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1) The environment once contaminated or disrupted can not be easily restored by the power of self-purification of nature, and it costs too much expenses and time to recover to the original state by means of humans' technical skills. So the most suitable method of preserving environment is to prevent beforehand the environmental pollution or disruption. Recently many countries show the prominant tendency that their environmental administrations are converting to the pre-protection of pollution from the post control of environmental disruption. In Korea also the environmental administration is moving toward the environmental preservation policy based on the prio-prevention of pollution, with the improvement of the environmental legal system as the enactment of "The Environment Preservation Act" followed by the nulification of "the Pollution Protection Act." 2) The most effective and essential system in administration for the prevention of pollution is the system of the environmental impact assessment, which is adopted by the article 5 of our environment preservation act. The existing system of EIA is seemed to be influenced in its legislation by the similiar system of U.S.A (NEPA). But the adoption of this system resulted in a formal and unsubstantial one with immaturity and imperfection through the process of enactment of this system which aimed at specialization of the system so to meet the actual circumstances of our country. 3) Our EIA system is legislated so as to meet the development administration of semi-advanced country as Korea. 4) In Korea EIS is not a requisite requested in licenses or permits for proposed action but a necessary document for the consultation with the chief of Environment Agency. But the chief of EA, the opponent party of consultation is no more than a affiliated agency of the ministry of helth and society. So the procedure of consultation is apt to be only a process to satisfy the procedural condition in order to proceed the decided project of government or regional public bodies. Abovementioned incliation shows the need of elevation of the status and strengthening the rights of the Environment Agency. At the same time the request of consultation to the chief of EA should be amended as request for licenses or permits in order to get practical effect in the procedure of EIA. 5) As the objective of EIS lies in finding the most reasonable method which has less narmful effects on the environment, the introduction of alternative is indispensable in prepaying EIS. It is stipulated in article 4·2 of the enforcement ordinance of the Environment Preserving Act that the chief of EA can claim 'adjustment' or 'amendment' agains: the request of agreement of administrative agency planning the development project. But it is not likely that the claim of adjustment or amendment of the chief of EA can discharge the substitive role of alternatives. The system of alternatives must be adopted at least in the regulation of EIS which is now under drafting by EA. 6. Existing EIA system does not adopt the system of citizen participation, that shows one of backwardness of our EIA system. Nowadays the system of citizen participation, has become very important one in the democratic administration. Therefore it is against the democratic administration that informational participation is not allowed to the citizen who is now admitted as a subject of the environmental right. But the citizen participation often brings about the delay of development works and unnecessary friction between citizens and administrative agency concerned. So the seems inevitable that existing EIA system should take conservative attitude against citizen participation especially in Korea where most development projects are planned and practiced by government. It is desirable that the first stage of citizen participation such as offer of information and presentation of opinion at least should be admitted. 7. The concerned provisions about EIA system are too simple and abstract, but there is no sign of positive supplement and amendment on the side of government. 8. In addition, we have less experience of working and no accumulation of technics of EIA. It is general demand that the regulation of EIS now under drafting be early made public. 9. After all special law about EIA should be stipulated in order to attain effective EIA system. Since every systems are to be operated by human, the solution of problems caused by the adoption of EIA system also depend upon the conversion of consciousness toward the development based on the priority of environment.
It prevents the problem beforehand such as second infection by an illegal disposal of the waste which is harmful for people, can solve the real problem caused by management and disposal of the waste, using the RFID that is kernel technology of the next generation in this paper. At first, it is possible to prevent managers' impure intention beforehand, using the authentication card that is storing managers' bio-information who is managing the hazard material. Also it suggests efficient solution that can offer better environment that previous managers' working environment, applying the RFID system to every stage, from the first point of the occurrence time of the waste modeled on general material distribution process to the final processing stage.
As mentioned above, regarding our country's a regime of Natural Environmental Conservation, I divide a process of the changes into three periods which are 'the previous to formation(~1961)', 'the period of formation(1961~1976)', 'the period of development(1976~)'. I consider the structure of the regime of Natural Environmental conservation by way of classifing it by the system of a related regime, the system of participation movement, the system of forest-conservation and urban open space. By putting all the aforementioned together, it is possible to divide phase-development process of a function of the regimes of Natural Environmental conservation into five phases. · First Phase : a protection of resources a special protection by authority · Second Phase : safety territorial integrity(forestry conservation, flood control) · Third Phase : national land beautification national land development, recreation. · Fourth Phase : prevention of environmental pollution ecosystem preservation. · Fifth Phase : amenity relationships with nature In this thesis, the regimes of Natural Environmental Conservation make gradual development from first phase to 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and fifth phase. To get to fifth phase of order, however, we actively enhance a quality of living environment and must consider 'amenity' in which inhabitants are able to participate spontaneously on the basis of a systematic regime established on the previous phase. The regimes of natural environmental conservation and the phase-development of its function were regarded as horizontal axis, the trend of natural environmental conservation and the process of the changes were taken for vertical axis. And I observe cross each other. It is possible to say that an environmental adminstration up to now takes lead in controls than creation of environment, and is regarded as "the previous to the Second Generation", that yet don't convert from the first generation to the second generation.
This study is evaluated the realized validity on the whole constructional plan of the artificial island of PUSAN, the problems of which is also treated, based on the first to the 3rd proceeding reports for it. Finally it is proposed the aternative such as rationally engineering methodology. It is as follows ; 1. Based on the reports, the reclamation method is not suitable for the tall buildings of high density and another earth structures. 2. The rational and economical reclamation method should be required, based on the property of the sea bed and the structures for the end users. 3. It may be desirable to select one among the first to the third methods proposed for the reclamation of PUSAN artificial isiand in this study, if not the alternative.
Recently the large type of steel tank has been widely used in the various industries such as the chemical, petroleum, food, water and sewerage works, pollution treatment facility industry and so on. For the safe, economical and reasonable design of those facilities, engineers have made their efforts, but even by such safety designs, there have happened unanticipated accidents, which have caused not only the damage of life and property but also the death of earth and sea by their pollution. The causes of those accidents have occurred from the problems of design, execution, low cycle fatigue, stress concentration or excessive residual stress, etc. Therefor, even after the complete design, the nondestructive measurement just before a test run after having manufactured the facilities should be necessarily carried out to prevent any accident. This study on the conical type large digester tank built, first in Korea, at the Yongho-dong Sewage Treatment Plant in Busan was dealt with the experimental consideration of its safety by using the strain gauge method, and the results are as the following: 1. The strength of the welded zone in circumferential direction at the shell plate of conical type tank is in safety. 2. By the first hydraulic test result, the maximum stress was brought about at the junction T welded zone in circumferential and axial directions near cone-skirt support bearing. By the second hydraulic test result, the safety strength was obtained more than the calculated values by the preloading effect. 3. The welded zone at the cone-skirt support bearing are under compression stress all in three axies directions, and their strength is in safety.
This study is aimed at improving the quality of city image. So I anaylized the characteristics of outer space of building and the factors of landscaping in main downtown area of Pusan. I gained the results as follows; 1. The outer space of building is regarded as private space and the townspeople's be made to approaching is restricted. Thus consideration and legal actions should have the outer space open to the townspeople to feel comfort in the city. 2. The outer space of building is not walker-oriented but car-oriented and the formation of space and landscaping is passive. The selection of place of parking lot entrance should be carefully made and the space for human should be constituted. 3. The building law is passive for it could not give flexibility to the constitution of city image and deal with only building and building site. So detail items should be made to cover the plane and three-dimentional using of building site. 4. The study on the characteristics and functions of tree, the functions of facilities, and utility should be done to positively induce comfort factor or the outer space of building. 5. As time goes by, the landscaping spaces increase in the outer space of building in main downtown areas, but there is still difficulty in maturing in quality. And also there is a problem of general balance with surrounding facilities. In this study, I tried to find out the attributions of Landscaping Concerning the outer space of Street building in Pusan but it was beyond my power. But I thought the real condition of case area was similar to the general type of other areas. I hope future study will be more in detail in improvement plan of landscaping and using plan of the outer space of building.
과염소산염은 지표수와 지하수 그리고 토양의 주요 오염물이다. 본 연구에서는 과염소산염을 처리하기위한 기존 기법들의 한계를 극복하기위해 독립영양미생물과 영가철을 이용하여 과염소산염을 환원시켜 제거하기위한 타당성을 조사하였다. 영가철과 소화슬러지를 공급하여 batch 실험한 결과 16,023.7 ug/L의 과염소산염의 농도가 236 h 후에 481.37 ug/L로 감소하여 97%의 제거율을 나타내었다. 영가철과 소화슬러지에 의한 과염소산염 제거에서는 소화 슬러지 내의 독립영양미생물이 영가철이 부식되어 발생하는 H2를 과염소산염을 환원하는데 전자 공여체로 사용할 수 있다. 그래서 전자공여체로 사용될 H2를 따로 공급할 필요가 없기 때문에 본 기법은 기존의 처리기법에 비해 저렴하고 H2사용에 의한 폭발의 위험이 없어 안전하다는 장점이 있다. 이 연구는 영가철과 독립영양미생물이 과염소산염의 환원에 효과가 있음을 입증하였다
The monthly estimation of the waste water components effluenced from the laboratories of Colleges in Dong-A University has been determined and the laboratory waste water and the sewage in university also analyzed to survey and study for the present situation and disposal treatment plan to get as the basic data It has been come to a conclusion as follows 1) The waste matter of laboratories in University has composed the organic chemical waste of 48% and the inorganic chemical waste of 52%. The large amount of effluence are Cu of 35% Cr of 27% in inorganic chemical waste and there are a little bit amount of Pb As. Fe CN etc. 2) The pollution level of metal ions for each college laboratory has shown the highest in the college of Natural Sciences and October in each month. This view seems that the frequency in use of laboratory are the highest and the laboratories have many students in laboratory of general physics. laboratory of general chemistry and laboratory of general biology. 3) From the analysis and determination the sewage in university has shown the average pH 7.2 as to be neutrality and COD. BOD and the contamination level have shown lower the maximum permissible limit. 4) The components of waste water of college laboratories have diversity. It seems to be proper that the blanket treatment system which recollect separately to treat each component different from the industrial waste disposal treatment because there are many the effluent outlets.