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The objectives of this study are to examine combustion characteristics of E.V.A. and rubber wastes by fixed-bed incinerator. The results are as follows. Combustion temperature with time rises rapidly, and mass of E.V.A. reduces at short time in E.V.A. combustion. In variation of air-fuel ratio (m), the ideal values of m of E.V.A. and rubber are 2.5, 1.5 respectively. Mixed-waste combustion is more economic than single E.V.A. combustion, because we can get high combustion efficiency (94.0∼99.0%) at 2.0 air-fuel ratio of mixed-waste combustion. Removal efficiencies of SO_2 at cooling tower are about 20%. The combustion efficiencies of rubber are over 98.0% according to the experimental conditions.
A combination of process modification and various additives to a lime-based spray-dryer/fabric-filter system was evaluated for its value in promoting sorbent utilization and simultaneous removal of HC1 and SO₂ from waste incineration flue gas. The variety of operating conditions were tested to evaluate important factors such as spray drying reactor(SDR) outlet temperature, retention time, molar equivalence ratio( MER ), fabric filter velocity, etc. For the sorbent activity enhancement, additives such as KmnO₄, NaOH, NaHCO₃, CaCl₂, a mixture of NaOH and CaCl₂ were added to Ca(OH)₂ at optimum operating condition. The mixture of NaOH and CaCl₂ ( 2 : 1 by weight ) was found to be the best economic additive. When that additive, 10% of Ca(OH)₂ by weight, was added, under the condition of Ca(OH)₂ of MER 1.0, HCl/SO₂ removal efficiencies at fabric filter were 98.3% and 97.1%, respectively.
This study has been carried out to investigate the removal efficiencies of HCl/SOx in a Spray-Dryer/Fabric-Filter system. In HCl/SOx removal, we could identify the key factors such as spray dryer outlet temperature, molar equivalence ratio(MER) and fabric filter velocity, but we couldn't find out the correlation of HCl and SOx. The removals of HCl/SOx were inversely proportional to spray dryer outlet temperature(l30~170℃) and filter velocity(l.0~1.5 m/min), at the MER, HCl removal efficiency was strongly proportional to MER, but SOx, removal efficiency was not particularly increased by MER over 1.5. The removal efficiencies of HCl/SOx were improved over 10% at the fabric filter. In this Spray-Dryer/Fabric-Filter system, HCl/SOx removal efficiencies were about 99%, 96% respectively.
Glaucoma is an eye disease which is caused by abnormal high IOP (Intra Ocular Pressure). High IOP is caused by the aqueous humor which is produced consistently but not drained due to malfunction of the trabecular system which has a role of draining the aqueous humor into the venous system. Currently, there are three methods to treat glaucoma-using medicines, surgical operation, and using implant device. The first and second methods are not long acting, so the use of implants is increasing in these days in order to drain out the aqueous humor compulsory. However, though conventional implants have a capability of pressure regulation, they cannot maintain IOPs desired for different patients, and too much aqueous humor are usually drained, to cause hypotony. To solve these problems, it is needed to develop a new implant which is capable of controling the IOP actively and copes with personal difference of patients. An active glaucoma implant consists of the valve actuator, pressure sensor, controller, and power supply. In this paper, firstly, we make an analysis of the operation of a conventional implant using a bond graph and show defects and limitations of the conventional valve analytically. Secondly, we design and analyze a valve actuator considering actuation principles, resistance elements, control methods, and energy sources focused on power saving problem. Finally, using simulations the possibility of the proposed valve actuator is investigated.
시각 및 손가락의 전기자극에 의해 머리표면에서 발생하는 유발전위를 검출하여 Source Tracing Method를 이용하여 뇌의 시각인지영역 및 손가락 감각인지영역을 추정하였다. 본 과정에서 유발전위 검출방식은 average method를 이용하였고, 흥분뉴런군에 대한 물리적 모델로 Single Current Dipole Model을 이용하고, 머리기하에 대한 3중구각모델을 이용하여 Forward Problem을 풀었다. Inverse Problem은 current dipole의 6개의 parameter에 대한 Least Square Error Method를 이용하여 신견흥분의 위치를 추정하였다. 이러한 결과와 생리학적으로 밝혀진 시각 및 체성감각 신경로와의 비교결과 유사성이 확인되었다. In this paper a study of neuro-pathway estimation based on visual and somatosensory evoked potential is given. The evoked potentials which are caused by visual and somatosensory stimulation are detected by an average method. The forward problem that is estimating a scalp potential from a given electrical source in the brain is solved by using a triple concentric spherical shell model of the head and a single current dipole model of the neuron activity. The inverse problem which calculates a source position is solved by a least square fit between the model predicted potential and a given evoked potential measurement. The similarities between estimated sensory neuro-pathways and physiological brain function regions are verified.
- In this paper, we present a temperature-controlled system for MEMS electrical resistance heaters without a temperature sensor. To rapidly control the heater temperature, the microheater system developed consists of a power supply, power amplifier, digital Proportional-Integral-Differential (PID) controller, and a quarter bridge circuit with the microheater and three resistors are nominally balanced. The microheaters are calibrated inside a convection oven to obtain the temperature coefficient with a linear or quadratic fit. A voltage amplifier applies the supply voltage proportional to the control signal from the PID controller. Small changes in heater resistance generate a finite voltage across the quarter bridge circuit, which is fed back to the PID controller to compare with the set-point and to generate the control signal. Two MEMS microheaters are used for evaluating the developed control system - a NiCr serpentine microheater for a preconcentrator and a Nickel microheater for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) chip.
국내 폐기물은 폐기물관리법에 따라 생활폐기물과 사업장폐기물로 분류되며 생활폐기물은 가정의 순수생활폐기물과 사업장 생활폐기물로 구분할 수 있으며 사업장 폐기물은 사업장일반폐기물, 건설폐기물, 지정폐기물로 구분된다. 전체 폐기물의 발생량은 전국 및 부산시 모두 IMF시작 직후인 1998년을 제외하고 매년 증가 추세에 있으며 생활폐기물의 발생량은 1995년 종량제 실시 이후부터 1998년까지 계속 감소하다가 1999년부터 다시 증가 추세로 나타났다. 1인 1일 생활쓰레기 발생량은 부산시의 경우가 전국의 경우보다 높은 값(2000년 전국 : 0.98, 부산시 : 1.06㎏)으로 나타나 부산시민은 전국 평균보다 많은 쓰레기를 배출하고 있고 또한 생활계 폐기물중 사업장 생활폐기물이 차지하는 비율이 부산시가 전국보다 매년 높게 나타나 1회 용품 등의 사업장에서의 원천감량 대상품목의 사용자제 등 쓰레기 발생억제를 위한 다양한 시책 등이 요구된다. 생활폐기물 처리현황에서는 매립량이 줄고 재활용과 소각량이 늘어나는 추세이며 처리방법면에서 부산시의 경우가 높은 비율의 재활용으로 전국보다 양호한 경향을 보이고 있다. 폐기물관리는 폐기물 발생 원천감량이 매우 이상적이만 제품의 생산과 소비에 직결되어 있어 획기적인 성과를 거두기 어려우므로 재활용의 촉진이 무엇보다 중요하다. 따라서 앞으로의 과제는 감량과 재활용의 목표수준을 설정하고 그 목표를 뒷받침할 모든 제반체계를 구축하고 재활용제품의 수용창출을 극대화 해야한다. Wastes generation and disposal of the country were compared with those of Busan city from 1996 to 2000. The total amount generated of them, excepting 1998 during IMF, have been increased yearly. Domestic wastes generation rates in the country have been lower(`96:27.6%→`00:19.8%), but construction wastes of them have been higher(`96:15.8%→`00:33.7%). Per capita day in domestic wastes of the country are 1.1㎏ in 1996, 1.05㎏ in 1997, 0.96㎏ in 1998, 0.97㎏ in 1999, 0.98㎏ in 2000, respectively, they have maintained below 1.0㎏, but Busan city of them are 1.1㎏ in 1996, 1.07㎏ in 1997, 1.01㎏ in 1998, 1.03㎏ in 1999, 1.06㎏ in 2000, respectively, and they have maintained above 1.0㎏. In component of domestic wastes, combustible wastes in both the country and Busan city have been increased, but incombustible wastes of them have been decreased. These results were influenced with the Volume-Based Waste Fee System to be enforced after 1995. In domestic wastes treatment methods of the country, landfill has been decreased(`96:68.3%→`00:47.0%), however, incineration(`96:5.5%→`00:11.7%) and recycling(`96:26.2→`00:41.3%) have been increased. These trends are very desirable in the waste management. In 2000, Busan city is more desirable than the country in the treatment methods, i.e., : landfill(the country : 47.0%, Busan : 35.6%), incineration(the country : 11.7%, Busan : 12.9%), recycling(the country : 41.3%, Busan : 51.3%).