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      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재
      • PTK7<sup>+</sup> Mononuclear Cells Express VEGFR2 and Contribute to Vascular Stabilization by Upregulating Angiopoietin-1

        Chauhan, Sunil K.,Lee, Hyung Keun,Lee, Hyun Soo,Park, Eun Young,Jeong, Eunae,Dana, Reza American Heart Association, Inc. 2015 Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology Vol.35 No.7

        <P><B>Objective—</B></P><P>In angiogenesis, circulating mononuclear cells are recruited to vascular lesions; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood.</P><P><B>Approach and Results—</B></P><P>Here, we characterize the functional role of protein tyrosine kinase 7 (PTK7)–expressing CD11b<SUP>+</SUP> mononuclear cells in vitro and in vivo using a mouse model of angiogenesis. Although the frequencies of PTK7<SUP>+</SUP>CD11b<SUP>+</SUP> cells in the bone marrow remained similar after vascular endothelial growth factor-A–induced neovascularization, we observed an 11-fold increase in the cornea. Importantly, vascular endothelial growth factor-A–induced chemotaxis of PTK7<SUP>+</SUP> cells was mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2. In a coculture with endothelial cells, PTK7<SUP>+</SUP>CD11b<SUP>+</SUP> cells stabilized the vascular network for 2 weeks by expressing high levels of angiopoietin-1. The enhanced vascular stability was abolished by knockdown of angiopoietin-1 in PTK7<SUP>+</SUP>CD11b<SUP>+</SUP> cells and could be restored by angiopoietin-1 treatment.</P><P><B>Conclusions—</B></P><P>We conclude that PTK7 expression in perivascular mononuclear cells induces vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and angiopoietin-1 expression and thus contributes to vascular stabilization in angiogenesis.</P>

      • KCI등재

        FIXED POINT THEOREMS IN MENGER SPACES USING AN IMPLICIT RELATION

        Chauhan, Sunny,Khan, M. Alamgir,Pant, B.D. The Honam Mathematical Society 2013 호남수학학술지 Vol.35 No.4

        In 2008, Al-Thaga and Shahzad [Generalized I-nonexpansive selfmaps and invariant approximations, Acta Math. Sinica, 24(5) (2008), 867-876] introduced the notion of occasionally weakly compatible mappings in metric spaces. In this paper, we prove some common fixed point theorems for families of occasionally weakly compatible mappings in Menger spaces using an implicit relation. We also give an illustrative example to support our main result.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        A STUDY OF THE RIGHT LOCAL GENERAL TRUNCATED M-FRACTIONAL DERIVATIVE

        Chauhan, Rajendrakumar B.,Chudasama, Meera H. Korean Mathematical Society 2022 대한수학회논문집 Vol.37 No.2

        We introduce a new type of fractional derivative, which we call as the right local general truncated M-fractional derivative for α-differentiable functions that generalizes the fractional derivative type introduced by Anastassiou. This newly defined operator generalizes the standard properties and results of the integer order calculus viz. the Rolle's theorem, the mean value theorem and its extension, inverse property, the fundamental theorem of calculus and the theorem of integration by parts. Then we represent a relation of the newly defined fractional derivative with known fractional derivative and in context with this derivative a physical problem, Kirchoff's voltage law, is generalized. Also, the importance of this newly defined operator with respect to the flexibility in the parametric values is described via the comparison of the solutions in the graphs using MATLAB software.

      • Practice of diesel fuel blends using alternative fuels: A review

        Chauhan, Bhupendra Singh,Singh, Ram Kripal,Cho, H.M.,Lim, H.C. Elsevier 2016 RENEWABLE & SUSTAINABLE ENERGY REVIEWS Vol.59 No.-

        <P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P>In order to meet the growing global energy requirement, exhaustive research is carried to develop and to use variety of renewable fuels. Concerns on the long-term availability of petroleum diesel and the stringent environmental norms have mandated the search for a renewable alternative to diesel fuel to address these problems. Diesel engines have proven their utility in the transportation, agriculture, and power sectors for small energy needs as a potential source of decentralized energy generation for electrification. Mixing of diesel fuel with biodiesel has been considered as good alternative to diesel in the past couple of years. The objective of the present study is to compare the performance, emissions and combustion characteristics of blended fuels in the unmodified diesel engine. Differences in the fuel properties of non-edible vegetable oils, biodiesels and other diesel fuel blends are considered in this review. Various diesel fuel blends with di-ethyl ether, ethyl-tert-butyl ether, mono-ethylene glycol ethyl ether, mono-ethylene glycol butyl ether, diethylene glycol ethyl ether, cottonseed oil, jatropha oil, karanja oil, mahua oil, linseed oil, rubber seed oil, neem oil, cashew nut shell oil, marine gas oil, fish oil, were used in diesel engine operation and their results were analyzed. It is clear from this review that all the blends studied generally causes an increase in NO<I>x</I> emission and a decrease in HC, CO and PM emissions compared to diesel. Biodiesel blended fuel shows lower brake thermal efficiency and slight increase in its brake specific fuel consumption compared to conventional diesel for the same energy output. Result of combustion and performance characteristics shows that biodiesels from different origin and its blends with diesel at 10–20% is better than higher blends. Thus, biodiesel could be a potential fuel for diesel engine and play a vital role in the near future especially for small and medium energy requirements. Hence, use of 10% to 20% blend of biodiesel is favorable for long term application in diesel engines, considering performance and emissions characteristics which are close to mineral diesel.</P>

      • SCISCIESCOPUS

        Detection and purification of backbone-cyclized proteins using a bacterially expressed anti-myc-tag single chain antibody

        Chauhan, Sushma,Hou, Chen Yuan,Jung, Sang Taek,Kang, Taek Jin Academic Press 2017 Analytical biochemistry Vol.532 No.-

        <P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P>A myc-tag and of which recognition by an antibody 9E10 has long been used for the detection and purification of recombinant proteins. We have previously expanded the application of the tag to the specific detection and purification of backbone-cyclized proteins. Here we sought a more practical way to using the 9E10 antibody by expressing its single chain antibody (scAb) form in <I>Escherichia coli</I>. The combined use of a strong T7 promoter and auto-induction strategy rather than early to mid-log induction of a Lac promoter resulted in the soluble over-expression of 9E10 scAb. However, the co-expression of a chaperone, Skp, was absolutely necessary for the activity even when the protein was expressed in a soluble manner. We could purify about 4 mg of 9E10 scAb from 1 l of culture, and the resulting scAb could be used to detect and purify the backbone-cyclized protein as the parental full-length 9E10. Moreover, the immunoaffinity resin prepared using 9E10 scAb could be regenerated several times after the elution of bound proteins using an acid, which added more value to the ready preparation of the active antibody in bacteria.</P>

      • KCI등재

        Role of Devnagari and Persian Script in Hindi-Urdu Controversy: A Historical Perspective

        ( Chauhan Karan Singh ) 한국인도학회 2011 印度硏究 Vol.16 No.1

        Controversy regarding the language of the so-called ``Hindustani`` area has been an important issue throughout British period which engulfed the Indian freedom movement. Hindi or ``Hindui`` was the original form adopted and mentioned as such by the earliest of writers of Hindi. Later, word Urdu came into use to denote the same language called Hindi or Hindui, but with a Persian tilt. The common people continued to regard both forms as one language. Due to Moghal rule, Hindi and later Urdu written in Persian script became the official language of governance. When Britishers came to India they found a very interesting phenomena with regard to language and scripts pravelent in northern Hindi belt. Although the spoken language of the people was one, but it was written in a script, imposed from outside. They tried to confirm the real position by doing various language and script surveys and came to the conclusion that it would be better for communication and understanding if beside Persian script, ``Nagari`` script is introduced in Government offices and courts etc. This angered the Muslim community who used to be in an advantageous position with Persian script. Although, language question was never a controversial issue among the common people of this area but due to the two different scripts, it got associated with communal feelings. The emergence of Sanskritized Hindi and Persianized Urdu was the direct outcome of this communal divide. Britishers tried to not only placate this but took full advantage of the issue for dividing people on communal lines. To create communal unity within freedom struggle, Gandhi Ji tried to bring ``Hindustani`` into focus which represent the mix of both spoken Hindi and Urdu. He advocated one common language for both the communities which can be written either in Nagari or Persian script. It attracted lot of criticism from both sides. In such a charged atmosphere the question of National language or a National script became more and more controversial. Progressive cultural movement, being the most important literary movement in all Indian Languages, where both Hindi and Urdu writers worked together, tried to understand and solve the language and script problem. On the basis of its analysis and conclusions it mendated that Hindi written in Devnagari script should be the national language of the country and Urdu written in Persian should be regarded as close associate of it. Later, when Indian constitution was framed and implemented, in article 343 regarding the Official language of the Union it was written that ``the official language of the Union shall be Hindi in Devnagari script.``

      • KCI등재

        Role of Devnagari and Persian Script in Hindi-Urdu Controversy

        Chauhan Karan Singh 한국인도학회 2011 印度硏究 Vol.16 No.2

        Controversy regarding the language of the so-called ‘Hindustani’ area has been an important issue throughout British period which engulfed the Indian freedom movement. Hindi or ‘Hindui’ was the original form adopted and mentioned as such by the earliest of writers of Hindi. Later, word Urdu came into use to denote the same language called Hindi or Hindui, but with a Persian tilt. The common people continued to regard both forms as one language. Due to Moghal rule, Hindi and later Urdu written in Persian script became the official language of governance. When Britishers came to India they found a very interesting phenomena with regard to language and scripts pravelent in northern Hindi belt. Although the spoken language of the people was one, but it was written in a script, imposed from outside. They tried to confirm the real position by doing various language and script surveys and came to the conclusion that it would be better for communication and understanding if beside Persian script, ‘Nagari’ script is introduced in Government offices and courts etc. This angered the Muslim community who used to be in an advantageous position with Persian script. Although, language question was never a controversial issue among the common people of this area but due to the two different scripts, it got associated with communal feelings. The emergence of Sanskritized Hindi and Persianized Urdu was the direct outcome of this communal divide. Britishers tried to not only placate this but took full advantage of the issue for dividing people on communal lines. To create communal unity within freedom struggle, Gandhi Ji tried to bring ‘Hindustani’ into focus which represent the mix of both spoken Hindi and Urdu. He advocated one common language for both the communities which can be written either in Nagari or Persian script. It attracted lot of criticism from both sides. In such a charged atmosphere the question of National language or a National script became more and more controversial. Progressive cultural movement, being the most important literary movement in all Indian Languages, where both Hindi and Urdu writers worked together, tried to understand and solve the language and script problem. On the basis of its analysis and conclusions it mendated that Hindi written in Devnagari script should be the national language of the country and Urdu written in Persian should be regarded as close associate of it. Later, when Indian constitution was framed and implemented, in article 343 regarding the Official language of the Union it was written that ‘the official language of the Union shall be Hindi in Devnagari script.’

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