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From 1988 to 1991, nineteen patients with unresectable localized pancreatic carcinoma were treated with radiotherapy and/or hyperthemia or in combination with chemotherapy. Radiation dose of 4500-5000 cGy with or without additional 500-1000 cGy was administered over 5 to 6 weeks to the pancreatic tumor area using 10 MV linear accelerator. Five of 19 patients were given chemotherapy, either neoadjubant or maintenance setting with FAM regimen (5-FU, adriamycin and mitomycin C), which was repeated every 4 weeks for one wear or until progression. Symptomatic palliation was achieved in 17 among 19 patients (89%) and objetive response (complete or partial response in CT finding) was achieved in 5 among 11 patients (45%). The median survival time was 9 months and one-year survival rate, 32%. Local- regional failure was documented in 10 among 13 patients (77%) and distant failures were found in the liver (3 patients) and carcinomatosis (2 patients). Prognostic significance of various factors such as age, sex, performance status, tumor location, stage, etc. were assessed. Any factors did not have the prognostic significance in univariate analysis. Treatment was well tolerated in most of the patients with only mild to moderate toxicity.
This article examines the basic nature of Confucius' concept of education. It demonstrates that education, essentially, is the cultivation of the true human nature and is orientated towards the training of the social life of the community. His main concern was to find and increase morality through education and thereby to restore the broken human relationships and corrupted social order of the time. This thesis discusses the following themes: the goal of education, the potential and importance of education, the contents of education and the method of education.<br/> Firstly, Confucius places the aim of education in the restoration of the true human nature, This is closely related to the chaotic social situation of his day, which was characterized by a loss of respect for human dignity.<br/> Secondly, because education enables one to restore his human nature, Confucius believes in the potential of education which leads to the emphasis on the positive role of education. This is supported by the following two facts. The first is, that for him education seeks to play an . important tole in reconstructing the contemporary society. The second is that his passion for learning is interrelated with his faithfulness in teaching others.<br/> Thirdly, the fundamental content of education is Jen(ren). For Confucius, true humanity is about moral nature. This morality is centered on ]en(ren), the totality of moral virtues. This leads to the holistic education.<br/> Finally, the ideal method of education is about life and is centered on the learner. For Confucius, education is primarily concerned with living out true humanity in real life. This implies the following: First, the personality of the student is to be considered. Second, education is given in a negative way in that a teacher helps and motivates a student to be involved in activities which are based on human nature. Third, education is to be focused on challenging a student to be conscious of his existence, thus leading to his voluntary involvement in practicing true humanity in the realms of life.
이 글은 칼뱅의 신학이 갖는 특성을 16세기 프랑스 인문주의와 관련하여 살핀다. 칼뱅의 신학이 초기교회 교부들 특히 어거스틴의 전통을 따라 철저히 성서에 바탕을 두되 당시 지적 상황인 이 인문주의의 관점과 형식으로 표현된 것임을 논증한다. 이것은 본문 중심과 문자적ㆍ역사적 성서 해석이 중심이 되는 성서 중심의 신학 원리, 이중적 하나님 지식 및 경건의 수사학은 모두 성서에 기초하면서도 인문주의 정신과 방식을 적용하고 따른 것이다. This article explores the characteristics of Calvin's theology in relation to the 16th century French Humanism. It demonstrates that following the tradition of the Fathers in the early church, particularly St. Augustine, Calvin's theology is thoroughly bible-centered, and articulated in the frame and form of humanism. For him, the bible has authority as God's revelation. Thus, theology is to be grounded in biblical truths. Calvin sought to keep this essence of his theology, and at the same time, to present it within his intellectual environment, thereby effectively communicating his theology to his contemporaries. This is a case of the contextualization of theology. This is argued by discussion of the following themes: First of all, Calvin's relationship to the 16th century French humanism is explored by focusing on his education and ministry. The intellectual environment of the 16th century French humanism was that in which Calvin was brought up and worked. This means that he could not be free from its influence. Thus, it is natural that his theology is not without elements of the 16th century French humanism. Next, in terms of elements of humanism the characteristics of Calvin's theology is analyzed as follows: Firstly, his so-called sola scriptura principle of theology is an application of the slogan ‘back to the original sources'( ‘ ad fontes') of the 16th century French humanism. This may be seen in the emphasis on scriptural text and its literal, grammatical, and historical interpretation. Secondly, the twofold knowledge of God ( duplex cognitio Dei) is a reflection of the epistemology of the contemporary humanism. Thirdly, the rhetoric of Calvin's theology aims at piety and, at the same time, follows the tradition of the 16th century French humanism in that it sensitively grasps the reader's present reality, uses simple and easy-to-understand expressions, and thus persuades the reader to live a devout life before God. This study is significant in that it examines the characteristics of Calvin's theology in terms of his contemporary intellectual context. His theology was not articulated with the motive of explaining the Christian faith in terms of doctrines which are obtained by speculative analogies. Rather, it is a result of his collective efforts to conserve a biblical faith in a concrete and historical context. Therefore, consideration of Calvin's theology in relation to the 16th century French humanism, in which he was educated and worked, is required in order to present the dynamic nature of his theology.
Today's world is characterized as globalization. The highly-developed scientific technology brings the world into one network and one circle of culture. The formation and change of a local culture is dependent upon time-spirit with which people in the world share and is based on all forms of human life and culture. How does this globalization work Out the change of a local culture?<br/> This article is to answer to the above question from the Christian perspective. It focuses on how the 14-15th century Renaissance humanism brought about the new religious culture of the Swiss Reformation. The paper demonstrates that Renaissance humanism is a phenomenon of globalization in that it was a time-spirit determining all contemporary cultures of the whole Europe including Italy, and that the movement as such a phenomenon brought about the 16th century Swiss Reformation.<br/> The article first considers the basic nature of Renaissance humanism. The Renaissance humanism movement concerned not only with the areas of literary and art but also with all realms of culture. It was an expression of time-spirit which settled on all ways of human we and value. In this sense, Renaissance humanism can be called a phenomenon of globalization.<br/> Next, it explores the process of the spread-out of the movement. Renaissance humanism did not remain only in Italy, bur spread out into all other European countries.<br/> First, Northern European humanism was decisively influenced by Italian humanism at every stage of its development. It adapted the latter to the real context of Northern Europe. Its basic ideals are bonae litterae -written and spoken eloquence, a religious program directed towards the corporate revival of the Christian Church, and pacifist. Its representative was Desidetius Erasmus of Rotterdam (1466-1536).<br/> Second, the humanism movement of the Iberian Peninsula was literary, philosophical, and religious.<br/> Third, the Italian humanism was decisive for the development of Central and East European humanism. Renaissance humanism influenced broadly and deeply the civilization of the whole Europe. It was contemporary time-spirit, thereby being the ground of cultural activities of European countries. This supports the idea that Renaissance was a phenomenon of globalization.<br/> Finally, it examines how Renaissance humanism as a phenomenon of globalization effected the Swiss religious culture. First, the impact of Renaissance humanism to the Swiss Reformation was investigated. The impact was decisive. There follows an account of the characteristics of the new religious culture which Renaissance humanism brought about in Switzerland.
Hyun Soo Shin(신현수), , Hyung Sik Lee(이형식), , Eun Ji Chung(정은지), , Gwi Eon Kim(김귀언), , Juhn Kyu Loh(노준규), , Chang Ok Suh(서창옥), , Kwang Moon Kim(김광문), , Won Pyo Hong(홍원표) 대한방사선종양학회 1991 Radiation Oncology Journal Vol.9 No.1
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Between January 1980 and September 1988, 68 patients with advanced T3 & T4 glottic carcinoma were treated with RT and surgery/RT in the Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center and ENT, Yonsei University College of Medicine. The mean age was 60 years old (range 33 to 79 years old). The 34 patients were treated with irradiation alone, and the remaining 34 patients with surgery and irradiation. Initial nodal presenta-tion was 37% (25/68); 31% (11/34) in RT alone group and 41% (14/34) in combined treatment group. The minimum follow-up was 2 years. The local control rate after treatment was 47% in RT alone group and 65% in combined treatment group; 57% for node negative and 27% for node positive patients treated with RT alone; 65% for node negative and 64% for node positive patients treated with combined treatment. The treatment failure was observed in 30 patients; 14 patients for primary local failure, 6 patients for regional nodal failure, 6 patients for local and regional failure, 26 patients for primary failure and/or distant metastasis, and 2 patient for regional failure and/or distant metastasis. The overall 5-year survival rate was 57%; 37% in RT alone group and 76% in combined treatment group; 55% for node negative and 20% for node positive patients treated with RT alone; 73% for node negative and 77% for node positive patients treated with combined treatment. In conclusion, the combined treatment groups in the treatment of advanced T3 and T4 glottic cancer showed the better results in local control rates and 5-year actuarial survival rates than RT alone group. We suggest that total laryngectomy and postoperative RT in the most patients of advanced glottic cancer were performed. However, in cases of node negative patints, RT alone is prefer as a treatment modality over combined surgery and RT since the treatment results were comparable and furthermore functional preservation could be achieved. 1980년 1월부터 1988년 9월사이에 연세대학병원, 연세암센터 치료방사선과 및 이비인후과에서 치료받았던 68예의 T3, T4병기의 성문암 환자를 대상으로 후향적분석을 하였다. 이 중 34명은 방사선 치료 단독으로 치료하였고 34명은 성문절제술후 방사선치료를 하였으며 이들 환자의 최소 추적기간은 2년이었고 54명(79%)에서 5년 추적조사가 가능하였다. 치료후 국소관해율은 방사선치료 단독군에서는 61%, 수술 및 수술후 방사선치료군에서는 79%이었고 임파절 음성군에서는 72%, 76%였으며 임파절 양성군에서는 31%, 81%이었다. 이들의 치료실패요인은 대부분 국소 국한적이었고 30명(44%)에서 관찰되었다. 치료에 따른 5년 생존율을 방사선치료 단독군에서는 37%, 수술 및 수술후 방사선치료군에서는 76%로서 T3, T5병기의 성문암환자에 있어서 수술시행후 방사선치료를 병용하는 복합요법이 더 좋은 치료결과를 얻을 수 있음을 알았다. 그러나 임파절 음성군에서는 방사선치료 단독군과 수술 및 수술 후 방사선치료군을 비교해 본 결과 5년 생존율이 55%와 73%로 통계학적으로 유의한 차이를 보이지는 않았다. 따라서 본 저자들은 T3, T4 병기의 성문암치료시 수술 및 방사선치료 병용요법이 더 좋은 치료결과를 얻을 수 있지만 임파절 음성군에서는 기능적인 보존측면에서 방사선치료가 일차적 치료방법으로서 효과적이리라 사료된다.