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Multisystem organ failure resulting from gram negative bacterial sepsis is associated with high morbidity and mortality in surgical neonates. There are differences in the clinical characteristics of organ failure in neonates and adults. The purpose of this study is to identify the differences and determine the order of organ failure between baby rats and adult rats after induction of gram negative sepsis. Fifty baby rats less than 30-day-old and another 50 adult rats more than 2-month-old were divided into control group (G1) and experimental group (G2). The G1 consisted of 10 baby- and 10 adult-rats, and the G2 consisted of 40 babies and 40 adults. E. coli ($10^8/mL$ per 100g of body weight) were injected into the peritoneal cavity in G2 and same amount of saline was injected in G 1. Blood samples were obtained before injection, 24 hour, 48 hour, 72 hour and after death. WEC, platelet, $PaO_2$, $PaCO_2$, total bilirubin, BUN, creatinine, albumin and abdominal wall thickness were measured to evaluate the sequence of organ failure. The mortality was 55.0 % in G2-babies and 32.5 % in G2-adults. In baby rats, microvascular, hematologic and renal failure appeared within 24 hours after injection and pulmonary failure followed. Pulmonary, renal and liver failure developed within 24-48 hours in adult rats; however, microvascular failure did not appear until they were moribund. Thrombocytopenia, hypoalbuminemia, increased BUN and generalized edema was the earlist sign of sepsis in baby rats.
유수영,김상윤,김우기,김인구,김재억,박귀원,박우현,박주섭,송영택,오수명,이두선,이명덕,이성철,장수일,정상영,정을삼,정풍만,주종수,최금자,최순옥,최승훈,허영수,황의호,Yeo, S.Y.,Kim, S.Y.,Kim, W.K.,Kim, I.K.,Kim, J.E.,Park, K.W.,Park, W.H.,Park, J.S.,Song, Y.T.,Oh, S.M.,Lee, 대한소아외과학회 1996 소아외과 Vol.2 No.1
This report present the result of the national survey of pediatric surgeons' preferences on diagnosis and treatment of Hirschsprung's disease(HD) carried out in 1993. The questionnaires were sent to twenty-seven members of the Korean Association of Pediatric Surgeons (KAPS) working in twenty-four institutions. The questionnaires were designed to determine the individual surgeon's preference for the methods of diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Twenty-three pediatric surgeons from twenty institutions returned completed forms. The total number of patients diagnosed with HD in 1992 was 190 in this group. The estimated incidence of HD was 1/3,900. The most important symptom was delayed meconium passing and the most preferred diagnostic procedure was barium study. Anorectal manometric examination was carried out by 13 pediatric surgeons and 19 confirmed the diagnosis before operation by rectal biopsy, 12 with full-thickness biopsy and 7 with suction. Frozen section biopsy during operation was done by 22 surgeons. Eight surgeons did one stage operation if the age of the patient is suitable. Definitive operation was usually done at the age of 6 to 11 months. The most preferred operation was Duhamel procedure done by 19. Enterocolitis was the most serious complication of HD. Most of patients had normal continence within 6 to 12 months after operation. The follow-up period was less than 6 years in 16 surgeons. The results were presented at the 9th annual meeting of KAPS in June of 1993. This is the first national survey of HD and it can provide guidelines of diagnosis and treatment of Hirschprung's disease even though it is not a detailed study of patient data.
Spontaneous perforation of the bile duct in children is a very rare disorder. We experienced a 6 year-old girl with spontaneous perforation of the right hepatic duct. The patient was initially misdiagnosed as hepatitis because of elevation of liver enzyme and then as appendicitis because of fluid collection in the pelvic cavity demonstrated by ultrasonogram. A laparoscopic exploration was done and no abnormal findings were detected except bile-stained ascites. Peritoneal drainage was performed and the patients seemed to improve clinically. Abdominal pain, distention and high fever developed after removal of the drains. DISIDA scan showed a possible of bile leak into the peritoneal cavity. ERCP demonstrated free spill of dye from the right hepatic duct. At laparotomy, the leak was seen in the anterior wall of the right hepatic duct 2cm above the junction of the cystic duct and common hepatic duct. The perforation was linear in shape and 0.8cm in size. The patient underwent cholecystectomy, primary closure of the perforation and T-tube choedochostomy. We could not identify the cause of the perforation; however, the T-tube cholangiography taken on the 42nd postoperative day showed a little more dilatation of the proximal common bile duct compared with the cholangiography taken on the 14th day. Long-term follow-up of the patient will be necessary because of the possibility for further change of the duct.
During a 6-year period, from January 1990 to December 1995, 101 neonates with congenital anomalies were admitted to the division of Pediatric Surgery of Youngdong Severance Hospital. All of them had prenatal screening more than once with ultrasound. Fifty eight of them had prenatally detectable anomalies by ultrasonography. However abnormalities were prenatally detected in 24 neonates(41%). The detection rate was 70% in patientws who had the prenatal screening at our hospital, whereas, the rate was 24% when it was performed at other medical facilities. Duodenal and jejuno-ileal atresia showed the highest detection rate(86%) followed by abdominal mass. Esophageal atresia was suggested by maternal polyhydramnios in 3 patients (25%). Only one patient with diaphragmatic hernia(1.75%) was prenatally detected and none with gastroschisis. The mean interval from birth to operation was 32 hours in the prenatally detected patients and 50 hours in the non detected. The complication rate and the mortality after emergency operation were 20% and 7% in the detected group, and 58% and 23% in the nondetected, respectively. The average period of the hospitalization was 20 days in the detected group and 39 days in the nondetected. We conclude that the prenatal detection of anomalies is necessary to ensure adequate care for the mothers and the babies with congenital anomalies. This includes early transfer, timing of optimal delivery and operation.