culture are held. Those classes are supported by Department of Gender, Department of Justice and others. 77.2% of them are, however, basic Korean courses so intermediate Korean courses are needed to improve communication skills. Second, only about 500 married immigrants -23.1%, out of 2,158 marriage based families are taking Korean classes. To overcome communication problems, the main source of social conflict of married immigrants, we need to provide more systematic education and more educational opportunities. It is even more important to improve Korean education because it could affect their children`s education. Third, most of marriage-based families live in rural or suburban areas. Some classes at multicultural community facilities are needed to be held in those areas to give them actual help. Fourth, Jeju dialect education and new Korean textbooks including Jeju dialect are needed for better communications at home. Five, many conflicts are caused by misunderstanding of other culture as well as language. That is why we need multicultural educations for marriage-based families and their neighbors. Six, it is important to give Korean teachers refresher training and better treatment to hold qualified Korean classes.
In <Nakcheon-deungun>, many aspects were described realistically and concretely, exaggeratedly, such as finding hero in daily life, utilizing document at money transactions, reading Jobo(朝報, official gazette) to get central government news, realities in the processes of grading and deciding successful candidate in state examination, pregnant women, everyday life in exile and others. The book also gave attentions to the real state of prostitute rather than gisaeng. Main material of this book is the pure and romantic love between hero and heroine. Such characteristics can be understood in following several meanings. At first, the individual, sunk in Confucian ideologies such as loyalty, filial piety and chastity, gave a sign to find self in daily life and change into personality ego. Second, a critical mind to distinguish prostitutes and gisaengs was suggested. Third, it was cleary expressed that men`s sexual appetite and violence, in place of Confucian virtu, suppressed the femininity of prostitutes. Forth, a pure and romantic love was made between ``a woman who wanted not to use her love as a sexual means and desired to maintain lasting and emotional ties`` and ``a man who separated the love and sexuality of prostitute and regarded respect and consideration as the key of love``. It shows well that the love was based drastically on the emotional concern and tie of two persons not on the social and outside standards.
This study has been conducted on the basis of awareness that images of a native place in Baeksuk`s poems resulted from the archetypal imagination of ``paradise motif``. The contents are as follows. First, the native place in Baeksuk`s poems is a utopia which was created by colligating the social imagination originated in the reality of loss of sovereignty as well as the archetypal imagination resulted from the desire for transcending reality. Secondly, the paradise motif in Baeksuk`s poems can be considered in two aspects of ``divided reality`` and ``organic space of harmony and integration``. By considering the two aspects, the intention of the poet, who recomposed an organically harmonious utopia space, can be understood in depth. The utopia that Baeksuk tried to seek through the native place images of the paradise motif is his consolation and tribute to the troubled people of his generation.
Parody works are generally started from imitation impulse for original text, but the fetter of imitation sometimes makes a limitation for raising poet`s internal awareness to the surface. On the other hand, the problem of ``depth`` showing characteristic of parody, surface, is sometimes used for disparaging poetic value by acting as a flaw or difficulty of parody. This research intends to consider careful attitude to discuss mutual effect relationship and possibility to create poems deriving from it intensively by getting out of the fragmentary attitude to divide the boundary if it`s plagiarism of text or not. First, it examined external appearance of stimulation, given to poet, and the aspect of parody adopted as its method. It treats even the level of actual experience by expanding the range of similarity which has been discussed. Second, it examined the aspect that poet confesses his abyss discovering leisure from the suppression of parody through the parody. It focused on contradictory characteristics of parody, that inner side is hidden to appear inner side, external side is appeared and secret is kept in abyss. Meta text called by text must receive qualification of original text as it is, so the possibility of parody can be enhanced to the prospect of creation when others promote another meta text and its circulation is continued. To achieve it, first, the discussion about the original text of parody must be done more minutely. This research must be considered by examining theoretical level again and applying the experimental possibility to even recent work. Second, the origin must be examined by focusing on the second parody of parody work or his parody works. The experimental discussion must be continued by widening the range of application to even recent texts. For this research, it`s regretable to just examine new works experimentally rather than clear distinction and confirm the possibility of parody. This research is significant to parody stopping at superficial discussion and plagiarism discussion expand the prospect of creation and treat the subject of discussion experimentally. In the future, this research should be continued and expanded for the creation of poem.
Kim Chun-su(1922-2004) was as ‘flower poet' to the public and widely popular among writers. I got to him was a young man, served as region Masan, his the his place that the literary was the soil. This paper Explored the Kim Chun-Su in the early days of the massacre, especially the door centered on the activities of the filters in Masan. Does it mean to get a goal, I divided into numbers, such as his marriage, Romanticcists(낭만파), coterie activity, Masan branch of literature association, coterie magazine, Camel(낙타), support of region literary circles, creative leading, initial writing activity, literary practice. The first, The relation of his and Masan led to marriage Myung Suk-kyung in 1944 and a series of one escape wife`s home in colonial time, Romanticcists coterie activity shortly after Korea`s independence. In particular, Kim Chun-su has had residing in Tongyeong, Masan area in the wake of a coterie activity, romantic writers have gained excessive bridge and minutes. In that sense, today`s selling romance poet Kim Chun-Su created Romanticcists coterie nourishing is said to have played a big part as shown. The second, Korea War in the early days, Masan branch of literature association led Masan`s literary circles, and certainly the publication of their book, and the drivers who took part in the activities of the special literature activities unfold. He was a poet, a regional literature centered on the activation of Kim Chun-su also had a profound impact. At that time the department published a total of matthew mountain moon Camel coterie are said to function as a focal point of the paragraph area to evacuate. The third, Kim Chun-su 13 years ago stay in Masan on the activities of several juniors scribes a lot throughout. Above all, support for regional literary efforts in the creation of a map-wannabe. In particular, he is working as a literary coterie of advisers, many rave reviews, youth solidarity to strengthen the competence and dedication of the door gifts. In that respect he gave them hope and courage of young writers in the region was also the target of an exemplary life. The fourth, Kim Chun-su has lived in Masan and personal authoring activities with regard to issues of concern and love for the community. He came up with the creative city, open house, four books and several books published the work. Also showed a practical stance on regional issues in Masan. Of the work relating to the noble act on March 15th. In the end zones beloved based on his literary practice is contributing significantly to the development of literary and Masan. Kim Chun-Su, after the poet`s death was published, early home straight out of the literary works of many into it. I look forward to the early works of art excavated and will work for starters will be detailed in the analysis of these works will lead. In addition, the investigation into his statements, as usual and still at a standstill. It is necessary to have an interest about the pace of the at the level of regional literary Tongyeong, Masan, Daegu, Seoul, leading literary practice. Based on this, a comprehensive study on his life and literature will follow.
King Dong-ri aimed for a world that a human being is confluent with boundless nature, which is labeled as a philosophy of zen by him. It worked on the evidence of his national consciousness because he thought that a philosophy of zen was generated in south Korea and it was embodied as a shaman called moodang in Korean, and also hwarang (the folk mind-cultivating group for adolescents in Silla) inherited moodang`s role. This is just a spirit of Silla. That is why we can see moodang or hwarang in Kim`s novels. Many a work including A Shaman`s Story showing the distance between human and nature need to be understood on the philosophy. Kim thought that various materials like reference, proof, verbal and accidental evidence, and lineage should be used to restore a philosophy of zen. Many of his novels written by folklore are the fruit of his methodology to approach a philosophy of zen.
초감제의 베포도업침과 천지왕본풀이에는 영웅의 일반적인 모습과 함께 고대적 영웅의 모습까지도 아직 보존하고 있다. 그런데 초감제 신화는 여기에 더하여 영웅의 이중탄생의 모습을 분명히 제시하고 있다. 대별왕 소별왕 형제는 하늘 옥황으로 아버지를 찾아가 증거물을 제시하고 아들임을 인정받는다. 그리고는 아버지 무릎에 앉아서 똥오줌을 싸면서 흥애흥애 하고 어린애 소리를 내는 것과 큰어머니 저고리 한쪽 팔로 들어가서 다른 쪽 팔로 나온다. 이러한 행동의 의미는 무엇인가? 두 가지가 연관된다. 전자는 아기 되기이고 후자는 어머니에게 다시 들어갔다 나오기 또는 자궁으로 되돌아가기(return to the womb)를 상징한다. 이는 바로 다시 태어나기 즉 재생의 이미지이며 通過儀禮 중 入社式(initiation)의 상징이다. 영웅은 보통사람을 넘어서는 또 한 번의 탄생을 거쳐서 태어나는 것이다. 대별왕 소별왕에게는 왜 이런 재탄생이 필요한 것인가? 해 둘 달 둘로 인해 지상의 인간들이 겪는 고통을 해결하거나 수명장자의 악행을 응징하여 인간 세상을 편안하게 하기 위한 능력을 얻기 위함이다. 이들은 지상적 존재로 지상의 어머니에게서 지상적 문제의식을 물려받았으나 이를 해결하기 위한 힘은 천상의 아버지의 능력으로 거듭나야 가능하다. 즉 궁극적인 해결은 지상적 문제의식과 보편적 초월적 원리를 가지고 있는 지상에 뿌리를 둔 존재이다. 지상적 문제의식은 地母에서 발단하고 초월적 원리는 天父의 것으로 인식된다. 이 두 요소를 함께 갖춘 존재여야 문제를 해결할 수 있다는 사고를 신화는 보여준다. 영웅이란 자신이 이러한 존재임을 자각한 사람이다. 이 자각은 어린이가 아니라 어느 정도 이상 성숙한 사람에게 가능한 것이다. 태어나서 자라고 살면서 자신의 문제 또는 자신이 속한 공동체의 문제를 알게 되고, 문제를 해결할 사람이나 수단을 찾다가, 그 사람이 바로 자신임을 자각하는 순간, 과거의 어린 자기를 버리고 새로운 사람으로 다시 태어나는 것이다. 자신의 개인성을 떠나 공동체 보편의 질서를 세우는 인물을 그 공동체는 절실하게 필요로 한다. 자각은 개인적이어서 스스로 알게 되지만, 사회는 그런 인물을 제도적으로 만들고자 한다. 그것이 입사의례이다. 입문자가 갖게 되는 앎이란 바로 이러한 문제들을 다룰 수 있는 보다 높은 차원의 지성이다. 입사 제의가 구체적으로 실현되는 사회에서는 이러한 지식, 지성은 성스러운 것이다. 이러한 존재의 탄생을 되풀이하여 구송함으로써 지상의 문제를 해결하였던 원형적인 모습을 상기한다. 지상과 다른 초월적 존재를 경험하여 지상의 문제를 해결할 수 있다. 사회는 지성과 통찰을 통하여 구체적 문제의 다기함을 넘어서는 지혜를 가진 자를 요구하는 것이다. 입사의례를 통과하여 지상에 새로운 질서를 가져오는 신화적 주인공은 흔히 건국신화로 모습을 보인다. 주몽이나 혁거세, 수로왕 등이 알로 태어나고 태어나자마자 성숙해 있는 것은 바로 이들의 탄생이 문자적 육체적 탄생이 아니라 입사의례를 통과하여 새로 태어난 정신적 존재로서의 탄생임을 보여준다. 이들은 사회에 새로운 질서를 가져온다. TaeByulWang·SoByulWang in Jeju Island``s shaman epic, 「Baepo-doupchim」 and 「Chonjiwang Bonpuri」, have an heroic behavior of the ancient times. In addition to this, they show the appearance of rebirth; (1) After being accepted as sons, the brothers sat on the knees of their father and took shit and leak, wauling, as babies do, (2) They went into one arm of the aunt``s coat and out of the other arm. According to M. Eliade and Sir Fraser, the former is ``to be a baby`` and the latter is ``returning to the womb``. These are the images of the rebirth and a symbol of initiation. Heroes are to be born by twofold birth, dissimilarly from ordinary person. And why did they need this process? It is because they need the power to get rid of the sufferings the humans undergo under the heat of the two suns and the exploitaion from Sumyong Jangja, a man of rich and power, in this Jeju myth. The Brothers were born in this earthly world and had got the critical mind to solve the earthly problems, human sufferings from nature and social discord. And in order to solve the problems they need the ability authorized by celestial father, the transcendental principle. They are earthly existence with the problems related the earthly mother, but they realize the transcendental principle of heavenly father to solve the problems. A hero is the person who realized it in person. On that moment of realization he throw out what he was and is to be born anew. This process is made up in the ``initiation`` in many societies. Similar image of rebirth is an egg in many Korean nation-establishing myths. ChuMong of Koguryo, HyukKeoSe and TalHae of Shilla were born as eggs and on hatching they arrived at grown-up. This tells us that their birth is not bodily but symbolic, that is of the initiation. They lead people into the new order of the new society.
본고는 루마니아에서 한국어를 공부하고 있는 학생들의 한국어 능력 향상을 위한 방안의 하나로 쓰기교육을 활용한 사례에 대해 논의한 것이다. 이를 위해 수업에 참가하는 2학년과 3학년 학생들의 작문에서 분석되는 오류들을 유형별로 분류하고 그 비중을 파악해 보았다. 오류는 ``조사 사용의 오류``, ``용언 활용의 오류``, ``어휘 선택의 오류``, ``기타(문장 성분의 순서·시제 등)의 오류``로 세분화하여 구체적으로 살펴보았다. 수업과정에 각 오류를 개선하기 위한 피드백을 구체적으로 제공하면서 오류 비중의 변화를 분석하였다. 1학기 동안 수업에 참가한 2학년 학생들보다는 3학기 동안 수업에 참가해 온 3학년 학생들에게서 나타나는 오류의 비중 변화가 눈에 띄었으며, 그 중에 ``조사 사용의 오류``가 확연히 개선되고 있음을 확인할 수 있었다. 반면에 오류의 비중이 상대적으로 높아지고 있는 ``용언 활용의 오류``와 ``어휘 선택의 오류``에 대해서는 작문 내용의 질적인 변화, 즉 좀 더 다양한 내용을 요구하는 주제에 맞는 작문을 작성하는 과정에서 나타나는 결과로 보았다. 전반적으로 쓰기수업이 학생들의 한국어 능력을 향상시키는 데에 긍정적인 역할을 하고 있다는 평가를 내릴 수 있었다.