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          Guidelines for experimental design and statistical analyses in animal studies submitted for publication in the Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences

          Seo, Seongwon,Jeon, Seoyoung,Ha, Jong K. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2018 Animal Bioscience Vol.31 No.9

          Animal experiments are essential to the study of animal nutrition. Because of the large variations among individual animals and ethical and economic constraints, experimental designs and statistical analyses are particularly important in animal experiments. To increase the scientific validity of the results and maximize the knowledge gained from animal experiments, each experiment should be appropriately designed, and the observations need to be correctly analyzed and transparently reported. There are many experimental designs and statistical methods. This editorial does not aim to review and present particular experimental designs and statistical methods. Instead, we discuss some essential elements when designing an animal experiment and conducting statistical analyses in animal nutritional studies and provide guidelines for submitting a manuscript to the Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences for consideration for publication.


          Publication Report of the Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences over its History of 15 Years - A Review

          Han, In K. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2002 Animal Bioscience Vol.15 No.1

          As an official journal of the Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies (AAAP), the Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences (AJAS) was born in February 1987 and the first issue (Volume 1, Number 1) was published in March 1988 under the Editorship of Professor In K. Han (Korea). By the end of 2001, a total of 84 issues in 14 volumes and 1,761 papers in 11,462 pages had been published. In addition to these 14 volumes, a special issue entitled "Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition" (April, 2000) and 3 supplements entitled "Proceedings of the 9th AAAP Animal Science Congress" (July, 2000) were also published. Publication frequency has steadily increased from 4 issues in 1988, to 6 issues in 1997 and to 12 issues in 2000. The total number of pages per volume and the number of original or review papers published also increased. Some significant milestones in the history of the AJAS include that (1) it became a Science Citation Index (SCI) journal in 1997, (2) the impact factor of the journal improved from 0.257 in 1999 to 0.446 in 2000, (3) it became a monthly journal (12 issues per volume) in 2000, (4) it adopted an English editing system in 1999, and (5) it has been covered in "Current Contents/Agriculture, Biology and Environmental Science since 2000. The AJAS is subscribed by 842 individuals or institutions. Annual subscription fees of US$ 50 (Category B) or US$ 70 (Category A) for individuals and US$ 70 (Category B) or US$ 120 (Category A) for institutions are much less than the actual production costs of US$ 130. A list of the 1,761 papers published in AJAS, listed according to subject area, may be found in the AJAS homepage (http://www.ajas.snu.ac.kr) and a very well prepared "Editorial Policy with Guide for Authors" is available in the Appendix of this paper. With regard to the submission status of manuscripts from AAAP member countries, India (235), Korea (235) and Japan (198) have submitted the most manuscripts. On the other hand, Mongolia, Nepal, and Papua New Guinea have never submitted any articles. The average time required from submission of a manuscript to printing in the AJAS has been reduced from 11 months in 1997-2000 to 7.8 months in 2001. The average rejection rate of manuscripts was 35.3%, a percentage slightly higher than most leading animal science journals. The total number of scientific papers published in the AJAS by AAAP member countries during a 14-year period (1988-2001) was 1,333 papers (75.7%) and that by non- AAAP member countries was 428 papers (24.3%). Japanese animal scientists have published the largest number of papers (397), followed by Korea (275), India (160), Bangladesh (111), Pakistan (85), Australia (71), Malaysia (59), China (53), Thailand (53), and Indonesia (34). It is regrettable that the Philippines (15), Vietnam (10), New Zealand (8), Nepal (2), Mongolia (0) and Papua New Guinea (0) have not actively participated in publishing papers in the AJAS. It is also interesting to note that the top 5 countries (Bangladesh, India, Japan, Korea and Pakistan) have published 1,028 papers in total indicating 77% of the total papers being published by AAAP animal scientists from Vol. 1 to 14 of the AJAS. The largest number of papers were published in the ruminant nutrition section (591 papers-44.3%), followed by the non-ruminant nutrition section (251 papers-18.8%), the animal reproduction section (153 papers-11.5%) and the animal breeding section (115 papers-8.6%). The largest portion of AJAS manuscripts was reviewed by Korean editors (44.3%), followed by Japanese editors (18.1%), Australian editors (6.0%) and Chinese editors (5.6%). Editors from the rest of the AAAP member countries have reviewed slightly less than 5% of the total AJAS manuscripts. It was regrettably noticed that editorial members representing Nepal (66.7%), Mongolia (50.0%), India (35.7%), Pakistan (25.0%), Papua New Guinea (25.0%), Malaysia (22.8%) and New Zealand (21.5%) have failed to return many of t


          Growth and Development of the Academic Societies and Animal Production in Korea, China and Asia over the Last 50 Years

          Han, In K.,Ha, Jong K.,Lee, J.H. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2009 Animal Bioscience Vol.22 No.6

          The Korean Society of Animal Science (KSAS) was officially born on October 8, 1956 under the leadership of Professor Sang W. Yun of Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea a few years after the end of the Korean War. At that time, there were 0.9 million Korean native cattle, 1.3 million pigs and 8.9 million chickens in Korea. Per capita income for Korea (US$ 66) or China (US$ 59) was about 10% of Asian's average income (US$ 513) in 1956. Korea produced less than 0.2 million M/T of formula feed and consumed 6.1 kg/person/year of animal products. One could say that Korea was an example of an under-developed country in the world. Although the first issue of the Proceedings of the KSAS was published on October 28, 1958, regular quarterly journals of the KSAS were not published until March 1, 1969. Major activities other than publishing its journal were: holding an annual meeting and/or scientific forum at national or international level. The Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies (AAAP) was founded on September 1, 1980 at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia with founding members from Australia, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, NZ, Philippines and Thailand. Thirteen AAAP Animal Science Congresses have been held in its 28 year history. Hosting countries were Malaysia (1980), Philippines (1982), Korea (1985), NZ (1987), Taiwan (1990), Thailand (1992), Indonesia (1994), Japan (1996), Australia (2000), India (2002), Malaysia (2004), Korea (2006) and Vietnam(2008). In 1988, significant progress of the AAAP was made by creating an official English journal of the AAAP entitled "Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences (AJAS)" under the initiative of the KSAS. This journal is now published monthly and distributed to more than 50 countries in the AAAP region and the world. It should be mentioned that the KSAS was able to successfully host the $3^{rd}$ AAAP Animal Science Congress in 1985 and the 12th in 2006, as well as the $8^{th}$ WCAP in 1998. During the last 50 years of KSAS history, per capita income of Korea increased to US$ 17,690 (268 fold), formula feed production increased to 15 million M/T (97 fold) and consumption of animal products increased to 105 kg/person/year (17 fold). Cattle, pig and chicken numbers also increased to 2.5 million (2.8 fold), 9 million (7.4 fold) and 119 million (13 fold). This trend was also found for China and Asia, even if the rate of growth was slightly lower than that of Korea. It is expected that a similar rate of growth in economics, animal numbers, formula feed production and animal protein intake will likely be achieved by other Asian countries in the $21^{st}$ century with somewhat lower rate of development than that of Korea.


          Grains and Roughage Production and Its Utilization in Asian-Australasian Region - Review -

          Bhat, P.N.,Bansil, P.C. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 1999 Animal Bioscience Vol.12 No.3

          Asian-Australasian region comprises of 82 countries spread over varying agro economic zones, habitats and ecosystems varying from dry hot to humid tropics and cold deserts. The literacy standards vary from very low to almost 100 percent. On the basis of economic development there are 4 countries Japan, Australia, New Zealand and Korea which are developed countries, rest are in varying states of development and growing economically very rapidly. Based on Agro ecosystems and farming practices, we have chosen four countries for indepth study in this paper namely China, Thailand, Indonesia and India. They represent 70% of the bovine and poultry population of the region. This paper makes a comparative study of the grain and roughage production and utilization at present and in 2000 A.D. by examining information on feed rates demand patterns and feed requirements in these four countries keeping in view the size and growth of bovine and poultry population and dietary pattern of the people. It has been observed, there has so far been no country level detailed study on the livestock feed requirements. Apart from conceptual discrepancies, most of the estimates given in various reports brought out by the national governments and international agencies do not have any scientific basis. Hence an inter-country comparison is virtually impossible on the basis of the available information. We have however, attempted to analyse the dietary pattern in the different countries, feedgrains requirements, availability of feed based on the information available from the various published and unpublished reports. We have given an inter-country comparison of feed rate and feed requirements which, however, needs to be tested by carrying out a micro level study in each selected country.


          Seasonal Grouping in Year-Season Animal Model Evaluation of Sahiwal Cattle

          Khan, M.S.,Ali, A.,Ali, S.,Saleem, M. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 1997 Animal Bioscience Vol.10 No.1

          Season is very important as it defines the contemporaries for sire and cow evaluation. An attempt is made for defining season for animal model evaluation of Sahiwal animals, using 1,227 records from 730 cows. Cows were required to have a lactation length of 305-days. Ten different combinations of months for two, four, five or other seasons were tried. The other fixed effect in the model was age defined within parity. The random effects were permanent environment and animal's breeeding value along with the residual effects. A single trait animal model was used where all known relationships of an animal were incorporated in a relationship matrix. The error variance from the fitted model decreased as the number of year-season combinations increased, indicating a month-year model to be more appropriate. This, on the other hand, decreased the number of contemporaries for certain subclasses to a minimum of one, making the bull comparisons invalid. Use of a two season scenario, with winter (November through February) and summer (March through October) was better than the other combinations in terms of error variance of the fitted model and the number of lactations represented in any year-season subclass.


          Studies on Milk Allantoin and Uric Acid in Relation to Feeding Regimens and Production Performance in Buffaloes

          Sikka, P.,Saxena, N.K.,Gupta, R.,Sethi, R.K.,Lall, D. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2001 Animal Bioscience Vol.14 No.11

          Allantoin and uric acid were estimated in milk to study the association between the levels of these purine derivatives and milk production per day under given feeding regimens. Keeping the stage of lactation, parity and initial milk yield in view thirty lactating buffaloes were randomly selected from early lactating group. All the animals were fed 30 kg green, 2 kg straw and 5 kg concentrate mixture on per animal/day basis at basal level up to 8 1 produce. 1 kg concentrate mixture, soaked cotton seed and boiled cotton seed was fed for every 2 I milk, respectively in Group I (control), Group II and Group III animals. Average milk Allantoin and Uric acid levels were $120{\pm}11.7g/ml$ and $4.03{\pm}0.63g/ml$, respectively in milk. Cotton seed feeding enhanced the milk production significantly (p<0.01) in comparison to concentrate mixture fed control group animals. A significant difference (p<0.01) in milk allantoin levels was found over the different feeding management at higher level of production group animals. Study also revealed a significant negative correlation between the milk allantoin and production per day r=-0.43 (p<0.05).


          Estimation of Genetic Parameters for Somatic Cell Scores of Holsteins Using Multi-trait Lactation Models in Korea

          Alam, M.,Cho, C.I.,Choi, T.J.,Park, B.,Choi, J.G.,Choy, Y.H.,Lee, S.S.,Cho, K.H. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2015 Animal Bioscience Vol.28 No.3

          The study was conducted to analyze the genetic parameters of somatic cell score (SCS) of Holstein cows, which is an important indicator to udder health. Test-day records of somatic cell counts (SCC) of 305-day lactation design from first to fifth lactations were collected on Holsteins in Korea during 2000 to 2012. Records of animals within 18 to 42 months, 30 to 54 months, 42 to 66 months, 54 to 78 months, and 66 to 90 months of age at the first, second, third, fourth and fifth parities were analyzed, respectively. Somatic cell scores were calculated, and adjusted for lactation production stages by Wilmink's function. Lactation averages of SCS ($LSCS_1$ through $LSCS_5$) were derived by further adjustments of each test-day SCS for five age groups in particular lactations. Two datasets were prepared through restrictions on number of sires/herd and dams/herd, progenies/sire, and number of parities/cow to reduce data size and attain better relationships among animals. All LSCS traits were treated as individual trait and, analyzed through multiple-trait sire models and single trait animal models via VCE 6.0 software package. Herd-year was fitted as a random effect. Age at calving was regressed as a fixed covariate. The mean LSCS of five lactations were between 3.507 and 4.322 that corresponded to a SCC range between 71,000 and 125,000 cells/mL; with coefficient of variation from 28.2% to 29.9%. Heritability estimates from sire models were within the range of 0.10 to 0.16 for all LSCS. Heritability was the highest at lactation 2 from both datasets (0.14/0.16) and lowest at lactation 5 (0.11/0.10) using sire model. Heritabilities from single trait animal model analyses were slightly higher than sire models. Genetic correlations between LSCS traits were strong (0.62 to 0.99). Very strong associations (0.96 to 0.99) were present between successive records of later lactations. Phenotypic correlations were relatively weaker (<0.55). All correlations became weaker at distant lactations. The estimated breeding values (EBVs) of LSCS traits were somewhat similar over the years for a particular lactation, but increased with lactation number increment. The lowest EBV in first lactation indicated that selection for SCS (mastitis resistance) might be better with later lactation records. It is expected that results obtained from these multi-trait lactation model analyses, being the first large scale SCS data analysis in Korea, would create a good starting step for application of advanced statistical tools for future genomic studies focusing on selection for mastitis resistance in Holsteins of Korea.


          Genome analysis of Yucatan miniature pigs to assess their potential as biomedical model animals

          Kwon, Dae-Jin,Lee, Yeong-Sup,Shin, Donghyun,Won, Kyeong-Hye,Song, Ki-Duk Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2019 Animal Bioscience Vol.32 No.2

          Objective: Pigs share many physiological, anatomical and genomic similarities with humans, which make them suitable models for biomedical researches. Understanding the genetic status of Yucatan miniature pigs (YMPs) and their association with human diseases will help to assess their potential as biomedical model animals. This study was performed to identify non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) in selective sweep regions of the genome of YMPs and present the genetic nsSNP distributions that are potentially associated with disease occurrence in humans. Methods: nsSNPs in whole genome resequencing data from 12 YMPs were identified and annotated to predict their possible effects on protein function. Sorting intolerant from tolerant (SIFT) and polymorphism phenotyping v2 analyses were used, and gene ontology (GO) network and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses were performed. Results: The results showed that 8,462 genes, encompassing 72,067 nsSNPs were identified, and 118 nsSNPs in 46 genes were predicted as deleterious. GO network analysis classified 13 genes into 5 GO terms (p<0.05) that were associated with kidney development and metabolic processes. Seven genes encompassing nsSNPs were classified into the term associated with Alzheimer's disease by referencing the genetic association database. The KEGG pathway analysis identified only one significantly enriched pathway (p<0.05), hsa04080: Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, among the transcripts. Conclusion: The number of deleterious nsSNPs in YMPs was identified and then these variants-containing genes in YMPs data were adopted as the putative human diseases-related genes. The results revealed that many genes encompassing nsSNPs in YMPs were related to the various human genes which are potentially associated with kidney development and metabolic processes as well as human disease occurrence.


          Evaluation of a Nutrition Model in Predicting Performance of Vietnamese Cattle

          Parsons, David,Van, Nguyen Huu,Malau-Aduli, Aduli E.O.,Ba, Nguyen Xuan,Phung, Le Dinh,Lane, Peter A.,Ngoan, Le Duc,Tedeschi, Luis O. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2012 Animal Bioscience Vol.25 No.9

          The objective of this study was to evaluate the predictions of dry matter intake (DMI) and average daily gain (ADG) of Vietnamese Yellow (Vang) purebred and crossbred (Vang with Red Sindhi or Brahman) bulls fed under Vietnamese conditions using two levels of solution (1 and 2) of the large ruminant nutrition system (LRNS) model. Animal information and feed chemical characterization were obtained from five studies. The initial mean body weight (BW) of the animals was 186, with standard deviation ${\pm}33.2$ kg. Animals were fed ad libitum commonly available feedstuffs, including cassava powder, corn grain, Napier grass, rice straw and bran, and minerals and vitamins, for 50 to 80 d. Adequacy of the predictions was assessed with the Model Evaluation System using the root of mean square error of prediction (RMSEP), accuracy (Cb), coefficient of determination ($r^2$), and mean bias (MB). When all treatment means were used, both levels of solution predicted DMI similarly with low precision ($r^2$ of 0.389 and 0.45 for level 1 and 2, respectively) and medium accuracy (Cb of 0.827 and 0.859, respectively). The LRNS clearly over-predicted the intake of one study. When this study was removed from the comparison, the precision and accuracy considerably increased for the level 1 solution. Metabolisable protein was limiting ADG for more than 68% of the treatment averages. Both levels differed regarding precision and accuracy. While level 1 solution had the least MB compared with level 2 (0.058 and 0.159 kg/d, respectively), the precision was greater for level 2 than level 1 (0.89 and 0.70, respectively). The accuracy (Cb) was similar between level 1 and level 2 (p = 0.8997; 0.977 and 0.871, respectively). The RMSEP indicated that both levels were on average under-or over-predicted by about 190 g/d, suggesting that even though the accuracy (Cb) was greater for level 1 compared to level 2, both levels are likely to wrongly predict ADG by the same amount. Our analyses indicated that the level 1 solution can predict DMI reasonably well for this type of animal, but it was not entirely clear if animals consumed at their voluntary intake and/or if the roughness of the diet decreased DMI. A deficit of ruminally-undegradable protein and/or a lack of microbial protein may have limited the performance of these animals. Based on these evaluations, the LRNS level 1 solution may be an alternative to predict animal performance when, under specific circumstances, the fractional degradation rates of the carbohydrate and protein fractions are not known.


          The Role of Protozoa in Feed Digestion - Review -

          Jouany, J.P.,Ushida, K. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 1999 Animal Bioscience Vol.12 No.1

          Protozoa can represent as half of the total rumen microbial biomass. Around 10 genera are generally present on the same time in the rumen. Based on nutritional aspects they can be divided in large entodiniomorphs, small entodiniomorphs and isotrichs. Their feeding behaviour and their enzymatic activities differ considerably. Many comparisons between defaunated and refaunated animals were carried out during the last two decades to explain the global role of protozoa at the ruminal or animal levels. It is now generally considered that a presence of an abundant protozoal population in the rumen has a negative effect on the amino acid (AA) supply to ruminants and contribute to generate more methane but, nevertheless, protozoa must not be considered as parasites. They are useful for numerous reasons. They stabilise rumen pH when animal are fed diets rich in available starch and decrease the redox potential of rumen digesta. Because cellulolytic bacteria are very sensitive to these two parameters, protozoa indirectly stimulate the bacterial cellulolytic activity and supply their own activity to the rumen microbial ecosystem. They could also supply some peptides in the rumen medium which can stimulate the growth of the rumen microbiota, but this aspect has never been considered in the past. Their high contribution to ammonia production has bad consequences on the urinary nitrogen excretion but means also that less dietary soluble nitrogen is necessary when protozoa are present. Changes in the molar percentages of VFA and gases from rumen fermentations are not so large that they could alter significantly the use of energy by animals. The answer of animals to elimination of protozoa (defaunation) depends on the balance between energy and protein needs of animals and the supply of nutrients supplied through the diet. Defaunation is useful in case of diets short in protein nitrogen but not limited in energy supply for animals having high needs of proteins.

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