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        • 제주지역의 유우사육과 낙농경영에 관한 조사 연구 : I. 제주도 낙농현황과 특성 및 개선방향 I. The Present Situation , Characteristics and Main Points for the Improvement of Dairy Industry in Cheju Do

          양창범,양승주,오성환,조덕준 한국낙농학회 1990 韓國酪農學會誌 Vol.12 No.1

          濟州地域의 酪農産業은 草地와 氣候 等의 自然的 條件과 牛乳의 需要에 比하여 절대적으로 供給이 不足한 狀態에 있는 與件 및 地域産業의 均衡的 發展과 住民所得 增大 等을 考慮할 때 必須的으로 育成 發展시켜야 할 必要性이 있으나 이에 대한 調査硏究는 매우 低調한 實情에 있는 點을 勘案하여 1987年 7月부터 1988年 7월까지 1個年동안 濟州道의 酪農現況을 調査하고, 115個 搾乳牛 飼育農家를 對象으로 地域別 規模別로 酪農農家의 實態를 調査 分析하므로서 濟州地域 乳牛飼育과 酪農經營에 關한 基礎資料를 마련코져 本 硏究를 遂行하였는 바, 그 제1보로써 濟州道의 酪農現況과 特性 및 改善의 主眼點에 대한 結果를 要約하면 다음과 같다. 1. 濟州道의 酪農現況 濟州道의 酪農은 1976年 호주에서 188頭의 홀스타인을 導入하여 道內 畜産農家에 補給한 것을 始初로 볼 수 있으며, 1980年까지 급속히 飼育頭數가 增加되다가 1986年까지는 頭數의 增加가 매우 미미하였고 1987年 以後에는 牛乳消費에 比한 供給物量不足과 行政當國의 酪農振興施策 및 酪農技術의 開發 普及 等으로 뚜렷한 增加推勢에 있으며 당분간 繼續的인 成長을 보일 것으로 豫測된다. 乳牛飼育現況과 酪農振興計劃을 보면, 1976年 252頭(호주 導入牛 188頭 포함)에서 1980年 1,187로 急增했고, 1986年 1,632頭이던 것이 1987年末 現在 2,180頭이며, 酪農農家 戶數는 1985年 163戶를 基點으로 그 이후 繼續 減少推勢로서 1987年度에는 132戶였다. 그러나 이러한 事實은 飼育頭數로는 全國의 0.47%, 飼育農家戶數로는 0.35%에 불과한 實情으로서, 1991年까지 5,000頭, 2000年까지는 48,000頭로 飼育頭數를 增加시킬 計劃으로 있다. 濟州道內 牛乳生産은 1987年 現在 4,328M/T임에 比하여 需要는 15,971M/T로서 道內生産物量은 供給量의 30%에도 미치지 못하고 있으며 이것은 全國生産量(1,336, 594M/T)의 0.04%에 불과한 것이다. 1987年度의 牧場當原乳納乳量은 月平均 4,001㎏, 1日平均 132㎏으로서 극히 零細한 實情이며, 月平均 不合格乳量은 3,068㎏으로서 不合格比率이 0.7%인 바, 이는 全國水準 0.3∼0.5%에 比하여 높은 편이다. 道內 牛乳處理 및 加工業體는 1971年度 1日 500㎏ 處理能力(뱃취타입 低溫殺菌)으로 新設許可된 濟州牛乳處理場(현재 HTST 方式 日産 20M/T 處理)과 1987年度에 치즈 生産施設(原乳 5M/T處理 規模)을 갖춰 許可된 후 現在市乳까지 處理하고 있는 이시돌牛乳 加工工場이 있다. 濟州道內 牛乳需要의 70%以上은 해태牛乳, 남양牛乳, 매일牛乳, 롯데牛乳, 서울牛乳, 빙그레牛乳 等의 6個業體에서 殺菌市乳, 滅菌市乳, 加工乳 및 牛乳飮料의 形態로 供給되고 있고 品目別로는 滅菌市乳가 제일 높은 水準이었다. 2. 濟州道 酪農業 改善의 主眼點 지금까지의 調査硏究와 分析結果를 土臺로 하여 濟州道의 酪農産業 振興과 酪農農家의 經營改善을 위한 方案을 要約하여 다음과 같이 指示하고자 한다. In Cheju island, it is positively neccessary that we have to bring up and develope the dairy industry in order to achieve the increasing of resident income and the balanced development of local industry, when we consider the natural condition agreed with dairy farming such as grassland and climate, and the actual condition of milk consumption which supply is in short as compared with demand. But the study and investigation for this subject are very rare and inactive. In this study, firstly, I investigated the present situation of dairy industry in Cheju island for one year, from 1987. 7 to 1988. 8. Secondly, I surveyed and analyzed the actual feeding and managerial condition of the 115 dairy farmhouseholds kept milking cows for same periods. I carried out these study in order to get the fundamental data and information about feeding and management of dairy cattle raised in Cheju area. The results are summarized as follows: 1. The present situation of dairy industry in Cheju island. It is regarded as the substantial start of dairy farming in Cheju area to supply livestock farm household with 188 heads of Holstein cows imported from Australia. in 1976 After it, untill 1980, the herds of keeping dairy cattle had increased rapidly. But untill 1986, the increasing of the dairy herds had been very slow. From 1987, it has increased because of the lacking supply as compared with milk consumption, the diffusion and development of the technology of dairy industry, and because the local government is taking measures for the promotion of dairy industry. It is expected to increase continually for a while. Seeing the present situation of the keeping dairy cattle and the plan of dairy promotion, the heads of dairy cattle had rapidly increased to 1187 in 1980 from 252 in 1976, and it was the 1,632 heads in 1986 and the 2,180 heads at the end of 1987 now. The numbers of dairy farmhouseholds were 163, the most, in 1985. After 1985 as it had been decreased so it was 132 in 1987. But these number is only 0.47% of the whole country as the heads of the keeping dairy cattle, 0.35% as the numbers of dairy farmhouseholds. It is planned to increase the herds of the keeping dairy cattle to 5,000 heads untill 1991 and to 48,000 heads untill 2001. The amounts of milk production in Cheju area is 4,328 M/T in 1987 now. Compared with it, the demand of milk is 15,971 M/T. The former is less than 30% of the latter. It is only 0.04% of the whole country (1,336,594 M/T). In 1987, the level of raw milk production is 4,001kg a month, namely 132kg a day. It is very petty. The amounts of rejected milk are average 3,068kg a month. The rate of rejected milk compared with raw milk production is 0.7%. It is higher than that of the whole country (0.3-0.5%). There are two milk plants in Cheju area. One is Cheju-Milk-Plant which was established and recognized in 1971. It has the production capacity of 20 ton's market milk and 5 ton's processed milk per day. Another is ISIDOL-Milk-Plant that was established in 1987. In this plant, 5 ton's raw milk is used for making some cheese and market milk. 2. The main points for the improvement of dairy industry in Cheju Do (1) The improvement and diffusion of the dairy feeding and management technology had been realized rapidly. (2) The problem of acquiring sufficient roughages must be settled. In order to solve this subject, land possession by non-farmers and capitalists from other regions must be prohibited. And the techniques of grassland establishment and management, the cultivation techniques of foragecrops and the utilization methods of feedstuff resources originated from this area must be improved. (3) Dairy cattle registration and test have to be accomplished, and rational devices of semen supply have to be arranged. (4) The rational management for milk processing and establishment of manufacturing plant for several kinds of milk products are needed. (5) Consciousness of dairy farmhouse unity and strengthening and activation of dairy farmer's organization are needed. (6) The unification of milk collection and the public management system of milk inspection have to be accomplished. (7) The substantial and needful education for dairy farmers have to be carried out. The devices of information transmission have to be worked out. Bringing up of dairy experts and specialized veterinarian of dairy cattle are needed. Survey, research and study for dairy science and industry have to be accomplished constantly.

        • 전문대학 낙농과 교육과정 수정개발에 관한 연구

          조규석 한국낙농학회 1990 韓國酪農學會誌 Vol.12 No.3

          전문대학 낙농과 교육과제 수정 개발을 위해 1989년 6월부터 1990년 6월까지 전국 낙농과 교수, 졸업생, 재학생, 낙농산업체등 총 470명에 설문한 결과와 각 전문대학 교육과정을 중심으로 연구한 결과를 종합하면 다음과 같다. 1. 전문대학 낙농과의 총개설 학점은 109학점 (졸업이수 학점의 136%)으로 하고 교양과목: (전공과목의 비는 22:78(24:85학점)로 하였다. 2. 전공필수 : 전공선택의 비는 38:62%(32:53학점)로 조정하여 선택의 폭을 넓게 하였다. 3. 교양 선택과목을 선택과 교직 선택으로 전공 선택과목을 과의 특성에 따라 선택과 일반선택으로 구분하였다. 4. 기사 자격의 경우 낙농과는 생산분야 위주인 축산기사(68%)보다는 우유가공기사(84%)의 희망이 아주 높았다. 5. 실험실습의 주방법은 분단별 실습이 47% 개별실습이 41%였고 실험실습 교과목의 78%가 필요함을 강조하였다. 6. 교양과목에는 생활영어, 일본어, 직업윤리, 일반화학, 전공과목에는 특수가축, 낙농유통 과목을 신설하여 국제사회 변화에 대응할 수 있게 하였다. 7. 전문대학 낙농과 교육과정 시안은 단기 완성 교육으로 역점을 두었고 기초 이론과 응용기술면을 강화하여 교육과정 운영의 효율화를 극대화 할 수 있게 하였다. This experiment has made a survey on 470 subjects (17 of prosessors, 83 of gradnates, 317 of undergraduates and 53 of those who engaged in dairy farming industry) form June 1989 to June 1990 in order to develop the curriculum of department of Dairy Farming. The results of the survey with reference to the present curriculum of each Junior College are as followed; 1. A total of credits available for students majority in Dairy Farming of Junior college was set 109 credits (which is 136% of credits required for graduation), and subjects of liberal arts and those of major are set in the ratio of 22:78% (24:85 credits). 2. A required subject and a optional subject for special study are set in the ratio of 38:62% ( 32:53 credits). 3. A optional subjects for liberal arts were devided into options and teaching options, and optional subject for special study were devided in to options and general options. 4. Preference for technician qualification in Dept. of Dairy Farming was higher in the field of milk processing 84% than in that of liverstock (68%). 5. As the main experimental practices, 47% of total practice was conducted by parts and 42% by individuals Development of subjects for experimental practice was keenly required by 76% of professors. 6. Subjects of English conversation, Japaneses, and Vocational Ethics should by newly establishin the field of liberal arts, and subjects of special livestocks and Dairy Farming distribution in the field of obligatory study so that the student way cope with the change of international society efficiently. 7. This paper aimed principally at training skilled Technicians the basis of a short-term program and emphasizing the importance of grounding knowledge and applied techniques so as to work the curriculum efficiently.

        • KCI등재후보

          한국전통식품 김치로부터 분리한 유산균주의 항산화 활성

          김다영 ( Da-young Kim ),김홍석 ( Hong Seok Kim ),유정식 ( Jung Sik Yoo ),조윤아 ( Yoon Ah Cho ),김철현 ( Cheol-hyun Kim ) 한국낙농식품응용생물학회(구 한국유가공학회) 2020 한국유가공기술과학회지 Vol.38 No.2

          본 연구의 목적은 한국 전통 음식 김치에서 분리한 유산균의 특성을 연구하기 위해 형태학적, 생화학적 특성을 조사하였다. 한국의 전통 발효 식품에서 젖산균을 확인하기 위해 분리된 균주의 그람염색을 수행한 후 Macrogen에서 16S rRNA 분석 결과, DKGF9(Lactobacillus plantarum), DKGF1(Lactobacillus paracasei ), DKGF8(Lactobacillus casei ), DK207(Lactobacillus casei ), DK211(Lactobacillus casei )이 확인되었다. 우리는 한국의 전통 발효 식품인 김치에서 분리된 5가지 LAB의 기본 생물학적 활성에 대한 실험을 수행했다. 37℃, 55℃, 65℃, 75℃에서 각각 5분, 15분 5균주의 내열성 확인 결과, 상업 균주인 Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5의 내열성과 유사하거나 더 높음을 보여주었다. 장내부착능에서는 선발균주 모두 상용균주와 비교했을 때 10<sup>7</sup> CFU/mL 이상으로 우수한 결합능을 보여주었고, KCTC(한국생명공학연구원 생물자원센터)에서 분양받은 Escherichia coli KCTC1682, Salmonella enterica KCTC2054, Bacillus cereus KCTC3624 3종을 활용한 항균활성 결과, 모든 균주는 상업용 균주인 L. acidophilus LA-5와 비교하여 유사하거나 더 높은 항균 활성을 나타냈다. 단백질분해능력 실험에서, 5개의 균주는 clear-zone의 직경이 24시간에서 72시간으로 갈수록 점차 증가하고, L. paracasei DKGF1이 가장 큰 직경을 갖고 있어 단백질분해능력이 가장 우수한 것으로 나타났다. 5개의 균주로부터 선택된 3개의 균주는 ABTS, DPPH, FRAP, Hydroxyl radical scanenging 활성을 포함하여 다양한 항산화활성 효과를 나타냈다. 결과적으로, 5가지 균주 중에서 우수한 기능성을 갖는 L. paracasei DKGF1이 잠재적인 프로바이오틱스 활성을 나타내며, 건강 관련 제품의 개발에 유용한 균주라고 판단된다. The purpose of this study was to investigate the probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from a Korean traditional food kimchi. Gram staining was performed by Macrogen (Macrogen, Inc.) for identification of the LAB. Five strains of LAB were identified, including DKGF9 (Lactobacillus plantarum), DKGF1 (L. paracasei ), DKGF8 (L. casei ), DK207 (L. casei ), and DK211 (L. casei ). The biological activities of the isolated strains were assessed. The results showed that heat resistance of the strains was similar to or higher than the commercial strain L. acidophilus LA-5. Indirect testing of the ability of the strains to attach to the mucin layer revealed that DKGF9, DKGF1, and DKGF8 have high binding affinities for the mucous layer. All strains showed antimicrobial activity similar to or higher than the commercial strain LA-5. In proteolysis experiments, the diameters of proteolysis zones of the five strains increased in the period of 24-72 h, with DKGF1 exhibiting the largest zone diameter. Three strains were selected based on their antioxidant activities. Among the five isolated strains, L. paracasei DKGF1 showed potential probiotic activity, and thus, it may be useful for the development of health-promoting products.

        • 제주지역의 유우사육과 낙농경영에 관한 조사연구 : II. 제주도 낙농농가 및 목장의 실태조사 II. The Actual Feeding and Managerial Condition of the Dairy Farmhouseholds and Ranches

          양창범,양승주,오성환,조덕준 한국낙농학회 1990 韓國酪農學會誌 Vol.12 No.2

          濟州地域의 酪農産業은 草地와 氣候 等이 自然的 條件과 牛乳의 需要에 比하여 절대적으로 供給이 不足한 狀態에 있는 與件 및 地域産業의 均衡的 發展과 住民所得 增大 等을 考慮할때 必須的으로 育成 發展시켜야 할 必要性이 있으나 이에 對한 調査硏究는 매우 低調한 實情에 있는 點을 堪案하여 1987年 7月부터 1988年 7月까지 1年동안 濟州道의 酪農現況을 調査하고 115個 搾乳牛 飼育農家를 對象으로 地城別 規模別로 酪農農家의 實態를 調査分析하므로서 濟州地域 乳牛飼育과 酪農經營에 關한 基礎資料를 마련코져 本 硏究를 遂行하였는바, 그 第2報로서 道內 酪農農家 및 牧場의 一般分析과 飼育現況 및 施設設備 現況에 對한 調査分析結果를 要約하면 다음과 같다. 1. 一般槪況 經營主의 人的事項을 보면, 女性經營者가 擡頭되고 있고, 陸地部에서는 젊은 新規酪農가들의 增加가 顯著하나 濟州地域의 境遇 41∼51歲로 長年層이 많고, 學歷은 高卒이상이 75%로서 높은 水準이나 過去보다는 低下되고 있었다. 酪農前職業은 一般農業이 67.1%로 제일 높았으며, 가장 큰 規漠(D:31頭以上)에서 公務員 等 比農業前職이 많았다. 酪農經歷은 新規比率이 높아져가고 있는 陸地部와는 달리 6∼9年의 經歷이 가장 높았으며, 調査農家의 67.1%가 兼業酪農形態였고, 經營主가 牧場에 常住하는 農家는 87.7%였다. 平均家族數는 4.75人이고 牧夫는 農家當 In Cheju island, it is positively neccessary that we have to bring up and develope the dairy industry in order to increase the resident's income and develope the local industry. But the study and investigation for this subject are very rare and inactive. In this study, we surveyed and analyzed the actual feeding and managerial condition of the 73 dairy farm households kept milking cows for one year, from 1987, 7 to 1988, 8. We carried out these study in order to get the fundamental data and information about feeding and management of dairy cattle raised in Cheju area. The results are summarized as follows: The average ages of dairy farm owners were 41 to 50 years old. This is higher level than that of mainland's farmers. 75% of the dairy farmers graduated from high school or college. The former occupations of the dairy farm owners were agriculture(67.1%) and so on. Dairy Farming career of the farmers was 6-9 years and this is longer than that of mainland's farmers. 67.1% of investigated farmers have a subsidiary business and 87.7% of dairy farm owners worked for 24 hours at their dairy farm. These two kinds of levels are higher than those of mainland's dairy farm owners. The average feeding size per farmer was 9.48 heads. The management records of their dairy farms were rarely kept. The total numbers of dairy cattle raised in Cheju area were 2,163 heads in 1987, 11 and 2,753 heads in 1988, 5. The dairy cattle herds were composed of 11-27.6% calf, 40.9-50.2% multipara cow and 31.2-33.9% milking cow. The component ratio of multipara and milking cow was very low. The number of dairy cows per feeding farm as 19-24 heads(8.7-9.8 head in multipara). This is more than that of the mainland. But this ratio is also low and is not proper. The yearly increasing ratio of dairy cattle was 19.3% and was much higher level than that of mainland. 81.5% of cows had an easy labor but 13.8% of cows were dystocia. The cause of death and culling was mainly reproductive disorder and desease. The average area for dairy farm was 30,290 pyong per farm and 1,844 pyong per mature cattle. The ratio of rent area was high level(24.7%). The farm land was composed of 32.4% forage crop field, 36.1% improved grassland, 23.5% wild grassland and 1.6% stock yard and building site. The farm building, facilities and equipments were more unreasonable and lower than those of mainland except silo. The actual condition of large and small instruments(tractor, milker, cooler etc.) was better than those of mainland and was much improved, compared with the condition of 10 years ago.

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