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인터넷 서비스가 차별화 되어야 한다는 논의는 인터넷이 본격적으로 상용화된 1990넌대 중반부터 꾸준하게 제기되어 왔다. Tragedy of commons 라고 불리는 인터넷 혼잡현상은 지속적인 기술발전으로 인해서 상당부분 해결되었으나, 최근 들어서는, Web 2.0의 등장을 통해 동영상 파일이 차지하는 비중이 늘어나면서 P2P를 통한 파일교환이 전체 인터넷 트래픽의 상당 부분을 차지하면서, 또한 실시간 미디어, VoIP 등의 인터넷 응용 프로그램 등에서 전송상의 지연을 포함한 QoS 보장을 요구하게 되면서, 또한 통신사업자의 망중립성에 관한 논의가 진행되면서, 인터넷 서비스를 차별화하고, 통제하려는 연구의 중요성이 증대되고 있다. 본 연구는 인터넷 서비스를 차별화하기 위한 수단으로 기존에 제시되어온 자격과 우선순위라는 2개의 차원에서 그리고 가격제도로서 종가제와 종량제의 차원에서 배경을 검토해본 다음, 우선 대기열 이론과 혼잡성 제어 이론을 통해서 차별화된 서비스가 전체 시스템에 어떤 구체적으로 효익을 가져오는 지를 검토하며, 우선순위와 사용시간에 따라 차별화되는 종량제가 현실에서 발견되지 않는 이유에 대한 이론적인 근거를 제시하고, 종량제를 채택했을 경우에 발생하는 문제점과 종량제 사용에서 발생하는 한계들을 논의하면서, 현실적으로 종량제와 차별가격을 도입할 때 발생할 수 있는 문제점들을 밝혀본다.
The experimental model of arc sensor in $CO_2$ arc welding has been individually developed according to welding condition and welding procedure. Therefore, the development of new arc sensor having the features of all conventional arc sensor is important in point of its application to various welding environment. In this study, the arc sensor experimental models comprised of a regression model and noise term were formulated using conventional arc sensing algorithm such as current area difference, current integration difference and weaving end current difference method, and their features were observed. The new regression arc sensor model was suggested using multiple linear regression analysis using current variables as independent variables of regression analysis. The artificial neural network model was also suggested where current variables and offset distance was used input/out variables of input/output node.
For the facilitation of B2B Electronic Commerce, standardization of electronic message, electronic catalog, payment and settlement, and components and goods are said to be essential. This paper deals with the standardization of electronic message. Internationally, since late 1980s, UN/EDIFACT has developed 55 specifications through the standardization of EDI electronic message. In Korea, 237 EDI-based standard electronic messages (37 in trade, 37 in sea transport, 31 in exchange finance, etc.) were developed and used by businesses. Though electronic commerce has increased with the development of the Internet since 1997, the major obstacle for the widespread use of electronic commerce was the problem of interoperability. With the focus on resolving the problem of interoperability, UN/CEFACT and OASIS jointly launched the 18-month XML and Internet based ebXML project and completed the project with success. The ebXML project will be continued jointly by UN/CEFACT and OASIS with an appropriate division of work for further development. In Korea, Korea Institute for Electronic Commerce, as a competent organization to standardize electronic message and ebXML in Korea, has participated in the ebXML Standardization meeting to reflect Korean stance, has launched ebXML standardization activities in Korea, and built the Korea national ebXML central registry and repository. standardization of electronic message, electronic commerce, UN/EDIFACT, UN/CEFACT, ebXML
本文是將在東洋哲學方面上留在高大的業績的儒家思想, 從敎育与哲學角度來接近而硏究的. 尤其是, 對当代最佳的倫理學者及敎育者“孔子”, 從“道德”的觀点來分析他的敎育方法論的學說. 孔子他是最着重硏究“道德敎育”, 而且他是爲反主知主義立場代表的實踐倫理學者. 当時他說的“有敎无類”的敎育哲學說服了許多人, 進而影響給新興地主的貴族階級了. 他所追求的道德敎育的最理想重新規定了被叫“君子儒”的人間像. 這意味着他追求的理想不是已存的君子的“士”, 指的是具備道德精神的“儒”. 而且所有的人都經過道德敎育能够成爲“君子儒”, 這里最關鍵在于敎育方法論. 這些過程中眞正的敎育不是單方面的敎育, 而是敎育者与被敎育者之間需要双方面的敎育. 這意味着, 在敎育過程中讓被敎育者自覺, 積极探索而參加. 進而, 通過敎育者与被敎育者之間的双方面的敎育方法可以引起對道德的關心, 可以期待倫理行爲的提高. This essay studies on Confucianism from the view point of educational and philosophical aspects. Especially this focuses on Confucius', who commanded universal admiration as the best ethicist and pedagogist, from the analysis on the view of 'moral' and to his general theories of educational methodology. Confucius valued moral education above any other departments of education and he is also the practical ethicist standing on anti-intellectualistic. His educational philosophy, equalitarian view on education, had a great effect on current people, particularly a newly-rising-landed-class, who did not do but war. Confucius has a intense inspirations for 儒 as a man of character who perfectly possesses definite morality not as a popular name of existing ruling class. Everyone can be a man of honor, 儒, thorough a ethic education. As a result, the methodology is the urgent thing for Confucius, that is, a process of being influenced of the growing conscious not a one-way-demand for knowledge. This brings voluntary perception and active participation of leaners into relief. It is also wants to cause interest on ethics and moral actions through mutual methodology of education between teachers and learners. 본 논문은 동양철학에 있어서 가장 큰 지축의 궤적을 남겼던 유교사상을 교육․철학적 측면으로부터 접근 연구한 것이다. 특히 당대 최고의 윤리학자이며 교육자로서 萬歲師表라 칭송되던 공자를 ‘도덕’에 대한 관점의 분석으로부터 시작하여 그의 교육 방법론에 대한 전반적인 학설들을 연구한 것이다. 공자는 그 어떤 교육분야보다도 ‘도덕교육’에 가장 큰 무게를 실어 주었던 인물이었으며, 反主知主義입장을 대표로 하는 실천 윤리학자였다. 또한 그가 “가르침은 있으되 (인간에게) 차등은 없다(有敎無類)”라고 말한 그의 교육철학은 당시의 사람들에게 상당한 설득력을 가져다주었고, 특히 도덕교육에 대한 평등관과 보편적인 시각은 폭력을 일삼는 신흥지주의 귀족계급에게 적지 않은 영향력을 행사하기에 이른다. 나아가 공자는 기존의 ‘선비’에 대하여 일침을 가하면서 그가 추구하는 도덕교육의 최고 이상향으로 새로이 ‘君子儒’라는 인간상을 설정한다. 그가 요구한 교육적 이상은 기존 통치계급의 통칭으로 불리웠던 ‘군자’의 선비[士]가 아니라, 일정한 도덕정신을 온전하게 갖춘 인격자로서의 ‘선비’[儒]를 갈망한 것이다. 또한 모든 인간은 도덕교육을 통하여 군자유가 될 수 있다고 생각한 그는 무엇보다도 교육의 방법론에 관건이 있다고 생각하였다. 따라서 공자는 피교육자에게 일방통행 방식의 도덕 지식의 습득을 요구하는 것이 아니라, 교육자로부터 피교육자에게 전달되는 깨달음[覺]의 感化 과정이 필요하다고 이해하였다. 이것은 피교육자에게 자발적으로 자각하고 능동적으로 탐색하는 참여 자세를 부각시킨 것이라 할 수 있으며, 또한 교육자와 피교육자의 쌍방통행 교육방법론을 통하여 도덕에 대한 관심유발과 윤리적 행위의 고취를 기대한 것이라 파악된다.
This article deals with the Cape Town Convention and Aircraft Protocol. The introduction shows the current status of the Cape Town Convention and Aircraft Protocol around the world, and defines the Korean translation of “international interests”which is used in the Convention and Protocol. Part II introduces UNIDROIT, which drafted the Cape Town Convention and Aircraft Protocol, and reviews the background, history and characteristics of the Cape Town Convention and Aircraft Protocol. Furthermore, it shows expected benefits that Korea could get if Korea would join the Cape Town Convention and Aircraft Protocol. Typical benefits are discounts of premium rates for aircraft mortgage loans and simple procedures for the international transfer of aircraft mortgages. Part III investigates the registration on the International Registry under the Cape Town Convention and Aircraft Protocol. It also analyzes the relationship between the filing on the domestic aircraft registry and the registration on the International Registry. The object that falls in the scope of application of the Cape Town Convention and Aircraft Protocol may be registered on the International Registry. Therefore it examines the scope of application of the Convention and Protocol, first in terms of the parties of the registration and secondly, in terms of the object of the registration. Moreover, it reviews the operation of the International Registry, the effectiveness of the registration on the International Registry, registration fees, discharge of registration, and duration of registration. Part IV explains important declarations including the declarations that the OECD requires for the Cape Town Convention discount. For the Cape Town Convention discount, a contracting state is required to declare that any remedy available to the creditor under the Convention may be exercised without leave of court (Article 54(2) of the Convention), or to declare that a creditor who adduces evidence of default by the debtor, pending final determination of its claim, may obtain from a court speedy relief (Article 13 of the Convention). In addition, a contracting state is required to declare that upon the occurrence of an insolvency-related event, the insolvency administrator or debtor shall give possession of the aircraft to the creditor no later than 60 days (Article XI Alternative A of the Protocol) and the creditor may be entitled to exercise a de-registration and export request authorization (Article XIII of the Protocol). In conclusion, if Korea would join the Cape Town Convention and Aircraft Protocol, Korean airlines could reduce financing costs for leasing or purchasing aircraft. Korean airlines usually fulfil obligations very well and there are few cases of default or bankruptcy. Thus, there would be more plus than minus if Korea would join the Cape Town Convention and Aircraft Protocol.
Top two countries with the most developed financial system in the EU are Germany and the United Kingdom. Both countries are similar in terms of the universal banking system, but are different in detail. In Germany, the Banking Act does apparently authorize a pure universal bank model, thereby allowing many commercial banks to conduct securities businesses directly under their roofs. German banks are allowed to conduct broad scopes of financial activities including commercial banking and investment banking and so forth. The Germany banking system contributed to the enactment of 'the EC Credit Institutions Directive of 2000' (hereinafter 'the Directive 2000'). Due to a current global financial crisis caused by the bankruptcy of the Lehman Brothers in 2008, the U.S. Congress swiftly enacted 'the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act' (hereinafter 'the Dodd-Frank Act') which has been effective since July of 2010. The Dodd-Frank Act includes the Volker Rule which prohibits commercial banks from conducting securities activities by their own accounts and from investing PEFs and hedge funds. This event make us reconsider the EU banking system itself in order to determine that the EU will also need to reform its system based on either the Volker Rule or the Dodd-Frank Act. The commercial banking department of a pure universal bank may be easily subject to contagion from serious risks of an investment banking department such as a subprime crisis. If all the EU countries adopted the Directive 2000 based on the German banking system, they would be severely impaired by the sub-prime crisis. However, this is not the case because the U.K. has established its own universal banking model, so called a subsidiary model, rather than faithfully following to the Directive 2000. This paper overviews the current U.K. model and analyzes deeply reasons why the U.K. has developed its own universal banking model different from other EU countries. Old Acts and practices are also considered. Part II generally introduces the universal bank model of the Directive 2000 in order to emphasize the unique characters of a subsidiary model in the U.K. Part Ⅲ deals with the overall U.K. universal banking model, views the background of a Big Bang in 1987, and analyzes the permissible securities activities of a subsidiary corporation in a financial group. Part Ⅳ refers to the conflict of interest problems in a financial group when conducting both commercial banking and investment banking activities and searches any tools for solving those problems in the context of either current laws or self regulations. Finally, part Ⅴ is a conclusion of this paper.
This study explored whether labor union activities affect employees' satisfaction in the company. And it examined the mediating effect of organizational fairness on this relationship. In other words, the role of labor union activities should be focused on the organization's fair environment. For this purpose, this study attempted to verify hypotheses on the basis of organizational fairness mediated between the perceived labor union activities of employees, job satisfaction and wage satisfaction through structural equation modeling. The research data were collected by structured questionnaires and the subjects were limited to the financial company. The research results are as follows. First, perceived union activities did not have a direct effect on job satisfaction and wage satisfaction. This suggests that a re-illumination of the role of labor unions is required. Second, perceived union activities have a positive effect on organizational fairness. This suggests that the role of labor union activities need to be put into creating a fair environment within the organization. Third, organizational fairness had a positive effect on job satisfaction and wage satisfaction. This suggests the importance of creating a fair working environment within the organization. As a result, perceived labor union activity is summarized as having an effect on job satisfaction and wage satisfaction of employees through mediation of organizational fairness. And it suggests that the labor union needs to focus on creating a fairness working environment in the organization above all in order to attract employees' satisfaction. 본 연구는 기업 내 노동조합 활동이 조직유효성 즉, 종업원들의 직무만족과 임금만족에 영향을 미치는지 확인하고 이 관계에 있어서 조직공정성의 매개효과를 살펴보는 것으로 노동조합의 역할을 조직의 공정한 환경조성에 중점을 두어야함을 주장한다. 이를 위해 종업원들이 인식하는 노동조합 활동과 직무만족 및 임금만족의 관계에 매개한 조직공정성을 가정하여 구조방정식모형을 통해 검증하고자 하였다. 연구데이터는 구조화된 설문을 바탕으로 수집되었으며 그 대상은 노동조합이 존재하는 금융업 종사자로 한정하여 진행하였다. 연구결과, 첫째, 노동조합 활동은 종업원들의 직무만족과 임금만족에 직접적인 영향을 미치지는 않는 것으로 나타났다. 이는 조직유효성 제고를 위한 노동조합의 역할 관계에 대한 재조명이 요구됨을 시사한다. 둘째, 노동조합 활동은 지각된 조직공정성에 긍정적인 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 이는 노동조합 활동이 조직 내 공정한 환경조성에 긍정적인 영향을 영향을 미치고 있음을 시사한다. 셋째, 지각된 조직공정성은 종업원들의 직무만족과 임금만족에 긍정적인 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 이러한 결과는 조직 내 공정한 근무환경 조성이 조직유효성을 증대시킴을 시사한다. 결국 본 연구의 결과를 요약하면, 노동조합 활동이 직무만족과 임금만족과 같은 조직유효성에 긍정적인 영향을 주기 위해서는 지각된 조직공정성이 매개해야만 한다는 것이다.
The purpose of this study was to prepare some useful data for the improvement of weightlift performance ability and the prevention of injury by analyzing the biomechanic in snatch of weightlifter. Biomechanic variables were analyzed with the aid of the visual materials with a high speed video camera, such as the displacement of barbell, the time during the motion and moment of the snatch motion. The analysis of EMG data by the EMG system revealed the action potential of muscles. The subjects for the research were 8 in male and female Korean national team weightlifter ; 4 of them male, 4 of female in both sexes. The anlalytic results of the mechanism of the snatch motion were as follows: 1. The vertical displacement of barbell in the snatch, both male, female weightlifter group had the highest vertical displacement of barbell in the 4th step. 2. The vertical displacement of barbell in the weightlifting, the more time of 4th step got short, the more maximum extension effect of body segment large. It was the main reason to increase the added rising height of barbell. 3. The time during the motion in the weightlifting, it was efficient to use possible the shorter time. 4. The moment was loaded in elector spinae(L5, S1) joint, there was showed a rapid increase of extension moment in the 2nd step. 5. In the EMG analysis, snatch in male weightlifter, commonly was very higher used in order of vastus lateralis muscle(1st step), biceps femoris muscle(2nd step), trapezius muscle(4th step), and elector spinae(2nd step).