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        • KCI우수등재

          RESEARCH : Effects of a lipid-encapsulated zinc oxide supplement on growth performance and intestinal morphology and digestive enzyme activities in weanling pigs

          ( In Surk Jang ), ( Chang Hoon Kwon ), ( Duck Min Ha ), ( Dae Yun Jung ), ( Sun Young Kang ), ( Man Jong Park ), ( Jeong Hee Han ), ( Byung-chul Park ), ( Chul Young Lee ) 한국동물자원과학회(구 한국축산학회) 2014 한국축산학회지 Vol.56 No.29

          This study compared the effects of varying lipid content and dietary concentration of a lipid-encapsulated (LE) ZnO product to those of native ZnO and thereby to find insights into optimal lipid coating and dosage of the Zn supplement. A total of 192 21-d-old weanling pigs were allotted to 48 pens, after which each six pens received a ZnO-free basal diet supplemented with 125 ppm ZnO (100 ppm Zn; BASAL), 2,500 ppm Zn as native ZnO (HIGH), or 100 or 200 ppm Zn as LE ZnO (LE-100 or LE-250) containing 8%, 10%, or 12% lipid [LE-8%, LE-10%, or LE-12%, respectively; 2 × 3 factorial arrangement within the LE-ZnO diets (LE-ALL)] for 14 d. Forty pigs were killed at the end for histological and biochemical examinations. None of ADG, ADFI, gain:feed, and fecal consistency score differed between the LE-ALL and either of the BASAL and HIGH groups. Hepatic and serum Zn concentrations were greater (p <0.05) in the HIGH vs. LE-ALL group, but did not differ between LE-ALL and BASAL, between LE-100 and -250, or among LE-8%, -10%, and -12% groups. Villus height (VH), crypt depth (CD), and the VH:CD ratio in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum did not differ between the LE-ALL and either of the BASAL and HIGH groups, except for a greater CD in the duodenum in the LE-ALL vs. HIGH group. Additionally, VH and CD in the duodenum and VH:CD in the jejunum were greater in the LE-250 vs. LE-100 group. Specific activities of sucrase, maltase, and leucine aminopeptidase in these intestinal regions and those of amylase and trypsin in the pancreas were not influenced by the lipid content or dietary concentration of LE ZnO and also did not differ between the LE-ALL and either of the BASAL and HIGH groups, except for a greater pancreatic amylase activity in the former vs. HIGH group. In conclusion, the present results indicate that the LE ZnO, regardless of its lipid percentage or supplementation level examined in this study, has no significant effect on growth performance, fecal consistency, or digestive enzyme activities of weanling pigs under the experimental conditions.

        • KCI등재

          Effects of Steaming Time and Frequency for Manufactured Red Liriope platyphylla on the Insulin Secretion Ability and Insulin Receptor Signaling Pathway

          Sun,Il,Choi,Hye,Ryun,Lee,Jun,Seo,Goo,Ji,Eun,Kim,So,Hee,Nam,In,Sik,Hwang,Young,Ju,Lee,So,Hae,Prak,Hee,Seob,Lee,Jong,Sup,Lee,In,Surk,Jang,Hong,Ju,Son,Dae,Youn,Hwang 한국실험동물학회 2011 Laboratory Animal Research Vol.27 No.2

          In oriental medicine, Liriope platyphylla (LP) has long been regarded as a curative herb useful for the treatment of diabetes, asthma, and neurodegenerative disorders. The principal objective of this study was to assess the effects of steaming time and frequency for manufactured Red LP (RLP) on insulin secretion ability and insulin receptor signaling pathway. To achieve our goal, several types of LPs manufactured under different conditions were applied to INS cells and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic ICR mice, after which alterations in insulin concentrations were detected in the culture supernatants and sera. The optimal concentration for the investigation of insulin secretion ability was found to be 50 ㎍/mL of LP. At this concentration, maximum insulin secretion was observed in the INS cells treated with LP extract steamed for 3 h (3-SLP) with two repeated steps (3 h steaming and 24 h air-dried) carried out 9 times (9-SALP); no significant changes in viability were detected in any of the treated cells. Additionally, the expression and phosphorylation levels of most components in the insulin receptor signaling pathway were increased significantly in the majority of cells treated with steaming-processed LP as compared to the cells treated with LP prepared without steaming. With regard to glucose transporter (GLUT) expression, alterations of steaming time induced similar responses on the expression levels of GLUT-2 and GLUT-3. However, differences in steaming frequency were also shown to induce dose-dependent responses in the expression level of GLUT-2 only; no significant differences in GLUT-3 expression were detected under these conditions. Furthermore, these responses observed in vitro were similarly detected in STZ-induced diabetic mice. 24-SLP and 9-SALP treatment applied for 14 days induced the down-regulation of glucose concentration and upregulation of insulin concentration. Therefore, these results indicated that the steaming processed LP may contribute to the relief of diabetes symptoms and should be regarded as an excellent candidate for a diabetes treatment.

        • KCI등재

          닭에서 사육밀도 및 Lipopolysaccharide 투여가 면역장기 무게, 혈액 생화학적 성상 및 친염증 사이토카인 mRNA 발현에 미치는 영향

          장인석(In-Surk Jang), 송민혜(Min-Hye Song), 김하나(Ha-Na Kim), 문양수(Yang Soo Moon), 손시환(Sea Hwan Sohn) 한국가금학회 2016 韓國家禽學會誌 Vol.43 No.3

          본 연구는 닭에서 사육밀도[(대조군(SSD) 495 ㎠/수 vs. 고밀도사육군(HSD) 245 ㎠/수] 및 LPS 투여(5 mg/kg BW)가 다른 각종 생리적 스트레스 지표에 미치는 영향을 조사하기 위해 실시되었다. 대조군, HSD군 및 LPS군(5 mg/kg BW)에서 체중 및 장기 무게를 조사한 결과, SSD군과 HSD군간 비교 시 체중은 고밀도사육 시 현저히(p<0.05) 감소하였으나, 간, 비장 및 흉선 무게는 차이가 없었다. LPS 투여군에서는 대조군에 비해 흉선과 F-낭 무게가 유의적(p<0.05)으로 증가하였다. 혈액 생화학적 성분에서 AST, ALT 및 BUN 수준은 SSD군과 HSD군 간에는 차이가 없었지만, LPS군에서 증가되었다(p<0.05). 혈중 Ca, P, CK, uric acid 수준 모두 LPS군에서유의하게(p<0.05) 높았다. 혈중 corticosterone 수준은 LPS군에서 SSD군과 HSD군에 비해 유의적(p<0.05)으로 증가되었으나, SSD와 HSD군 간에는 차이가 없었다. 친염증 사이토카인 mRNA 발현을 조사한 결과, 간 조직의 IL-1β, IL-6 및 iNOS mRNA 발현은 LPS군에서 SSD군에 비해 증가되었으나(p<0.05), SSD군과 HSD군 간에는 차이가 없었다. 흉선 IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18 mRNA 유전자 역시 LPS군에서 다른 군들에 비해 유의하게(p<0.05) 증가되었다. HSD군에서 흉선의 IL-1β는 SSD군에 비해 현저히(p<0.05) 증가되었다. F-낭의 IL-1β 발현은 LPS군에서 SSD군에 비해 증가되었으나(p<0.05), 다른 사이토카인은 차이가 없었다. 이상의 결과, 고밀도사육에 따른 만성스트레스 요인은 닭의 환경적응성에 따라 생산성을 제외한 다른 지표들의 변화는 적었으나, LPS 투여는 혈액 생화학성분 및 친염증 사이토카인 mRNA 발현을 현저하게 변화시켰다. This study was performed to investigate the effects of the stocking density (standard stocking density (SSD, 495 ㎠/bird)) vs. high stocking density (HSD,245㎠/bird) and challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5mg/kg BW) on the stress-related physiological indicators in chicks. There was a significant (p<0.05) decrease in body weight, but not in the weight of immune organs, between the SSD and HSD groups. The LPS group resulted in a significant (p<0.05) increase in the weights of the thymus and bursa of fabricius compared with the SSD group. Plasma biochemical components, including aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), blood urea nitrogen, Ca, P, creatine kinase and uric acid, markedly (p<0.05) increased in the LPS birds, although no difference in these parameters was observed between the SSD and HSD birds. Furthermore, the birds challenged with LPS showed a significant (p<0.05) increase in the plasma corticosterone level, although this hormone did not differ between the SSD and HSD groups. In the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, hepatic IL-1β, IL-6 and iNOS in the LPS group significantly (p<0.05) increased compared with those in the SSD group. Thymic mRNA expression of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-18 in the LPS group also significantly (p<0.05) increased compared with those in the other groups. In addition, mRNA expression of IL-1β in the bursa of fabricius of the LPS group increased (p<0.05) without affecting the other cytokines. Under high stocking density, thymic IL-1β was the only cytokine that was up-regulated compared with the SSD group. In conclusion, an acute stress induced by LPS challenge profoundly affected immune organ weight, blood biochemical profiles and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, while chronic stress did not markedly affect biochemical and immunological parameters, suggesting that chicks under high stocking density could be adapted to prolonged stressors.

        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

          Effects of Vitamin C or E on the Pro-inflammatory Cytokines, Heat Shock Protein 70 and Antioxidant Status in Broiler Chicks under Summer Conditions

          Jang,,In-Surk,Ko,,Young-Hyun,Moon,,Yang-Soo,Sohn,,Sea-Hwan Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2014 Animal Bioscience Vol.27 No.5

          The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary antioxidants on pro-inflammatory cytokines, heat shock protein (HSP) and antioxidant status in broiler chicks under summer conditions. A total of 162, 3-d-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to a basal diet (CON) and the basal diet supplemented with vitamin C (200 mg/kg diet, VCD) or vitamin E (100 mg/kg, VED) until 35 day of age. All birds were exposed to summer diurnal heat stress at average daily fluctuations of temperature between $32^{\circ}C$ to $34^{\circ}C$ at day to $27^{\circ}C$ to $29^{\circ}C$ at night for the entire feeding periods. There was no significant difference in body weight, feed to gain ratio and the relative organ weight except the thymus in response to dietary vitamin C or E supplementation. However, the mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-$1{\beta}$, IL-6, interferon (IFN)-${\gamma}$, Toll like receptor (TLR)-4 and HSP70 in the liver of birds fed diet containing vitamin C significantly (p<0.05) decreased compared with those in birds fed basal diet. Dietary vitamin E also showed a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the mRNA expression of IL-6 and HSP70 compared with a basal diet. Total antioxidant status (TAS) in serum of birds fed vitamin C supplemented diet was significantly (p<0.05) higher with than that in birds a basal diet. Lipid peroxidation in serum and liver resulted in a significant (p<0.05) decrease in response to dietary vitamin C or E supplementation. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with antioxidant vitamins, especially vitamin C resulted in a significant decrease in the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and HSP70, and higher antioxidant parameters than that of birds on the basal diet under summer conditions.

        • Transgenic Carrots Overproducing Various Carotenoids and Biological Activities of Carotenoids and Carrot Extracts

          Mi-Jeong,Ahn,Cheol,Ho,Lee,In-Surk,Jang,Sun-Hwa,Ha,Kyoungwhan,Back,Jung-Myung,Bae,Shin-Woo,Lee 한국작물학회 2010 한국작물학회 학술발표대회 논문집 Vol.2010 No.04

          There are many evidences that carotenoids may act as antioxidants and protect humans from serious disorders such as skin degeneration and aging, cardiovascular disease, certain types of cancer, and age-related diseases of the eye. Carrots (Daucus carota L.) are consumed as an important dietary source of b-carotene, a-carotene and lutein. Astaxanthin, a keto-carotenoid has been used to raise red color of fish body and to improve immune activity in fish-breeding industry. In this study, transgenic carrot plants were generated to overproduce carotenoids including astaxanthin, a non-natural ketocarotenoid in this plant, using an efficient storage root-expression system. Among the nineteen transgenic carrot plants, transformed by a storage root-specific (ibMads) or a storage root (ibAGP1) or the constitutive CaMV35S promoters with three genes involved in carotenoid synthesis [Psy (Phytoen synthase), Crtl (Lycopen-β-cyclase), CrtO (β-carotene ketolase)], transgenic plants with ibAGP1 promoter, an amyloplast targeting sequence (TP1) and a single CrtO gene gave high content of keto-carotenoids and b-carotene. For fish body coloration, carotenoid extract or astaxanthin significantly made the body color of red seabreams more reddish than those of normal diet-fish in the 3 weeks feeding. In addition, the serum lysozyme activity in carotene-treated fish was significantly higher than that in normal diet-fed fish (P<0.05) in the 6 weeks feeding. In these cases, neither carotenoid extract- nor astaxanthin-contained diet did influence on growth rate and food utilization in red seabreams. These results suggested that carotenoid extract prepared in the present study may be useful in the body coloration and the enhancement of nonspecific immune response of red seabreams. Meanwhile, b-carotene (50 mM) up-regulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor a expression (PPAR-a) by about two fold in CV-1 cells, while the carotenoid extracts and astaxanthin failed to affect on the expression. Carotenoid extracts (250 mg/ml) from wild type carrot or transgenic carrots showed moderate DPPH scavenging activity.

        • KCI우수등재

          Animal Behavior and Welfare : Effects of Housing Systems on Physiological and Immunological Parameters in Laying Hens

          ( Sung Young Kang ), ( Young Hyun Ko ), ( Yang Soo Moon ), ( Sea Hwan Sohn ), ( In Surk Jang ) 한국동물자원과학회(구 한국축산학회) 2013 한국축산학회지 Vol.55 No.2

          The aim of this study was to assess the effects of housing systems on physiological and immunological responses as stress indicators in laying hens. A total of 500 White Leghorn aged 16 weeks were allotted into ten conventional cages (10 birds/cage and 810 cm²/bird) and four floor pens (100 birds/pen and 2,800 cm²/bird) for 24 weeks. The hens housed in conventional cages with higher stocking density resulted in a significantly (P<0.05) lower BW compared with those housed in floor pens with lower stocking density without affecting the relative weights of immune organs between housing conditions. In plasma biochemical values, cholesterol and corticosterone were significantly (P<0.05) tower in the hens housed in floor pens compared with those housed in conventional cages. In pro-inflammatory cytokines, hepatic interleukin (IL)-10 and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) levels were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the hens housed in conventional cages compared with those kept to floor pens. Splenic and thymic IFN- γ expression was significantly (P<0.05) up-regulated in the hens kept in conventional cages compared with those kept in floor pens without affecting IL-1, IL-10, lipopolysaccharide- induced tumor necrosis factor-α factor (LITAF) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In the bursa of Fabricius, IL-10 and iNOS expression of the hens housed in conventional cages were significantly (P<0.05) higher compared with those of the hens housed in floor pens. In conclusion, layers housed in conventional cages enhanced plasma cholesterol, corticosterone and some pro-inflammatory cytokines in the immune organs compared with those in floor pens.

        • KCI등재후보

          절식이 흰쥐 대뇌겉질의 Nitric Oxide Synthase 발현에 미치는 영향

          피영호(Young Hao Pi), 허영범(Young Buhm Huh), 강경란(Kyoung Lan Kang), 장인석(In Surk Jang), 조정식(Jung Sik Cho), 김정혜(Jung Hye Kim), 유진화(Jin Hwa Yoo), 안희경(Hee Kyung Ahn) 대한해부학회 2000 Anatomy & Cell Biology Vol.33 No.4

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          흰쥐에게 자유급여량의 50%로 줄인 절식을 시행한 후 시간 경과에 따른 대뇌겉질의 nitric oxide synthase (NOS) 신경세포의 변화를 관찰하였다. Neuronal NOS (nNOS)의 변화를 알아보고자 NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d) 조직화학을 시행하고, inducible NOS (iNOS) 면역조직화학을 시행하여 iNOS의 발현을 관찰하여 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. 절식후 3일군에서는 iNOS에 염색되는 신경세포는 관찰되지 않았다. 절식 1주군에서는 동종겉질에서 많은 iNOS 신경세포들이 관찰되었는데 특히 일차운동감각겉질, 이차운동감각겉질, 청각겉질 및 시각겉질에서 특히 많이 유도되었다. 이종겉질의 1주군에서는 팽대뒤겉질에서 iNOS 신경세포가 관찰되었고 다른 영역에서는 발현된 iNOS가 관찰되지 않았다. 4 주군 에서는 후각뇌바깥겉질과 후각뇌주위겉질에서 적은 수의 iNOS 신경세포가 관찰되었다. 9주군에서는 팽대뒤겉질에서만 iNOS 신경세포가 관찰되었고 다른 대뇌겉질에서는 발현된 iNOS 신경세포들은 관찰 할 수 없었다. NADPH-d 조직화학을 시행한 결과 NADPH-d 신경세포는 iNOS와 공존하지 않았다. NADPH-d 신경세포에 대해 densitometry로 염색성을 측정한 결과 절식후 3일군에서는 대조군보다 감소된 염색성을 보였으나 1주군에서는 다시 증가한 결과를 보였고 9주군에서는 대조군보다도 많이 감소된 염색성을 보였다. 이상의 결과로 보아 절식후 대뇌겉질에서 nNOS의 효소활성이 변화하며, 대뇌겉질의 특정부위에서 iNOS가 신경세포에서 유도되고, 유도된 iNOS는 NOS 효소활성이 없는 것을 알 수 있었다. 뇌에서 NO는 NOS에 의해 생성되며 혈관확장과 신경전달에 관여한다. 따라서 절식후에 유도되는 iNOS 신경세포와 NADPH-d 효소활성 증가는 절식후 대뇌겉질의 신경활성작용에 영향을 줄 것으로 생각된다. Nitric oxide is synthesized by cells containing the nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d) is a selective histochemical marker for the NOS in the brain. The influence of feeding rats only half the amount of their normal daily intake of a purified diet on NOS was measured in the cerebral cortex by immunohistochemistry and NADPH-d histochemistry. iNOS was not detected in the cerebral cortex of control group. iNOS-positive neurons were induced in the cerebral cortex at 1 week after food restriction and found in specific cortical areas, such as primary motor cortex, secondary motor cortex, primary somatosensory cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex, parietal association cortex, auditory cortex, visual cortex, temporal association cortex and retrosplenial cortex. At 2 weeks after food restriction, iNOSpositive neurons were not found in all cortical areas. At 4 weeks after food restriction, iNOS-positive neurons were found in ectorhinal cortex and perirhinal cortex. In samples obtained 3 days after food restriction, the staining intensity of NADPH-d-positive neurons was decreased in most cortrical regions compared to the control group. At 1 week after food restriction, the staining intensity of NADPH-d was significantly increased in isocortical regions compared to the control group. At 9 weeks after food restriction, the staining intensity of NADPH-d was significantly decreased in all cortical regions. NO, a free radical synthesized in the brain by NOS, is a messenger molecule that mediates vascular dilatation and neural transmission. Therefore, neurons showing induced iNOS-positivity and upregulated NADPH-dpositive neurons may affect the neuronal activity in the cerebral cortex after food restriction.

        • KCI우수등재

          Effects of Housing Systems on Physiological and Immunological Parameters in Laying Hens

          Kang,,Sung-Young,Ko,,Young-Hyun,Moon,,Yang-Soo,Sohn,,Sea-Hwan,Jang,,In-Surk Korean Society of Animal Sciences and Technology 2013 한국축산학회지 Vol.55 No.2

          The aim of this study was to assess the effects of housing systems on physiological and immunological responses as stress indicators in laying hens. A total of 500 White Leghorn aged 16 weeks were allotted into ten conventional cages (10 birds/cage and 810 $cm^2$/bird) and four floor pens (100 birds/pen and 2,800 $cm^2$/bird) for 24 weeks. The hens housed in conventional cages with higher stocking density resulted in a significantly (P<0.05) lower BW compared with those housed in floor pens with lower stocking density without affecting the relative weights of immune organs between housing conditions. In plasma biochemical values, cholesterol and corticosterone were significantly (P<0.05) lower in the hens housed in floor pens compared with those housed in conventional cages. In pro-inflammatory cytokines, hepatic interleukin (IL)-10 and interferon-gamma (IFN-${\gamma}$) levels were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the hens housed in conventional cages compared with those kept in floor pens. Splenic and thymic IFN-${\gamma}$ expression was significantly (P<0.05) up-regulated in the hens kept in conventional cages compared with those kept in floor pens without affecting IL-1, IL-10, lipopolysaccharide- induced tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$ factor (LITAF) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In the bursa of Fabricius, IL-10 and iNOS expression of the hens housed in conventional cages were significantly (P<0.05) higher compared with those of the hens housed in floor pens. In conclusion, layers housed in conventional cages enhanced plasma cholesterol, corticosterone and some pro-inflammatory cytokines in the immune organs compared with those in floor pens.

        • KCI등재후보
        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

          Effects of the Combined Stress Induced by Stocking Density and Feed Restriction on Hematological and Cytokine Parameters as Stress Indicators in Laying Hens

          Kang,,Sun-Young,Ko,,Young-Hyun,Moon,,Yang-Soo,Sohn,,Sea-Hwan,Jang,,In-Surk Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2011 Animal Bioscience Vol.24 No.3

          A study was conducted to investigate the effects of the combined stressor induced by high stocking density with feed restriction on immunological parameters such as leukocyte differential counts and cytokine expression in laying hens. A total of forty White Leghorn laying hens were randomly allotted into the control (12 kg of body weight/$m^2$) and the stress (44 kg of body weight/$m^2$) groups, and then birds of the stress group were given 75% of voluntary intake of the control birds for 12-d on a daily basis. There was a significant decrease in body weight without affecting the relative weights of the liver and spleen after 12-d of the combined stressor. In hematological values, no significant difference in leukocyte differential counts including heterophils (H), lymphocytes (L), monocytes and H:L ratio was observed between the two groups. In cytokines, hepatic lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$ (LITNF-${\alpha}$) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression levels in the stress group were significantly (p<0.05) higher compared with those in the control group. However, the expression levels of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-6 in the liver were not affected by the combined stressor. Splenic LITNF-${\alpha}$ expression in the combined stressor group was significantly (p<0.05) up-regulated compared with that in the control birds. However, the combined stressor did not affect splenic IL-4, IL-6 and iNOS expression. In conclusion, the combined stressor caused by high stocking density with feed restriction enhanced some pro-inflammatory cytokines including LITNF-${\alpha}$ and iNOS in lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs of birds, suggesting that altered cytokine expression to given stressors can be another parameter that can be used in assessing stress responses of birds.

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