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Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the experimental studies which was performed by single or complex herbal medicines on hypothyroidism.Methods I searched the domestic experimental studies about single or complex herbal medicines’ effects on hypothyroidism that published since 2000 on 4 Korean databases by keywords, ‘thyroid gland’, ‘hypofunction’, ‘hypothyroidism’.Results 11 single herbal medicines and 9 complex herbal medicines in 20 experimental studies have reported their effectiveness and safetiness in PTU-induced hypothyroidism rats by evaluating the changes of several biochemical and hematological indexes.Conclusions In order to make new and more effective medicines on hypothyroidism, there should be further studies by using combinations of herbal medicines and the differences of their mechanisms.
Objectives The purpose of this study was to improve the knowledge of the low-level laser therapy (LLLT) field and to review research reports on LLLT to understand the current situation with respect to the clinical indication and current research trends.Methods A survey was carried out on the subject of low-level laser therapy to September 2012, using the PubMed search engine. Selected literature was checked by two reviewers and was classified according to the International Classification of Diseases 10th (ICD-10) over 10 years.Results We selected 469 studies in total, of which 142 were case reports, 118 were case-controlled trials, and 209 were randomized controlled trials of LLLT. According to the ICD-10 classification of diseases, the K code and M code being the most common, 399 studies have been published in the last 10 years. This shows that the study and clinical indications of low-level laser therapy have rapidly increased over the past 10 years.Conclusions Low-level laser therapy has been used most frequently with respect to dentistry and pain and musculoskeletal disorders. Recently, interest in and research into LLLT has increased for various diseases. With the establishment of standard conditions for low-level laser therapy, supported by aggressive clinical utilization and systematic clinical research, LLLT will be a very useful treatment and a useful alternative method in many medical fields.
이매,백현정,박의근,김관일,이범준,김수강,정주호,김진주,김미아,정희재,정승기,Lee, Mei,Baek, Hyun-jung,Park, Eui-keun,Kim, Kwan-il,Lee, Beom-joon,Kim, Su-kang,Chung, Joo-ho,Kim, Jin-ju,Kim, Mi-a,Jung, Hee-jae,Jung, Sung-ki 대한한방내과학회 2015 大韓韓方內科學會誌 Vol.36 No.4
Objectives In this study, we divided Korean asthma patients into excess syndrome or deficiency syndrome groups according to clinical phenotype. Genetic analysis was conducted to investigate the association of exonic SNPs in the CD46 gene polymorphism with the clinical phenotype based on the differentiation syndrome of the bronchial asthma patients.Methods There were 95 healthy patients (control group) and 53 asthma patients. (The deficiency syndrome group included 24 and the excess syndrome group 29). We searched the exonic areas of the CD46 gene in the NCBI website SNPs with <0.01 minor allele frequency (MAF) and <0.01 heterozygosity. We finally selected two SNPs: rs138843816, Ser13Phe and rs7144, 3’-UTR. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was calculated using SNPStats.Results There were significant differences in the codominant 1 model and the dominant model between the healthy group and the asthma group. There were significant differences between deficiency syndrome group and the excess syndrome group in the genotype frequencies and in the codominant 1 model, the dominant model, and the log-additive model. The allele frequency of rs7144C showed a significant difference between the deficiency syndrome group and the excess syndrome group. Two-SNP haplotype analysis showed a significant difference in frequency in the deficiency syndrome group and in the excess syndrome group. There were significant differences between the healthy group and the excess syndrome group in the codominant 1 model, the dominant model, and the log-additive model. The frequency of the rs7144 C allele exhibited a significant difference in the demonstration. SNP haplotype analysis between the healthy group and the excess syndrome group showed a significant difference in the frequency of the CT haplotype and the CC haplotype.Conclusions The results indicate that two CD46 SNPs (rs138843816, Ser13Phe and rs7144, 3′–UTR) might be associated with the symptomatic excess syndrome in Korean asthma patients.
Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between gastric emptying measured by ultrasonography and Korean medical instruments of diagnosis and assessment in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients. Among the subgroups of FD, postprandial distress syndrome (PDS) is related to gastric motility disorder.Methods Ten patients with FD and particularly with PDS as well as 10 healthy controls were enrolled in the study from September to November 2015. The gastric emptying shown as the half-life of gastric volume (T<sub>1/2</sub>) was measured by ultrasonography. The severities of spleen qi deficiency and dyspepsia symptoms were assessed by a spleen qi deficiency questionnaire (SQDQ) and the Nepean Dyspepsia Index-Korean version (NDI-K), respectively. In addition, a food retention questionnaire (FRQ), a damum questionnaire (DQ), a cold and heat questionnaire (CHQ), a deficiency and excess questionnaire (DEQ), and a visual analogue scale (VAS) of distention and fullness were completed by every participant.Results In comparison with the control group, the FD group showed significantly higher scores for the SQDQ, NDI-K, FRQ, DQ, DEQ, and VAS of distention and fullness. T<sub>1/2</sub> was also significantly higher in the FD group than in the control group. There were significant correlations between T<sub>1/2</sub> and the SQDQ score. However, there were no significant correlations between T1/2 and other questionnaire scores except for one item of the NDI-K.Conclusions According to these findings, it was determined that measuring gastric emptying using ultrasonography could be a quantitative indicator to diagnose spleen qi deficiency in FD patients.
The bark of Magnolia officinalis has been used in traditional oriental medicine to treat a variety of mental disorders including anxiety and depression. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of M. officinalis ethanol extract on stress-induced alterations in learning and cognitive function using a passive avoidance test (PAT) and also on anxiety-related behavior using the elevated plus-maze test (EPM) in female rats . The degree of Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the region of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the locus coeruleus (LC) was measured using an immunohistochemical method. Corticosterone concentrations in serum were also measured. The ethanol extract from Magnolia officinalis was orally administered to female rats 30 minutes before evaluating their immobilization stress and anxiety-related behavior using an elevated plus-maze test and a passive avoidance test. Time spent in the open arms of the EPM increased in the M. officinalis-treated group compared with that of the saline-treated control group. In the passive avoidance test, the memory and cognitive function improved in the M. officinalis extract-treated group. M. officinalis extracts reduced elevated corticosterone concentrations in serum. Also, stress-induced TH increases were suppressed in the M. officinalis extract-treated group in the LC and the VTA region. These results suggest that M. officinalis might prove to be an effective anxiolytic anti-stress agent.
Purpose : Banhasasim-tang (BHSST) has been applied for treating the symptom of gastric stuffiness, which is similar to dyspepsia. The object of this study was to observe the healing effect of BHSST on the indomethacin (IND)-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Methods : Three different dosages of BHSST(400, 200 and 100 mg/kg) were orally administered 30 min before IND treatment; 6 hrs after IND treatment, the changes on the gross lesion scores, fundic histopathology, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system (glutathione contents, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities) were observed, and compared with the activity of the synthetic anti-ulcer drug, a representative proton pump inhibitor omeprazole (OME) 10 mg/kg. Results : All three different dosages of BHSST treatment in the IND-induced gastric ulcer rats, significant and dose dependent decreased gastric damages - hemorrhagic gross lesions, gastric mucosa MPO levels and histopathological gastric ulcerative lesions - were detected as compared with the IND treated control rats. BHSST also strengthened the antioxidant defense systems – decreased the level of lipid peroxidation and CAT activity but increased the level of GSH and SOD activity, and BHSST 200 mg/kg showed similar anti-ulcerative effect as compared with OME 10 mg/kg. Conclusions : The results obtained in this study suggest that BHSST has favorable effects against IND-induced gastric damages, through significant and dose-dependent decreasing gastric damages and the strengthening of the body’s antioxidant defense systems with direct anti-inflammatory effects.
In the 18th century, Xu Lingtai (徐靈胎) and Yoshimasu Todo (吉益東洞) were medical revolutionaries. They emphasized researches about synthesis of formulae, efficacy of medication and observation and then classification of clinical phenomena, so they assumed a modern scientific character. But, there were clear differences between their academic thoughts. In this paper, we examine the causes of difference in three fields, i.e. traditional culture, viewpoints of talented people and academic personality. The first, difference was due to traditional culture. Chinese medicine has a long history and heavy traditional culture. Yin-Yang (陰陽) theory, Five Phase(五行) theory, Viscera and Bowels (臟腑) theory and Meridian and Collateral (經絡) theory stemmed from everyday practice, and Chinese people learn these theories from experience and observation. From the standpoint of Chinese people, particularly scholarly doctors [儒醫] such as Xu Lingtai, it was easy to debate medical theories. In contrast, Japanese traditional culture didn't have as long a history as China. Thus as a necessity, it was harder to disseminate traditional Chinese medicine theories in Japan. Yoshimasu Todo simplified it by cutting out the superfluous traditional Chinese medicine theory, so at that time it must have been shocking to the Japanese medical world's trends. The second, difference was due to viewpoints of talented experts. From the standpoint of Xu Lingtai, above all, medicine is just a learning, only a kind of technique, even more not a means of living. Xu Lingtai was concerned with the appearance of very talented experts such as 'great man' (偉人), and 'exceptional man' (奇士) who carried out medical research. Instead of cultivating a few talented people, Yoshimasu Todo tried to produce a large number of clinicians quickly who could treat ordinary people. The third was due to personality difference. As Xu Lingtai threw away Confucianism and studied medicine in his youth, although he had a critical attitude, he was always mild-mannered. Yoshimasu Todo always had a clearly critical and rebellious nature. Personality influenced their literary spirit and learning style, so although both advocated reactionism, the academic thought of Xu Lingtai was reformative and mild, while that of Yoshimasu Todo was revolutionary and fierce. Xu Lingtai and Yoshimasu Todo had considerably similar research domains and academic thought, so it is proper for them both to serve as examples for making a comparative study of medical history in China and Japan in 18th century.
목적 : 본 실험에서는 울금의 항고지혈증 효과와 항산화 작용을 증명하고 향후 항고지혈증 약물로서의 개발 가능성을 연구하고자 하였다. 방법 : 울금의 수추출물을 선처치한 후, poloxamer 407의 주사로 유발시킨 고지혈증 모델에서 혈중의 지질 및 산화적 스트레스 관련 생물학적 지표들, 지질대사에 관련된 유전자들의 변화를 관찰하였다. 결과 :1. Poloxamer 407은 혈중 콜레스테롤과 중성지방, LDL-콜레스테롤, MDA의 농도를 상승시켰으며, 울금 수추출물은 대조군에 비하여 농도를 억제시켰다. 2. Poloxamer 407은 혈중 TAC의 활성도, SOD의 활성도, GSH, GSH-reductase를 감소시켰으며, 울금 수추출물은 활성도를 억제시켰다. 3. Poloxamer 407은 간 조직에서 총 콜레스테롤을 유의하게 축적시켰으며, 울금 수추출물은 총 콜레스테롤의 축적을 유의하게 억제시켰다. 4. Poloxamer 407은 간 조직에서 ACAT의 유전자 발현을 유의하게 증가시켰는데, 울금 수추출물은 이를 더욱 촉진하였다. 5. Poloxamer 407은 간 조직에서 CYP-7A1의 발현은 감소시키고 HMG-CoA는 증가시켰는데, 울금 수추출물은 이러한 변화를 매우 유의하게 억제시켰다. 결론 : 위 연구 결과들을 통하여 울금의 항고지혈증과 항산화 효능을 동물모델에서 증명하였으며, 향후 울금을 이용한 고지혈증 및 관련 질환에 대한 임상적용 및 예방과 치료를 위한 약물의 개발에 응용할 수 있을 것으로 사료된다. Objectives : This study investigated the hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of Curcuma radix using a rat model induced by poloxamer 407 injection. Methods : Serum lipid parameters and oxidative stress-associated biomarkers were determined. Additionally, hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride as well as lipid metabolism-associated gene expressions were observed in hepatic tissue. Results :1. Curcuma radix ameliorated elevation of serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, MDA, hepatic cholesterol level, and reduction of serum TAC, SOD, GSH, GSH-reductase level. 2. Curcuma radix augmented up-regulated ACAT gene expression. 3. Curcuma radix almost completely ameliorated down-regulated CYP-7A1 but up-regulated HMG-CoA gene expression. Conclusions : The hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties of Curcuma radix were evidenced. This study provides a scientific basis for the clinical application of Curcuma radix and development of hypolipidemics using this herb in the future.
Drugs may cause adverse effects, and spontaneous adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports have been used as the main method of drug safety evaluation after drugs have been released. The World Health Organization (WHO) collects ADR data reported from pharmacovigilance organizations in each nations. In China, pharmacovigilance centers operate with hierarchical structure at local, provincial and national levels. Also, Japan and Korea each operate their own respective independent pharmacovigilance organizations. WHO is collecting ADR reports for herbal medicine and 15~20% of all ADRs was related to herbal medicine in China. There are status reports of ADRs for herbal medicine in Japan as well. However, in Korea, there is no ADR reporting system regarding herbal medicine. In light of these overseas cases, a spontaneous ADR reporting system for herbal medicine in Korea should be necessary as well.