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Effects of Feeding Barley Naturally Contaminated with Fusarium Mycotoxins on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Blood Chemistry of Gilts and Growth Recoveries by Feeding a Non-contaminated Diet
The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of feeding barley naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on growth performance, vulva swelling, and digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein of gilts and the recovery of gilts fed normal diets immediately after the exposure to contaminated diets by measuring growth performance and vulva swelling. In Exp. 1, four diets were prepared to contain 0%, 15%, 30%, or 45% contaminated barley containing 25.7 mg/kg deoxynivalenol and 26.0 μg/kg zearalenone. Sixteen gilts with an initial body weight (BW) of 33.3 kg (standard deviation = 3.0) were individually housed in a metabolism crate and assigned to 4 diets with 4 replicates in a randomized complete block design based on BW. During the 14-d feeding trial, individual BW and feed consumption were measured weekly and the vertical and horizontal lengths of vulva were measured every 3 d. From d 10, feces were collected by the maker-to-marker method for 4 d. Blood samples were collected on d 14. During the overall period, the average daily gain, average daily feed intake, and gain:feed of pigs linearly decreased (p<0.01) as the dietary concentration of contaminated barley increased. However, the digestibility of crude protein was linearly increased (p = 0.011) with the increasing amounts of contaminated barley. Increasing dietary Fusarium mycotoxin concentrations did not influence vulva size, blood characteristic as well as immunoglobulin level of pigs. In the Exp. 2, a corn-soybean meal-based diet was formulated as a recovery diet. Pigs were fed the recovery diet immediately after completion of the Exp. 1. During the 14-d of recovery period, the individual BW and feed consumption were measured weekly and the vertical and horizontal length of vulva were measured every 3 d from d 0. On d 7, the feed intake of pigs previously fed contaminated diets already reached that of pigs fed a diet with 0% contaminated barley and no significant difference in growth performance among treatments was observed during d 7 to 14 of the recovery period. In conclusion, increasing levels of mycotoxins in diets linearly decreased the growth performance of pigs, and these damages can be recovered in 7 d after the diet was replaced with a normal diet. The vulva size, blood characteristic, immune responses were not affected by increasing level of contaminated barley in the diets fed to pigs.
An experiment was conducted with three hundred and twenty broiler chickens to evaluate the influence of supplementation of probiotic on growth, microbiological status and carcass quality of chickens. The probiotic contained similar proportions of six strains of variable organisms namely Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Aspergillus oryzae, Streptococcus faecium and Torulopsis sps and was fed at 100 mg/kg diet. The body weight and feed conversion of probiotic fed groups were superior (p<0.05) compared to the control group in the 4th, 5th and 6th weeks. The chickens fed the diet with probiotic had lower (p<0.05) numbers of coliforms and Campylobacter than chickens fed the control diet. All chickens` carcasses on the control diet were positive for Salmonella while only 16 of the 40 carcasses were positive from chickens fed diets containing probiotic. The leg and breast meat of probiotic fed chickens were higher (p<0.05) in moisture, protein and ash, and lower in fat as compared to the leg and breast meat of control chickens.
A growth trial of 60 days with 16 male buffalo calves (10 to 11 months age; 100±7 kg live weight mean) was conducted to investigate comparative efficacy of cottonseed meal (CSM) and sunflower meal (SFM). Cottonseed meal was substituted isonitrogenously with SFM at 0, 12, 24 and 36% levels in four rations viz. A, B, C and D. Daily feed consumption was 5.07, 4.30, 4.17 and 3.20 kg, while daily weight gain was recorded to be 0.98, 0.74, 0.57 and 0.33 kg under rations A, B, C and D, respectively. In the digestibility and nitrogen balance trial using eight calves, digestibility of organic matter was 63.2, 62.9, 62.1 and 61.7, respectively. Nitrogen retained as percent of intake did not differ significantly. Sunflower meal was purchased at half the price of CSM but economics of weight gain did not favor SFM inclusion in rations. Results suggested that SFM should not be fed to buffalo calves gaining more than 0.7 kg/day.
The gene expression of porcine adiponectin and stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase (SCD) was investigated in this study. The partial gene sequences for adiponectin and SCD were amplified by RT-PCR from subcutaneous adipose tissue and cloned by TA cloning techniques. Sequences of these genes were determined and found to be highly homologous to that of other species, suggesting similar function of these genes as in other species. The transcripts of these adipocyte-related genes in pig tissues were measured by Northern analysis. The transcripts for adiponectin and SCD were highly expressed in porcine subcutaneous adipose tissue; the transcripts for SCD were also barely detected in the liver, but the greatest concentrations were in the adipose tissue. In porcine stromal-vascular cells (S/V cells) cultured in vitro, transcripts for adiponectin and SCD increased gradually during adipocyte differentiation. The level of adipocyte adiponectin mRNA was associated with late adipocyte differentiation, indicating the gene may not be involved in adipocyte differentiation but has great importance in porcine adipocyte functions. The SCD transcripts were not detectable until 2 d after induction of adipocyte differentiation. It was highly expressed in differentiating porcine adipocytes (2 to 10 d after the induction of adipocyte differentiation), indicating a significant role of SCD in adipocytes.
The 15 buffaloes were divided into three groups, viz. group 1: normal cyclic buffaloes; group 2: postpartum anoestrus buffaloes and group 3: post partum anoestrus buffaloes supplemented with intramuscular injections of Vit. E.-care Se containing 500 mg a-tocopheryl acetate and 15 mg selenium at weekly intervals for two months. The postpartum anoestrus buffaloes had significantly higher levels of erythrocytic lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase and glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase activities but lower glutathione peroxidase activity as compared to normal cyclic buffaloes. The supplementation of vitamin E and selenium lowered the level of erythrocytic lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase and glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase activities but it had no effect on whole blood selenium and erythrocytic gluathione peroxidase activity. All the animals in group 3 became cyclic and showed 60% conception rate.
Chick embryos from stage 14 to stage 31 were studied by means of serial section and light microscopy in order to learn the relationship between the settlement sites of the primordial germ cells (PGCs) and the forming genital ridge. The results showed that: when embryo hatched for 53-56 h, the PGCs reached the coelomic epithelial tissue where gonad would be formed, meanwhile the epithelial tissue began thicker before the PGCs reached. Before stage 19, the final region the PGCs arrived was the thickened portion of the coelomic epithelium, the glycogen in the PGCs cytoplasm maintenance remained unchanged. However at the 3.5-5th hatching day, the glycogen in the PGCs cytoplasm reduced gradually. On the 6th hatching day, the gonad of the embryo appeared the feature of ovary, and the glycogen in the PGCs cytoplasm reduced further. On the 7th hatching day, the differentiation of ovary or testis was obvious and the glycogen in the PGCs cytoplasm later disappeared.
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of dried leftover food (DLF) in the diet on feed utilization and egg-laying performance of hens. One hundred sixty-eight, 18 week old Tetra brown commercial layers, were assigned to 7 treatments in a completely randomized design. Each treatment has four replications per treatment with six animals per replication. All the experimental animals were fed diets for 7 weeks. The treatments included 1) control group without DLF, 2) diet with 10% DLF, 3) diet with 20% DLF, 4) diet with 30% DLF, 5) 10% higher protein level of diet with 10% DLF, 6) 20% higher protein level of diet with 20% DLF and 7) 30% higher protein level of diet with 30% DLF. Average daily feed intake (ADFI) tended to be improved with DLF feeding. ADFI of group fed diets with 20% was significantly higher than that of control (p<0.05). Feed conversions of DLF-fed groups were higher than that of control. Egg production tended to be higher in groups fed diets with 10% DLF than control diet without significant differences (p>0.05). However, those of groups fed diets containing 20 and 30% DLF were lower than that of control. Supplementing protein source to DLF-containing diets improved egg production (p<0.05). Increasing level of DLF in the diet for layer decreased egg weight and egg mass compared to control without significant differences (p>0.05). Protein supplementation to DLF-containing diets increased egg mass without significant difference (p>0.05). The range of egg cholesterol concentration of DLF-fed groups was 11.94-14.10 mg/g while that of control group was 12.31 mg/g although there was no significant difference among treatments (p>0.05).
The percentages of sperm motility and normal acrosome on the liquid boar semen diluted and preserved at 4°C with lactose hydrate, egg yolk and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (LEN) diluent were significant differences according to preservation day and incubation time, respectively. The sperm motility steadily declined from 96.9% at 0.5 h incubation to 78.8% at 6 h incubation at 1 day of preservation. However, the sperm motility rapidly declined after 4 day of preservation during incubation. The normal acrosome steadily declined from 93.3% at 0.5 h incubation to 73.8% at 6 h incubation at 1 day of preservation. However, the normal acrosome rapidly declined after 3 day of preservation during incubation. The rates of sperm penetration and polyspermy were higher in 5 and 10´106 sperm/ml than in 0.2 and 1´106 sperm/ml. Mean numbers of sperm in penetrated oocyte were highest in 10´106 sperm/ml compared with other sperm concentrations. The rates of blastocysts from the cleaved oocytes (2-4 cell stage) were highest in 1´106 sperm/ml compared with other sperm concentrations. In conclusion, we found out that liquid boar sperm stored at 4°C could be used for in vitro fertilization of pig oocytes matured in vitro. Also, we recommend 1×106 sperm/ml concentration for in vitro fertilization of pig oocytes.
To further investigate the regions on porcine chromosome 7 that are responsible for economically important traits, phenotypic data from a total of 287 F2 individuals were collected and analyzed from 1998 to 2000. All animals were genotyped for eight microsatellite loci spanning the length of chromosome 7. QTL analysis was performed using interval mapping under the line-cross model. A permutation test was used to establish significance levels associated with QTL effects. Observed QTL effects were (chromosomewide significance, position of maximum significance in centimorgans): Birth weight (<0.01, 3); Carcass length (<0.05, 80); Longissimus muscle area (<0.01, 69); Skin percentage (<0.01, 69); Bone percentage (<0.01, 74); Fat depths at shoulder (<0.05, 54); Mean fat depth (<0.05, 81); Moisture in m. Longissimus Dorsi (<0.05, 88). Additional evidence was also found which suggested QTL for dressing percentage and fat depths at buttock. This study offers confirmation of several QTL affecting growth and carcass traits on SSC7 and provides an important step in the search for the actual major genes involved in the traits of economic interest.
The Debao pony ear marginal tissue fibroblast cell line (NDPEM 2/2) was successfully established using either primary explant technique or collagenase technique. The characterizations of the cell line were identified as following: the cells were adherent and of density limitation; population doubling time (PDT) of cells made with the two techniques were 35.9 h and 48 h, respectively; chromosome analysis showed that the frequency of cell chromosome number to be 2n=64 was 91.3%-92.8%. Confirmed by isoenzyme analysis, this cell line had no cross- contamination. Tests for microbial contamination from bacteria, fungi, virus or mycoplasma were negative. This newly established cell line meets all the standard quality controls of ATCC. It will provide a precious genetic resource for the conservation of the Debao pony breed, as well as effective experimental material for genetic studies on Debao ponies.