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Purpose: This study was constructed in order to examine factors that influence work-related musculoskeletal disease (WMSD) approvals and current status according to the company size. Method: This is a descriptive study that utilized Industrial Accident Compensation Claim Data. Workplaces with over 35,811 workers derived from the 2012 claim data, which comprised approximately 91.5%, were selected for this study. Then workplaces were divided into three groups according to the number of workers: less than 5, 5~299, and 300 and over. Results: Since 2008, the number of small sized workplaces has increased. The 2012 data showed that 32.5% of workers at small sized workplace had WMSD. However, workplaces with 5~299 workers showed WMSD approval rate of 60%. Of note most WMSD approved workers were employed by manufacturing and construction companies, regardless of the workplace size. Most of them were engaged in elementary tasks. The days of medical treatment at OPD and IPD were most prevalent among workers at the largest workplaces. Conclusions: It is certain from this study that WMSD has been polarized by the company size. More policy attention should be paid to the WMSD status of workers at small sized workplaces which usually do not have their own health office.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the urban pedestrian behavior according to the walk purpose and to moving distance from the viewpoint of user. A methodology of this study was used with the data which were obtained by walking volume survey and questionnaire survey. The sample distance was 2.32㎞ from Gwang-hwa gate to Seoul station. As a result of having analyzed a walk movement route, it was hello to derive the fact that physics street of an object magazine spend a human scale, and was devised excessively. It was wached high numerical value partly additionally on the mail side and back road with an axis in an area.
The late 1980s' New Town which adapted Neighborhood Unit Theory has a couple of drawbacks in reality. For example, those residential super blocks are closed from surroundings, and pedestrian activities are very limited on the streets. The study analyzed pedestrian activities of the 1st generation of Korean New town. Initially pedestrian activities are materialized through observation and Interview. Those data are sorted by various activities and cognition types. And afterwards, we gave statistical figures for the accurate results. As a result, the comparison of two New towns(Bundang and Ilsan) shows different pedestrian routes and activities from each other because of different layout of commercial facilities.
Depression is the second most common chronic disease in primary care. However, depression is commonly misdiagnosed, or though diagnosed properly, it is easy to treat inadequate doses or duration of antidepressants. It is of importance to diagnose and treat properly. Because of a wide range of symptoms and comorbidities, it is difficult to make a diagnosis of depression. Rating scales can be useful for the diagnosis of depression. It is feasible that the clinicians assess the patients with depression appropriately and determine therapeutic strategies by rating scales for depression. We have reviewed the purpose of rating scales for depression, including screening, ratings of symptoms, diagnosis, the progress, and the results of treatment. We also have described the actual condition of rating scales in Korea, which were performed by clinical research center for depression. It is restricted within marrow limits to select certain rating scale for depression and poorly known that some scales have been developed. Therefore, it is important task to announce the rating scales for depression so that the clinicians and researchers can be familiar with these scales. It is also important to develop a diversity of scales so that the clinicians can select appropriate scales.
복막투석 도관과 관련된 도관 주변으로의 누수, 배액 장애, 출구 또는 피하터널의 감염은 흔하게 일어나는 합병증이지만, 복막투석 도관의 자발적 파손은 흔하지 않으며 발생한 경우에도 대부분 polyurethane 재질의 복막투석 도관을 사용한 경우였다. 저자들은 silicone 재질 복막투석 도관과 관련된 자발적 파손을 경험하였기에 이를 보고하는 바이다. Major peritoneal catheter-related complications include pericatheter leaks, outflow failure, and infection of the exit site or tunnel. We experienced a rare spontaneous fracture of a silicone peritoneal catheter. A 39-year-old man undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) developed peripheral edema and peritoneal outflow failure. He had no signs of exit-site infection, trauma, or peritonitis. The kidney-ureter-bladder radiograph suggested a fractured peritoneal catheter. We removed the catheter in an emergency operation and inserted a new peritoneal catheter. No obvious reason could explain why the catheter had broken, although the patient`s nephew was known to frequently jump on his abdomen Based on this case, mechanical stress should be avoided in CAPD patients with increased intra-abdominal pressure. (Korean J Med 77:359-361, 2009)