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Greenhouse-gas emission factors are widely used to estimate emissions arising from a defined unit of a specific activity. Such estimates are used both for international reporting to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and for myriad national and sub-national reporting purposes (for example, European Union Emissions Trading Scheme; EU ETS). As with the other so-called 'Kyoto protocol GHGs', the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides a methodology for national and sub-national estimation of N2O emissions, based on the sector from which the emissions arise. The objective of this study was to develop a integrated emission factor to estimate the direct N2O emission from an agricultural field cultivated with the red pepper, soy bean, spring cabbage, autumn cabbage and potato in 2010∼2012. Emission factor of N2O calculated using accumulated N2O emission, N fertilization rate, and background N2O emission over three year experiment was 0.00596±0.001337 kg N2O-N (N kg)-1. More extensive studies need to be conducted to develop N2O emission factors for other upland crops in the various regions of Korea because N2O emission is influenced by many factors including climate characteristics, soil properties, and agricultural practices.
Although intermittent drainage is regarded as a keyfactor to reduce methane (CH4) emission from paddy soil duringrice cultivation, it also could increase nitrous oxide (N2O)emission. However, the effects of intermittent drainage on CH4and N2O emissions with different global warming potential(GWP) values have not been well examined. In the present study,the effect of a 26-day intermittent drainage from the 34th day aftertransplanting (DAT) to the 60th DAT on two greenhouse gas(GHG) fluxes and yield properties were compared with those ofa continuous flooding system under different fertilization (NPK ascontrol, PK, and NPK+straw) during rice cultivation. The effect ofintermittent drainage on changing two GHG emissions wascompared using the GWP value, calculated as CO2 equivalents bymultiplying 25 and 298 to the seasonal CH4 and N2O fluxes,respectively. Under the same irrigation condition, addition ofnitrogen to PK significantly increased seasonal CH4 and N2Ofluxes, and addition of straw to NPK increased CH4 and N2O. Irrespective with fertilization background, the intermittent drainagesignificantly reduced the total GWP by ca. 41–70% as affected bythe big reduction of seasonal CH4 fluxes by ca. 43–53% to that ofthe continuous flooding even with an increase of seasonal N2Oemissions by ca. 16–43%. Rice productivity was not significantlydifferent between the two different irrigation systems under samefertilization background. As a result, total GWP per grain yieldwas significantly lower in all fertilization treatments withintermittent drainage compared with continuous flooding.
Under intensive vegetable production, increasedproductivity is primarily considered for selecting better watermanagement and irrigation intensity in upland soils. Soil waterpotential at −30 kPa (field capacity) for red pepper (Capsicumannum L.) production, which is the optimum moisture potentialfor plants, is recommended for Korean upland soils to maximizefruit yield; however its impact on greenhouse gas (GHG)emissions have not yet been considered. In this study, red pepperwas cultivated under two soil water potentials at −30 and −50 kPaby drip irrigation control in two different textured soils (clay andsandy loams). Nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emissionswere simultaneously investigated during the cultivation period. Results indicated N2O was the main GHG and contributed toapproximate 97–9% of the total global warming potential (GWP),though the extent of its contribution varied depending on soiltexture and soil moisture control with emitted CH4 being negligiblethroughout the investigation period. Between the treatments, soilmoisture control at −50 kPa was effective in reducing the emissionsof the two GHGs and also increased red pepper productivity inboth clay loam and sandy loam soils. Comparing the gross GWPper unit pepper fruit yield between the treatments, maintaining soilwater potential at −50 kPa by controlled irrigation led to a 50%reduction of GWP per unit pepper fruit yield. Therefore, dripirrigation control to lower soil water potential at −50 than −30 kPais recommended to obtain high crop yield and reduce GWP perunit red pepper fruit yield for red pepper production in Korea.
We fabricated quantum dot/nematic liquid crystal mixtures (QD-NLCs) with various quantum dot emission wavelengths and measured the electrical resistance and the electrical capacitance as functions of the QD emission wavelength by using the current-voltage characteristic curve and the capacitor method, respectively. By combining the Frank elastic continuum theory and the Maier-Saupe mean field theory, we explicitly present the formulae for the electric resistance and the electric capacitor in terms of the order parameter of the QD-NLCs. Versatile physical parameters, such as the electrical conductivity, dielectric anisotropy constant, Frank elastic constant and quantum dot potential energy, for various quantum dot emission wavelengths are qualitatively estimated from the experimental data by using the proposed theoretical model; Reasonably good agreements are obtained between the measured and predicted results. 다양한 발광 파장에 따른 양자점-네마틱 액정 혼합물 (QD-NLCs)을 제작하였고, 첨가한 양자점의 발광 파장에 따라 제작한 시료들의 전류-전압 특성 곡선 및 축전기 방법으로부터 전기 저항과 전기 축전 용량을 각각 측정하였다. Frank 탄성 연속 이론과 Maier-Saupe 평균장 이론을 결합하여 양자점-네마틱 액정 혼합물의 질서 변수로 전기 저항과 축전 용량 식을 유도하였다. 제안한 이론 모형과 실험 데이터를 시늉 내기하여 다양한 양자점 발광 파장에 따른 전기 전도도, 비등방 유전율, Frank 탄성 상수, 양자점 포텐셜 에너지와 같은 물리적 값들을 정량적으로 결정하였으며, 이론과 실험 결과가 잘 일치함을 보였다.
대구지역 지체장애인들을 대상으로 만성이환시 의료이용에 영향을 미치는 요인을 조사하기 위하여 1997년 4월부터 7월까지 등록된 재가장애인에서 20세 이상의 지체장애인 1,307명 중 만성질환이 있다고 대답한 337명 전원을 대상으로 자기기입식 설문지와 면접을 통하여 자료를 수집하였다. 만성질환으로 인한 의료기관 이용률은 81.9%로 병의원이용이 69.1%, 약국이용이 12.8%였다. 단순분석 결과, 소인성 요인에 따른 의료이용실태에서는 기혼이고 직업이 있는 경우에서 의료기관 이용률이 유의하게 높았다(p<0.05). 건강관심이 높은 군에서 의료기관이용이 유의하게 높았으며(p<0.01), 필요성 요인인 평소 아플 때 대처하는 방식이 의료기관 이용과 유의한 관련성이 있었다(p<0.01). 경로분석결과 직업, 경제적상태, 의료보장상태, 평소 아플 때 대처방식이 직접적인 영향을 미쳤으며(p<0.05), 건강관심도, 단골진료기관 유무 등의 변수들도 간접적인 영향을 미쳤다. 의료기관 미이용 이유에서는 '돈이 없어서'가 31.1%로 가장 많았고, '별 증상이 없어서'(18.0%), '불편하거나 같이 갈 사람이 없어서'(14.8%), '그냥 있으면 나을 것 같아서'(14.8%), '시간이 없어서'(8.2%), '치료해도 소용이 없을 것 같아서'(6.6%)의 순이었다. 이상에서 만성질환을 가진 지체장애인들의 의료이용을 높이기 위해서는 장애인 스스로 건강과 질병에 대한 관심을 가질 수 있는 보건교육을 강화하고 장애인 고용촉진을 위한 정책을 마련하여 전반적인 경제적 수준을 향상시키고 의료보호의 확대를 통해서 의료이용의 형평을 추구하여야 겠다. To investigate determinants of health care utilization of the physically disabled over 20 years old in age living in Taegu city, a self-administered questionnaire survey was carried out for 337 disabled persons with chronic illness from April to July, 1997. Health care utilization .ate was 81.9%(69.1% for hospital or clinic and 12.8% for pharmacy). Marital status, job, health concern, and response to illness showed statistically significant relationship with health care utilization(p<0.05). By path analysis, job, economic status, medical security type and response to illness had a significant direct effect on health care utilization(p<0.05), however, health concern and regular source of care had an indirect effect. The reasons of no health utilization were due to economic problem(31.1%), no symptom(18.0%), inconvenience to seek care or no accompanying persons to be helped(14.8%), unseriousness of the severity of the illness(14.8%), too busy to be treated or no free time(8.2%), hopeless prognosis to be treated(6.6%) in order. In conclusion, it is recommended that the program for expanding medicaid, improving socioeconomic status by getting a job and health education to increase the health concern toward physically disabled should be implemented to increase health care utilization rate.
물관리방법을 달리한 상시담수와 간단관개에서 메탄과 아산화질소의 배출 양상과 서로 다른 종류의 유기물원 및 질소비료 시용에 따른 메탄과 아산화질소 배출을 비교하고 저감 할 수 있는 방법을 찾기 위해 본 시험을 실시하였다. 물관리방법으로는 상시담수 (이앙∼출수 35일까지 담수)와 이앙 35일 이후 중간낙수한 간단관개 (중간낙수기간 20일),그리고 시비방법으로는 토양을 검정한 시비량인 토양검정, 토양 검정시비량+볏짚 돈분액비, LCU 완효성비료 그리고 N을 시용하지 않은 대조구 등을 처리하여 메탄 및 아산화질소 배출량을 측정하였다. 메탄 배출량은 간단관개보다 상시담수에서 높았고, 아산화질소 배출량은 이와 반대로 나타났다. 유기물과 비료시용 종류에 따른 메탄과 아산화질소 배출량은 액비와 검정시비+볏짚시용구에서 가장 높았으며, LCU 완효성비료구에서 가장 낮았다. 지구온난화잠재력으로 환산한 온실가스 배출은 물관리 조건에서 상시담수가 간단관개보다 170∼208% 높았으며, 요소를 시용하고 상시담수를 기준 한 것과 간단관개로 물 관리하여 각 처리에 따라 온실가스 배출을 비교하면 요소는 41.4%, LCU 완효성비료 55.8%로 온실가스 배출을 줄일 수 있는 것으로 나타났다. 그리고 비료이용효율은 LCU완효성비료, 액비>검정시비+볏짖>검정시비 순이었다. Emission of methane and nitrous oxide affected by nitrogen fertilizer materials were measured simultaneously in rice paddy fields under flooding and intermittent irrigation in 2000. Studies focused on mitigating CH_4 emission from rice paddy fields are summarized and the possibilities and limits applied to world's rice cultivation are discussed. The mitigation options are water management, soil amendments, organic matter management, different tillage, rotation, and cultivar selection. Altering water management, in particular promoting midseason aeration by short-term drainage, is one of the most promising strategies, although these practices may be limited to the rice paddy fields where the irrigation system is well prepared. The test site was divided into two water managements: a continuously flooded plot which was maintained flooded by constant irrigation from May to September, and an intermittently drained plot in which short-term (20days) draining practices were performed one times during the flooding period. By total emission of GHGs converted by global warming potential (GWP), flooding plots were higher 170~208% than intermittent irrigation plots. For emission of GHGs in fertilizer materials, it was high in the order of Swine slurry>Urea+Rice straw>Urea>LCU. Basing on GHGs emission of urea fertilization under flooding as baseline GWP of urea fertilization and Latex-coated urea under intermittent irrigation showed lower GHGs emission by 41.4% and 55.8%, respectively. In this case fertilizer use efficiency (kg unhulled rice/kg of applied N) were 18.2~20.2 and 18.7~19.0 and 9.3 and 5.8~6.6 for Swine slurry and LCU and Urea+Rice straw and Urea in the continuously flooded and intermittently drained plot.
The effects of water-saving irrigation on the emissions of greenhouse gases and the prokaryotic communitiesin rice paddy soils were investigated through a field experiment. In the Water-Saving (WS) irrigation, thewater layer was kept at 2~3 cm while it was kept at 6 cm in the Continuousiy Flooding (CF) irrigation. A plotwas treated with Intermittently Drainage (ID) that is drained as fine cracks on the floor were seen aftertransplanting. GHGs emission amounts from WS plots were reduced by 78.1% compared to that from CF plotand by 70.7% compared to that from ID plot, meaning that WS could help contribute to mitigation of thegreenhouse gas accumulation in the atmosphere.
Paradoxically the extension of the human life span is raising social interest in issues related to death, such as death with dignity, euthanasia, and well-dying. In this article I emphasize that the concern for death should not be limited to the end of one’s life or the death of others, but rather to utilize inevitable death as a spiritual activity. First of all, this study has examined how humanity has perceived death through the ancient Greek philosophers Socrates, Epicurus and Plato, Augustine and Aquinas in medieval times, and Descartes and Schopenhauer. Then I examine the perception of death of Granville Stanley Hall and William James in the context of life–histories and a religious psychology based on empirical inquiry. Based on these discussions, I then examine Otto Rank on the death awareness of artistic souls and on immortality, and Robert Jay Lifton’s symbolization of immortality, which extended the study of death socially and culturally