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黃宗羲從“人各自私自利”的新人性論出發, 視萬民之利爲“公利”, 爲萬民自有權利和權益辯護;從是否“切於民用”的角度, 重新判分“本末之辨”, 主張“工商皆本”, 重整了四民價値秩序。黃宗羲的經濟倫理思想是“新民本”型的經濟倫理思想, 它包涵的“以民生起見”的民生觀, 是“崇公”的價値理想在新的經濟形態下的運用, 涵藏著近代性的根芽, 代表著中國哲學從古典形態向近代形態的轉向, 對於我們今天的稅費制改革、減輕農民負擔、構建和諧社會等諸多方面和多個領域, 都有著重要的啟示意義。 Based on the new premise of human nature that “every person is self-interested,” Huang Zongxi viewed “profit of ten thousand men” as the “common good” or “public interest.” Moreover, by adopting a utilitarian perspective, he renewed the “means and ends,” thereby re-arranging the traditional social stratum that engineers and merchants go on top of officials and farmers. Huang’s ethical theories on economics can be regarded as the “new citizen-centered type” advocating “arising from the grassroots” doctrine. Emphasis on the public interest contains in itself the seed of modernization, propelling the transition from the ancient to modern political and economic frameworks. Huang’s economic ethics may throw some light on today’s urgent issues, such as tax reform, relieving farmer’s economic burdens, and social polarization. [Article in Chinese]
In this paper we introduce and study a new class of completely generalized mildly nonlinear complementarity problems for fuzzy mappings and construct some new iterative algorithms. We also show the existence of solution and the convergence of iterative sequences generated by the algorithm. Our results extend some recent results of Noor, Chang and huang.
We present a unique global solvability and flocking estimate of an entropic weak solution to the one-dimensional pressureless Euler system with a flocking dissipation in all-to-all coupling setting. This model appears naturally as a quasi-equilibrium model for hydrodynamic description of Cucker-Smale flocking. For the unique global solvability, we adopt the variation approach from Ding and Huang's work  on the inhomogeneous pressureless gas dynamic model. When initial mass and velocity are locally integrable and bounded measurable functions, respectively, we give explicit representations for the global entropic weak solutions. Our results do not require any smallness of initial data except that initial mass density is almost everywhere positive.
This study is intended to investigate the fundamental properties of cement mortar with solid content and leaving time of recycled water that stabilizing agent is added. According to the results, fluidity and air content does not make a big difference with variation of solid content. As the leaving time of recycled water is long, fluidity and air content increases. Setting time is shortened due to fine particle with an increase of solid content and leaving time. Compressive strength and flexural strength increase with an increase of solid content, and they increase at the leaving time of 1 day, but decrease after 2days. Length change by drying shrinkage is smaller than that of plain concrete, and is almost same with variation of solid content. And it is reduced at the leaving time of 1 day, but increases after that. Therefore, it analyzed that the effect of stabilizing agent is best under condition of adding ratio of 0.15%, solid content of 3% and leaving time of 1day, and it also works upto solid content of 5% and leaving time of 2days.
Carbon disulfide (CS2), a common organic solvent, induces a variety of adverse effects in the male reproductive system. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxicity, ultrastructural changes, and potential apoptotic induction mechanisms of CS2 in mixed cultures of Sertoli and germ cells. Sertoli and germ cells were cocultured and treated with CS2 for 24 h. Growth rates were noted, and apoptotic cells were identified by Hoechst 33258 staining. Ultrastructure changes were observed via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Mitochondrial membrane potential and expressions of apoptosis-related factors (cytochrome c, Bax, Bcl- 2, caspase-3 and caspase-9) were examined by JC-1 staining, western blot, and real-time PCR. The results showed that CS2 treatment was associated with reduced growth rates of Sertoli-germ cells. Ultrastructure changes in Sertoli-germ cells treated with CS2 were typical of apoptosis. In addition, CS2 treatment depolarized mitochondrial membrane potential, upregulated Bax levels and downregulated Bcl-2 levels, released cytochrome c from the mitochondrial intermembrane space to the cytosol, and triggered mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Subsequently, caspase-9 and caspase-3 were activated, resulting in Sertoli-germ cells apoptosis. The above data suggest that CS2 has adverse effect on the viability of Sertoli-germ cells and induces apoptosis through mitochondrial pathway.
《明儒學案》是深具中國特質的學案體斷代哲學史, 在“中國哲學史學”的歷史上有着重要的里程碑意義。其中“道非一家之私”、“聖賢血脈散諸百家”、“殊途百慮”等精彩的哲學史觀, 已經吐露出了近代學術平等與學術民主的思想霞光。整部著作以儒學爲大本, 以心學爲主線, 淸晳地勾勒了有明一代儒家哲學發展的脈絡, 體現了“功夫著到”與“竭其心之万殊”的知性認識與理性闡發的過程。對此的揭示, 不僅有着哲學史學的意義, 更可由此上探黃宗羲的學統重建的努力及其具有經世品格的政治倫理思考。 Ming-ru Xue-an is the philosophical history for the Ming Dynasty, which embodies Chinese nature and has great contribution to the history of Chinese history’s study. In this book, “Tao is not owned by one school or somebody”, “Sage’s spirit is scattered into schools”, “thinking through many ways” etc. such splendid viewpoints bring forth academic equality and democracy of modern times. By the famous work, HUANG Zong-xi created the Ming-philosophical-history development process, which poached in a way that Confucius is the main-stone, ideology is the main-steam. Such framework shows scholars reason spirit in their efforts, so-called “to take on”, “to disclose the different aspects of minds”. All these purchase, not only means much to the philosophical history study, but shows us another way to analyze HUANG Zong-xi’s political-ethical thoughts about reconstruction of the Scholar-orthodoxy etc. [Article in Chinese]
身處“壁立万仞, 止爭一線”的明淸鼎革之際, 黃宗羲力圖從亡國之由的追問出發, 批評士人階層中彌漫的“市井之氣”、“鄕愿”之學, 及晩明以來士人不自振拔、逃?等“風節委地”之士風, 從而進行士節之重建的倫理學考量。尤其對于作爲遺民的士人, 爲故國盡死節幷非唯一選擇, 其應然的應世方式是“持子陵之風節”, 傲活人世, 竭力著述, “抱道不仕”新朝, 在維系“淸氣”、“扶植善類”方面做出應有貢獻。 At the turn-point of Qing Dynasty destroyed Ming Dynasty, which named as the time “just like 10000 miles mountains are shaking to the ground when they are supported only by a thread”. From questions of the reasons the Ming-dynasty’s perish, Huang Tsung-hsi criticized that the intellectual sprits had fallen, the politics had rotted and people had despaired. He thought that a pre-dynasty intellectual should not take the death for pre-Ming dynasty as the only road to show their respects, they should take Yan Zi-ling as their moral model, live proudly, and write foreseeing works to educate good moral courage and such kinds of intellectuals. [Article in Chinese]