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        Publication Report of the Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences over its History of 15 Years - A Review

        Han, In K. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2002 Animal Bioscience Vol.15 No.1

        As an official journal of the Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies (AAAP), the Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences (AJAS) was born in February 1987 and the first issue (Volume 1, Number 1) was published in March 1988 under the Editorship of Professor In K. Han (Korea). By the end of 2001, a total of 84 issues in 14 volumes and 1,761 papers in 11,462 pages had been published. In addition to these 14 volumes, a special issue entitled "Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition" (April, 2000) and 3 supplements entitled "Proceedings of the 9th AAAP Animal Science Congress" (July, 2000) were also published. Publication frequency has steadily increased from 4 issues in 1988, to 6 issues in 1997 and to 12 issues in 2000. The total number of pages per volume and the number of original or review papers published also increased. Some significant milestones in the history of the AJAS include that (1) it became a Science Citation Index (SCI) journal in 1997, (2) the impact factor of the journal improved from 0.257 in 1999 to 0.446 in 2000, (3) it became a monthly journal (12 issues per volume) in 2000, (4) it adopted an English editing system in 1999, and (5) it has been covered in "Current Contents/Agriculture, Biology and Environmental Science since 2000. The AJAS is subscribed by 842 individuals or institutions. Annual subscription fees of US$ 50 (Category B) or US$ 70 (Category A) for individuals and US$ 70 (Category B) or US$ 120 (Category A) for institutions are much less than the actual production costs of US$ 130. A list of the 1,761 papers published in AJAS, listed according to subject area, may be found in the AJAS homepage (http://www.ajas.snu.ac.kr) and a very well prepared "Editorial Policy with Guide for Authors" is available in the Appendix of this paper. With regard to the submission status of manuscripts from AAAP member countries, India (235), Korea (235) and Japan (198) have submitted the most manuscripts. On the other hand, Mongolia, Nepal, and Papua New Guinea have never submitted any articles. The average time required from submission of a manuscript to printing in the AJAS has been reduced from 11 months in 1997-2000 to 7.8 months in 2001. The average rejection rate of manuscripts was 35.3%, a percentage slightly higher than most leading animal science journals. The total number of scientific papers published in the AJAS by AAAP member countries during a 14-year period (1988-2001) was 1,333 papers (75.7%) and that by non- AAAP member countries was 428 papers (24.3%). Japanese animal scientists have published the largest number of papers (397), followed by Korea (275), India (160), Bangladesh (111), Pakistan (85), Australia (71), Malaysia (59), China (53), Thailand (53), and Indonesia (34). It is regrettable that the Philippines (15), Vietnam (10), New Zealand (8), Nepal (2), Mongolia (0) and Papua New Guinea (0) have not actively participated in publishing papers in the AJAS. It is also interesting to note that the top 5 countries (Bangladesh, India, Japan, Korea and Pakistan) have published 1,028 papers in total indicating 77% of the total papers being published by AAAP animal scientists from Vol. 1 to 14 of the AJAS. The largest number of papers were published in the ruminant nutrition section (591 papers-44.3%), followed by the non-ruminant nutrition section (251 papers-18.8%), the animal reproduction section (153 papers-11.5%) and the animal breeding section (115 papers-8.6%). The largest portion of AJAS manuscripts was reviewed by Korean editors (44.3%), followed by Japanese editors (18.1%), Australian editors (6.0%) and Chinese editors (5.6%). Editors from the rest of the AAAP member countries have reviewed slightly less than 5% of the total AJAS manuscripts. It was regrettably noticed that editorial members representing Nepal (66.7%), Mongolia (50.0%), India (35.7%), Pakistan (25.0%), Papua New Guinea (25.0%), Malaysia (22.8%) and New Zealand (21.5%) have failed to return many of t


        Growth and Development of the Academic Societies and Animal Production in Korea, China and Asia over the Last 50 Years

        Han, In K.,Ha, Jong K.,Lee, J.H. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2009 Animal Bioscience Vol.22 No.6

        The Korean Society of Animal Science (KSAS) was officially born on October 8, 1956 under the leadership of Professor Sang W. Yun of Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea a few years after the end of the Korean War. At that time, there were 0.9 million Korean native cattle, 1.3 million pigs and 8.9 million chickens in Korea. Per capita income for Korea (US$ 66) or China (US$ 59) was about 10% of Asian's average income (US$ 513) in 1956. Korea produced less than 0.2 million M/T of formula feed and consumed 6.1 kg/person/year of animal products. One could say that Korea was an example of an under-developed country in the world. Although the first issue of the Proceedings of the KSAS was published on October 28, 1958, regular quarterly journals of the KSAS were not published until March 1, 1969. Major activities other than publishing its journal were: holding an annual meeting and/or scientific forum at national or international level. The Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies (AAAP) was founded on September 1, 1980 at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia with founding members from Australia, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, NZ, Philippines and Thailand. Thirteen AAAP Animal Science Congresses have been held in its 28 year history. Hosting countries were Malaysia (1980), Philippines (1982), Korea (1985), NZ (1987), Taiwan (1990), Thailand (1992), Indonesia (1994), Japan (1996), Australia (2000), India (2002), Malaysia (2004), Korea (2006) and Vietnam(2008). In 1988, significant progress of the AAAP was made by creating an official English journal of the AAAP entitled "Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences (AJAS)" under the initiative of the KSAS. This journal is now published monthly and distributed to more than 50 countries in the AAAP region and the world. It should be mentioned that the KSAS was able to successfully host the $3^{rd}$ AAAP Animal Science Congress in 1985 and the 12th in 2006, as well as the $8^{th}$ WCAP in 1998. During the last 50 years of KSAS history, per capita income of Korea increased to US$ 17,690 (268 fold), formula feed production increased to 15 million M/T (97 fold) and consumption of animal products increased to 105 kg/person/year (17 fold). Cattle, pig and chicken numbers also increased to 2.5 million (2.8 fold), 9 million (7.4 fold) and 119 million (13 fold). This trend was also found for China and Asia, even if the rate of growth was slightly lower than that of Korea. It is expected that a similar rate of growth in economics, animal numbers, formula feed production and animal protein intake will likely be achieved by other Asian countries in the $21^{st}$ century with somewhat lower rate of development than that of Korea.


        Guidelines for experimental design and statistical analyses in animal studies submitted for publication in the Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences

        Seo, Seongwon,Jeon, Seoyoung,Ha, Jong K. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2018 Animal Bioscience Vol.31 No.9

        Animal experiments are essential to the study of animal nutrition. Because of the large variations among individual animals and ethical and economic constraints, experimental designs and statistical analyses are particularly important in animal experiments. To increase the scientific validity of the results and maximize the knowledge gained from animal experiments, each experiment should be appropriately designed, and the observations need to be correctly analyzed and transparently reported. There are many experimental designs and statistical methods. This editorial does not aim to review and present particular experimental designs and statistical methods. Instead, we discuss some essential elements when designing an animal experiment and conducting statistical analyses in animal nutritional studies and provide guidelines for submitting a manuscript to the Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences for consideration for publication.


        Possible Application of Animal Reproductive Researches to the Restoration of Endangered and/or Extinct Wild Animals - Review -

        Fujihara, N.,Xi, Y.M. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2000 Animal Bioscience Vol.13 No.7

        As described here, most recently developed methods for improving reproduction performance of domesticated animals such as cattle, swine and chicken have been considered to be also usable for restoring some sorts of endangered and/or extinct wild animals in the very near future. Especially, the techniques for in vitro storage of gametes obtained from dead animals shortly after the death, probably 24 h following the sacrifice are also available for obtaining some of experimental specimens. In case of the endangered animals, nobody will be allowed to use any tissues from the living animals, therefore, e.g., the use of skin tissues from these bodies is another possibility of restoring the living animals. Regarding the use of skin tissues, the most highly usable tools must be the cloning techniques for reviving rare cells from the living body. Most possible techniques for cloning cells is nuclear transfer from rare species to highly relative species, and this is the case of germ cells, e.g., primordial germ cells (PGCs) of avian species. One of the possibilities is the nuclear transfer of Crested Ibis (Nipponia nippon) to the PGCs of chicken, resulting in the PGCs with transferred nucleus from the ibis. In mammalian species, the same procedure as in the case of birds would be successful, e.g., the removed nucleus from Giant Pandas will be transferred to the cell, such as somatic cells or germ cells from black bears or lesser pandas, leading to the production of transnucleared cells in the body of female black bears. These two cases are most promising techniques for reviving endangered animals in the world, particularly in Asian countries, mainly in China. As a conclusion, possible production of cloned animals carrying transnucleared cells from endangered animals, such as Giant Pandas and Crested Ibis, may be reproduced gradually in the near future. Scientists are, therefore, required to convert the paradigm from domestic animals to wild animals, including endangered and/or extinct animals on the earth.



        Abdullah, N.,Hanita, H.,Ho, Y.W.,Kudo, H.,Jalaludin, S.,Ivan, M. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 1995 Animal Bioscience Vol.8 No.3

        The effects of bentonite (B) on rumen protozoal population and rumen fluid characteristics of sheep fed palm kernel cake (PKC) were studied for a period of 21 days. Two groups, each comprising two sheep were fed either PKC or PKC + B ad libitum A third group was left at pasture. Rumen fluid was sampled through a rumen cannula three times daily from all animals. Palm kernel cake contained 16% crude protein, 1 % crude fat and high amounts of copper, zinc, iron and manganese. Protozoal population in the rumen fluid decreased significantly (p < 0.05) after the onset of feeding PKC or PKC + B. However, sheep given bentonite supplementation at 2% of the dietary dry matter, maintained higher protozoal densities ($15{\times}10^4/ml$) when compared to animals fed only PKC ($8{\times}10^4/ml$). With both diets, the protozoa were mainly of the small entodinia species. Animals at pasture had higher protozoal population ($47{\times}10^4/ml$) with varying species of entodiniomorphids and holotrichs. Rumen fluid pH and ammonia concentration was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in animals at pasture compared to animals fed PKC or PKC + B. Volatile fatty acid concentration was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in animals fed PKC when compared to animals at pasture. There was a shift in fermentation pattern in animals fed PKC or PKC + B towards a lower acetate; and higher propionate, isovalerate and valerate. Studies in vitro also showed the positive effect of bentonite on protozoal numbers.


        The Plasma Level of Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) in Relation to Mammary Circulation and Milk Yield in Two Different Types of Crossbred Holstein Cattle

        Chaiyabutr, N.,Komolvanich, S.,Thammacharoen, S.,Chanpongsang, S. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2004 Animal Bioscience Vol.17 No.3

        The objective of the present study was to determine the plasma level of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in relation to mammary blood flow and milk yield including biological variables of relevance to milk synthesis in two different types of crossbred Holstein cattle at 3 different stages of lactation. Eight heifers were 87.5% HF and eight 50% HF animals were selected for the experiments. The three stages of lactation tested were: early lactation (30 days postpartum), mid-lactation (120 days postpartum) and late lactation (210 days postpartum). Animals in each group were fed a concentrate and rice straw treated with 5% urea as the source of roughage throughout the experiments. In early lactation, mammary blood flow and milk yield of 87.5% HF animals were significantly higher than those of 50% HF animals. In mid- and late lactation, both mammary blood flow and milk yield showed a proportional decrease from the early lactating period of 87.5% HF animals. The trends for persistency were observed in 50% HF animals as for udder blood flow and milk yield throughout the experimental periods. The plasma glucose level of the 50% HF animals was significantly higher than those of 87.5% HF animals in both early and mid-lactation. The concentrations of arterial plasma free fatty acids ($C_{16}\;to\;C_{18}$) were higher in 50% HF animals as compared with 87.5% HF animals in all periods of study. In early lactation, the concentration of plasma growth hormone (GH) of 87.5% HF animals was higher than those of the 50% HF animals, thereafter the mean level of plasma growth hormone declined in both mid- and late lactation. The concentration of plasma IGF-I of 50% HF animals was significantly higher than those of 87.5% HF animals in all stages of lactation. There were no differences among stages of lactation for the levels of plasma IGF-I, insulin and growth hormone in 50% HF animals. In 87.5% HF animals, the plasma levels of both IGF-I and insulin were lower in early lactating period while it showed an increase during mid- and late lactation. The present results indicated that the regulatory role for the higher mammary blood flow and milk yield during lactation in 87.5% HF are not mediated via the higher level of circulating IGF-I. Differences in mammary blood flow and milk yield between 50% HF and 87.5% HF animals are in part due to a higher concentration of circulating growth hormone. The lower level of circulating growth hormone in 50% HF animals would be regulated by higher levels of IGF-I, free fatty acid and glucose in plasma.


        Differences in microbiome and virome between cattle and horses in the same farm

        Park, Jongbin,Kim, Eun Bae Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2020 Animal Bioscience Vol.33 No.6

        Objective: The ecosystem of an animal farm is composed of various elements, such as animals, farmers, plants, feed, soil, and microorganisms. A domesticated animal's health is largely connected with the reservoir of bacteria and viruses in animal farms. Although a few studies have focused on exploring the gut microbiome of animals, communities of microbiota and viruses in feedlots have not been thoroughly investigated. Methods: Here, we collected feces and dust samples (4 groups: cattle feces, C_F; horse feces, H_F; cattle dust, C_D; and horse dust, H_D) from cattle and horse farms sharing the same housing and investigated their microbiome/virome communities by Illumina sequencing. Results: Dust groups (C_D and H_D) showed higher microbial diversity than feces groups (C_F and H_F) regardless of animal species. From the microbial community analysis, all the samples from the four groups have major phyla such as Proteobacteria (min 37.1% to max 42.8%), Firmicutes (19.1% to 24.9%), Bacteroidetes (10.6% to 22.1%), and Actinobacteria (6.1% to 20.5%). The abundance of Streptococcus, which commonly recognized as equine pathogens, was significantly higher in the horse group (H_D and H_F). Over 99% among the classified virome reads were classified as Caudovirales, a group of tailed bacteriophages, in all four groups. Foot-and-mouth disease virus and equine adenovirus, which cause deadly diseases in cattle and horse, respectively, were not detected. Conclusion: Our results will provide baseline information to understand different gut and environmental microbial ecology between two livestock species.


        Marker-Assisted Mating Applied in In-Situ Conservation of Indigenous Animals in Small Populations : (1) Choosing Mating Schemes for Maximum Heterozygosity

        Wu, X.L.,Liu, R.Z.,Shi, Q.S.,Liu, X.C.,Li, X.,Wu, M.S. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2000 Animal Bioscience Vol.13 No.4

        Maintaining maximum genetic variability is of critical importance with in-situ conservation of animal species in small populations. Marker-assisted mating (MAM) was suggested to achieve maximum heterozygosity in offspring populations. The aims of this research was to investigate and decide the effectiveness and promising types of MAM to achieve this goal. Analysis of variance with simulation data revealed that the heterozygosity in offspring populations was significantly determined by sire heterozygosity from mating of non-inbred parent animals, and significantly by sire heterozygosity and percent parental difference in offspring reproduced by inbred parents. Seven types of marker-assisted mating schemes were examined, in which offspring exhibited heterozygosity that was -0.01 to 7.37% below or above that from random mating of non-inbred parent animals, and 0.00 to 16.39% above that from random mating of inbred parent animals. The great increase in offspring heterozygosity was observed with mating by tandem maximizing sire heterozygosity, percent parental difference, and dam heterozygosity. Random mating resulted in fluctuation of offspring heterozygosity. These results suggested that MAM was a promising method for maintaining maximum offspring variability in in-situ conservation of animal species in small populations.


        Comparative Efficacy of Plant and Animal Protein Sources on the Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Morphology and Caecal Microbiology of Early-weaned Pigs

        Yun, J.H.,Kwon, I.K.,Lohakare, J.D.,Choi, J.Y.,Yong, J.S.,Zheng, J.,Cho, W.T.,Chae, B.J. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2005 Animal Bioscience Vol.18 No.9

        The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare the effects of various animal and plant protein sources on piglet' performance, digestibility of amino acids and gut morphology in weaned pigs until 28 days after weaning. The plant protein sources used were soybean meal (SBM), fermented soy protein (FSP), rice protein concentrate (RPC); and animal protein sources tested were, whey protein concentrate (WPC) and fishmeal (FM). Iso-proteinous (21%) diets were formulated and lysine (1.55%) content was similar in all the diets. The level of each protein source added was 6% by replacing SBM to the same extent from the control diet containing 15% SBM. The ADG was higher (p<0.05) in the groups fed animal proteins as compared with plant proteins at all the levels of measurement, except during 15-28 days. The highest ADG was noted in WPC and FM fed diets and lowest in SBM fed diet. The feed intake was higher in animal protein fed groups than plant proteins at all phases, but the feed:gain ratio was not affected by protein sources except during overall (0 to 14 day) measurement which was improved (p<0.05) in animal protein fed diets compared to plant protein sources. The digestibilities of gross energy, dry matter and crude protein were higher in animal protein fed groups than for plant protein fed sources. The apparent ileal digestibilities of essential amino acids like Leu, Thr, and Met were significantly (p<0.05) higher in animal proteins fed animals as compared with plant protein fed animals. But the apparent fecal digestibilities of essential amino acids like Arg and Ile were significantly higher (p<0.05) in plant protein diets than animal protein sources. The villous structure studied by scanning electron microscope were prominent, straight finger-like, although shortened and densely located in FM fed group as compared with others. The lactic acid bacteria and C. perfringens counts were higher in caecal contents of pigs fed plant proteins than the animal proteins. Overall, it could be concluded that animal protein sources in the present study showed better effects on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and gut morphology than plant protein sources.


        Hemoglobin Concentration and Hematocrit Value of Black Bengal Goats Infected with Fasciola gigantica

        Howlader, M.M.R.,Huq, M.M. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 1997 Animal Bioscience Vol.10 No.1

        A total of 72 Black Bengal goats of 2.5 to 3.5 and 4.0 to 6.0 years old were used in this study. Equal number of animals were included in Fasciola gigantica infected and non-infected control groups. For each age and treatment groups 18 blood samples were collected in glass vials contained EDTA anticoagulant in summer and winter seasons before the animals were slaughtered at abottoir. Packed cell volume (PCV) was determined using microhematocrit and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration by cyanmethemoglobin methods. The PCV of F. gigantica infected animals were significantly lower than the non-infected animals. The average PCV values obtained were 26.60 and 32.20% for F. gigantica infected and non-infected animals, respectively. The Hb values of infected animals were significantly lower than the non-infected animals. The average Hb values obtained were 9.17 and 10.51 gm% for F. gigantica infected and non-infected goats, respectively. There was no significant effect of age and season on the values of PCV and Hb of infected and non-infected animals.

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