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Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the incidence of acalculous cholecystitis after multiple trauma with fractures and to analyze the characteristics of cholecystitis. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of multiple trauma patients with fractures between April 2010 and April 2012. Sixty-nine patients were identified, and the average age was 46.8(range: 15-74) years. Data were collected regarding associated injury, injury severity score (ISS), the diagnosis time after trauma, diagnostic tool, and management Results: There were three cases(4.3%) of cholecystitis among the 69 cases, and cholecystitis was diagnosed an average of 20.7(range: 8-33) days after injury. Two patients complained of abdominal pain at diagnosis, but the other patient who had undergone surgery for small bowel perforation at the time of the injury had no abdominal pain. All three patients had abnormal liver function tests (LFTs) at diagnosis. The cholecystitis was confirmed with ultrasonography or computed tomography, and all cases were acalculous cholecystitis. At first, percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage was performed; then, laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) was tried an average of 12(range: 11-13) days later. An laparoscopic cholecystectomy was successfully done in only one case, the other cases being converted to an open cholecystectomy due to severe inflammation. Conclusion: The incidence of acaculous cholecystitis was 4.3% after multiple trauma with fractures. We should consider cholecystitis in patients with abdominal pain, fever and elevated LFTs after multiple trauma. (J Trauma Inj 2012;25:203-208)
최석채 ( Suck Chei Choi ), 김용성 ( Yong Sung Kim ), 김기훈 ( Ki Hoon Kim ), 김헌수 ( Hun Soo Kim ), 조향정 ( Hyang Jeong Jo ), 윤기중 ( Ki Jung Yun ) 대한소화관운동학회 2007 Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility (JNM Vol.13 No.1
목적 : 바렛식도는 지속적인 위식도역류 등으로 원위부 식도에 정상적으로 존재하는 편평상피세포 대신에 배상세포를 포함하는 장형 원주세포로 식도 점막이 피복되는 것을 말한다. 그리고 이형성을 거쳐 선암종으로 진행할 수 있기 때문에 이형성 이전 단계인 바렛식도의 발암과정에 대한 연구가 필요하다. 이에 바렛식도와 배상세포를 포함하지 않은 원주세포만 있는 식도를 대조군으로 하여 점액유전자 및 세포증식능에 대해 비교 연구하였다. 대상 및 방법 : 임상 및 내시경적으로 바렛식도가 의심되어 원위부 식도에서 생검한 환자들 중에서 배상세포가 있어 조직학적으로 바렛식도로 증명된 25명의 환자와 배상세포가 없었던 환자들 중에서 무작위로 선택한 30예를 대조군으로 하였다. 생검 당시의 나이와 성별 그리고 MUC1, MUC2, Ki-67에 대한 면역조직화학적 염색을 시행하였다. 결과 : 바렛식도의 평균 나이 및 남자 비율은 각각 65.3±10.1세, 76.0%이였고, 대조군의 평균 나이 및 남자 비율은 각각 53.0±14.8세, 60.0%로 바렛식도의 나이가 대조군식도보다 의의있게 높았다. MUC1은 바렛식도 및 대조군 모두에서 100% 발현되었고, MUC2 발현율은 바렛식도 및 대조군에서 각각 92%, 20%이었다. Ki-67 발현율은 바렛식도 및 대조군에서 각각 80.0%, 70.0%이였고, Ki-67 발현 강도의 평균은 바렛식도 1.20±0.76, 대조군 0.77±0.57로 발현 강도에서 바렛식도가 의의있게 높았다. 결론 : 바렛식도는 원주세포만 있는 식도에서 보다 좀더 지속적인 위식도역류 등의 자극으로 생긴다. 그리고 MUC2는 주로 바렛식도에서 발현되고 세포증식능은 바렛식도에서 좀더 높으며 이는 MUC2 발현과 관련될 수 있다고 생각된다. Background/Aims: Barrett`s esophagus is characterized by the presence of metaplastic columnar epithelium with goblet cells in the distal esophagus. Barrett`s esophagus progresses through low grade dysplasia and high grade dysplasia to adenocarcinoma. We studied the patient age, the mucin gene and the proliferation activity of biopsy-proven Barrett`s esophagus and simple columnar epithelium-lined esophagus. Methods: To evaluate the mucin gene expression and proliferation activity, twenty five cases of Barrett`s esophagus and thirty cases of control esophagus were examined immunohistochemically with using the monoclonal antibodies to MUC1, MUC2 and Ki-67. Results: The Barrett`s esophagus patients were older (mean: 65.3±10.1 years) than the control patients (mean: 53.0±14.8 years). The MUC1 expression was 100% in both Barrett`s esophagus and the control esophagus. An MUC2 expression was observed in 92.0% of the Barrett`s esophagus and 20.0% of the control esophagus. The rate and intensity of the Ki-67 expression was higher in the Barrett`s esophagus (80.0%, 1.20±0.76) than that in the control esophagus (70.0%, 0.77±0.57). Conclusions: Barrett`s esophagus is a metaplastic lesion due to the more long-standing gastroesophageal reflux than that in a simple columnar epithelium-lined esophagus. The cause of increased proliferation activity in Barrett`s esophagus may be related to the MUC2 expression. (Kor J Neurogastroenterol Motil 2007;13:21-25)
This study examines the development of knitwear design using environmentally friendly Hauji (Korean traditional handmade paper) yam. While its environmentally friendly features make Hanji yam suitable for eoo-fashion design, Hanji products, generally produced in limited quantities, are highly unlikely to become a commercial success due to their high prices. Therefore, a new technology allowing the production of low-cost Hanji yam is in high demand, as is its application across multiple products in addition to knitwear, The significance of this study lies in that it suggests ways to design knitwear which reflect the versatility of modern eco-fashion to meet the needs of consumers. This study presents knitwear designs, specifically party wear and everyday fashion, that utilize the advantages of Hunji yarn and represent 2013 S/S color trends. Two outfits will be featured - one for women in their 20s and 30s and the other for women in their 30s and 40s. Also, this paper includes a literature review and an accounting of online research 0n Hanji yarn and eco-fashion designs
This paper proposes a new condition about delay-dependent robust H∞ control of uncertain linear systems with time-varying delay and randomly occurring disturbances. The norm bounded uncertainties are subjected to the system matrices. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, a sufficient condition for designing a controller gain such that the closed-loop systems are asymptotically stable with H∞ disturbance level γis formulated in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Finally, two numerical examples are included to show the effectiveness of the presented method.
This study aims to suggest developmental alternatives by examining the influence of local government on the formation of sports policy as well as the backgrounds, sources and variables in the formation process of sports policy. In order to achieve the research purpose, this study reviewed literature and documents related to local governments; U-city, H-city, Y-city, S-city in Gyeonggi-do, and C-city in Chungcheong-namdo. In addition, five subjects in each group selected for the research. They were public officials in charge of sports policy, city councilors and members of province assembly, and persons concerned with civil groups and sports groups respectively in each city. In-depth interview was conducted for the subjects and data were collected. In order to conduct a research analysis, policy framework of Katou(1990) was used for exploring factors that have effects on the formation of policy. In addition, the concept of the French and Raven power bases was utilized for clarifying the sources of effects.