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Extreme environments and freak wave characteristics in the coastal waters of Korean Peninsula are analyzed using the observed wave data. Freak wave has been intensely emphasized as an important environmental force parameter in several recent research works. However, the mechanism and occurrence probability of freak wave are not clarified. The aims of this study are: to summarize the distribution of extreme environment for wind waves, and to find occurrence probability of freak wave in the coastal waters of Korean Peninsula. These extreme sea conditions are discussed by applying extreme value analysis method, and the statistic characteristics are summarized which can be used to the design and analysis of coastal structures. The mechanism and the occurrence probability of freak wave are also discussed in detail using wave parameters in considered with wave deformation in the coastal waters.
An emergy analysis of the main energy flows driving the economy of humans and life support systems was made including environmental energies, fuels, and imports, all expressed as solar emjoules. The total emergy use (4,373 E20 sej/yr) is 90 per cent from imported sources, fuels and goods and services. The emergy flows from the environment are modest, because the share of global inputs such as rain and geological uplift flux is modest. Consequently, the ratio of outside investment to attracting natural resources is already large, like other industrialized countries. The population level is already in excess of carrying capacity. The emergy use per person in Korea indicates a moderate emergy standard of living, even though the indigenous resource is very poor. If the present economy were running entirely on stored reserves of fuels, soils, woods, etc., it would last about 2 years. Its carrying capacity for steady state on its renewable sources is only 3.3 million people, compared to 43.3 million in 1991. Continued availability of foreign oil at a favorable balance of emergy trade, currently about 7 to 1 net emergy, is the basis for present economic activity and must decrease as the net emergy of foreign oil purchased goes down. Close economic integration with Middle East may determine how long this is possible in the future.
We investigated the local climatological characteristics of the mountain adjacent the Dongyeong herb garden in Chilgok. We established one set of automatic weather system (AWS) on a hill where development of herb garden is in progress. The observations were continued for 2 years(2013. 07-2015.06). In this study, we analyzed the observed data comparing the data of Gumi meteorological observatory (GMO). The results showed that the air temperature(relative humidity) of Dongyeong herb garden were lower(higher) than those of GMO. Especially the differences are more during warm climate season. It means that the gaps of thermal environment between two points are mainly caused by the evaporation effects of forest. In addition, we analyzed the warmth indices(warmth index and coldness index) with the observed air temperature. The warmth and coldness indices indicate about 107 and .12, respectively. The values correspond to warm temperature climate.
Continuous measurements of ground-level ozone (O_3) were made in five minutes intervals in the rural area of Korea from July 1993 to June 1994. This site is located in Chongwon, near latitude 36.4˚ N, longitude 127.6˚ E. The results show that the one-year mean value was 17 ppb, and monthly mean ranged from 6 to 47 ppb. A pronounced maximum in summer and a minimum in winter were found, and these were related to anthropogenic emission and photochemical reaction. Diurnal variations of ozone concentration showed a normal distribution with a maximum at 15:00 - 16:00 and a minimum at 07:00 - 08:00. During the period when ozone concentration was very high (> 80 ppb), the stable winds were from N and NW; on the other hand, when ozone concentration was very low, air movement in the large scale was from the North Pacific Ocean. This suggests that in the rural area the long range transport of anthropogenic pollutants from distant sources can contribute to the larger contribution than the generation of ozone from local sources in the rural area.
In this paper. An environmental assessment was carried out on the whole process of industrial business activities to Establish a basic plan for climate change mitigation and energy independency. The whole process was divided into each Discharge process in terms of water, air, solid waste, green house gases and refractory organic compounds. The flowcharts And basic unit of process were analysed for three years(2008 2010), being utilized as basic information for the life cycle Assessment. It was found that the unit loading for the whole process significantly depends on changes in the operation rate Change and highly concentrated wastewater inflow. About 35%of solid waste production was reduced by improving the Incineration method with co combustion in coal boiler, generating about 57% of electricity used for the whole process. And Consequently reducing the energy costs. As the eco efficiency index was found to be more than l, compared to the Previous years, it can be said that improvement in general has taken place.
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from dye wastewater treatment processes were estimated by analysing their mass and energy balances, which were then used as baseline information for environmental assessment. The total GHG emissions from dye wastewater treatment plants were divided into direct emissions from the treatment processes and indirect ones from electricity usage. The amounts of CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions were calculated according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Clime Change (IPCC) guideline for the GHG target management system. For 3 years between 2011 and 2013, direct and indirect emissions were on average 8,742.7 and 7,892.0 Ton.CO2eq/year, respectively, with the former exhibiting 52.6 %. Also, compared to 2012, in 2013, the eco-efficiency indicator by the GHG emissions was found to be more than 1, suggesting that environmental quality was effectively improved.
Korea's national park system resembles that of Japan in many ways. In this study, National park Systems of the two countries are compared from a standpoint of their historical backgrounds to be formed and in aspect of its conservation by the main revision of national park laws in perspective. In conclusion it was found out that Korea's toleration-based regulations on building park amenities have gradually neglected the park conservation effort, whereas Japan's authorization-oriented regulations have streng thened their emphasis on park conservation. From the comparison as above, the polices to be modified for Korean national park are proposed as follows: 1. National park system, which values diversity of species, is to be proposed. For this, the Article 8 which allows a development of National parks, Enforcement Ordinance Article 4, The Article 18 of Law, Enforcement Regulation Article 6 & 7 of National Park Law should be reviewed for deletion and revision. 2. On the basis of the laws, zoning system should be readjusted by discriminated conservation policy. Also, the readjustment of zoning system should be enforced after thorough analysis and research on the value of natural resources in the national park. 3. Korea should closely review the recently revised Japanese laws on the national parks and nature revitalization promotion for applying them to conservation policy of Korean national parks.