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        • Purification and Characterization of Methanol Dehydrogenase from Methylobacterium sp. Strain SY1

          황은주,김영민,Whang,,Eun-Joo,Kim,,Young-Min 생화학분자생물학회 1990 한국생화학회지 Vol.23 No.2

          메탄올을 이용하며 성장한 Methylobacterium sp. strain SY1으로부터 다섯 단계의 과정을 거쳐 14배 정제된 methanol dehydrogenase를 얻었다. 95% 이상의 순도를 지닌 정제된 효소의 크기는 128,000이고, 63,000의 분자량을 지닌 두 개의 동일한 소단위로 구성되어 있으며, pH 9.5와 $25^{\circ}C$에서 가장 높은 활성을 나타내었다. 이 효소는 효소활성을 나타내기 위해 암모니아 이온을 필요로 하며, phenazine methosulfate와 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol을 이용한 효소활성 측정법으로 활성을 측정할 수 있었다. 이 효소는 여러 가지 종류의 1차 알코올, 2차 알코올, 알데하이드, 메틸아민 등을 기질로 이용할 수 있었으며, 메탄올에 대한 $K_m$ 값은 $850{\mu}M$ 이었다. 정제된 효소는 345 nm에서의 absorption peak를 나타내었으나, apoenzyme은 345 nm에서의 peak는 물론 효소활성도 나타내지 않았다. 이 효소는 KCN, EDTA, $NaN_3$에 의해서는 활성이 저해되지 않았으나 $Mn^{2+}$, $Cu^{2+}$, $Mg^{2+}$, $Co^{2+}$ 등 몇 가지 2가 양이온에 의해 강한 저해를 받았다. Glycine과 lysine을 많이 가지고 있는 이 효소의 pI는 8.5로 밝혀졌고, N-terminal 아미노산은 aspartate로 확인되었다. 정제된 효소는 Methylobacterium sp. strain AMI methanol dehydrogenase의 항원과 동일한 항원을 가지고 있는 것으로 밝혀졌다. A methanol dehydrogenase from methanol-grown cells of Methylobacterium sp. strain SY1 was purified 14-fold in five steps to better than 95% homogeneity. The molecular weight of the native enzyme was determined to be 128,000. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis revealed the enzyme to be a dimer with two identical subunits of molecular weight 63,000. The optimal pH and temperature for enzyme activity were found to be 9.5 and $25^{\circ}C$, respectively. Enzyme activity could be coupled to phenazine methosulfate and required the presence of ammonium ions in the assay mixture. The $K_m$ for methanol was found to be $850{\mu}M$. The enzyme possessed broad substrate specificity for primary and secondary alcohols, aldehydes, and methylamine. The purified enzyme had an absorption peak at 345 nm. Apoenzyme lacked the 345 nm peak and was catalytically inactive. The enzyme was insensitive to KCN, EDTA, and $NaN_3$, but was inhibited strongly by several divalent cations such as $Mn^{2+}$, $Cu^{2+}$, $Mg^{2+}$, and $Co^{2+}$. The isoelectric point of the native enzyme was found to be 8.5. The N-terminal amino acid of the native enzyme was found to be aspartate. The enzyme contained large amounts of glycine and lysine. The methanol dehydrogenase of Methylobacterium sp. strain SY1 was found to have antigenic sites in common with those of Methylobacterium sp. strain AM1 enzyme.

        • KCI등재

          Artists in a Marketplace: Art and Multinational Capitalism in Don DeLillo's Mao II andUnderworld

          황은주 미국소설학회 2007 미국소설 Vol.14 No.1

          Artists in a Marketplace:Art and Multinational Capitalism inDon DeLillo's Mao II and UnderworldEunju HwangThis essay investigates DeLillo's view of art and artist in the late capitalist society. In Mao II, Don DeLillo writes about the disappearance of the aura and the status of author in the late capitalist society. In the novel, he is depicting a world in which art is no more than a consumer product and an artist himself a product to sell. Due to mechanical reproduction and mass media, according to the novel, art has become much inferior to terrorism in its power to shape mass consciousness, and the author has lost his aura as the originator of the meaning of his text. Bill Gray, knowing the principles of the market, walks the tightrope between silence and fame; he deliberately removes himself from the audience in order to increase his fame, his cash values. His anonymous death, the survival of his copyright, and his portraits that would replace him by inheriting his “specious aura” crystalize the reduced status of the author in the contemporary society. On the other hand, in Underworld, DeLillo searches for a redemptive power from art. In a world of waste, where only waste maintains its “aura” due to its “untouchability,” DeLillo still finds the only source for hope from the power of art. Artists like Moonman who is not co-opted by capitalism and people like Esmeralda who can never be contained within the system give people hope in the novel. DeLillo himself also sheds off the “specious aura” of the artist for sale by creating redemptive moments and images in his novel and writing an “underhistory” of the multinational capitalist society.

        • KCI등재

          The Seek Control Design with Gain-Scheduling in Hard Disk Drives

          황은주,현창호,박민용 한국지능시스템학회 2011 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL of FUZZY LOGIC and INTELLIGE Vol.11 No.1

          The increased disk rotational velocity to improve the data transfer rate has raised up many serious problems in its servo control system which should control the position and velocity of a spot relative to a rotating disk. This paper proposes gain-scheduling-based track-seek control for single stage actuator of hard disk drives. Gain scheduling is a technique that can extend the validity of the linearization approach to a range of operating points and one of the most popular approaches to nonlinear control design. The proposed method schedules controller gains to improve the transient response and minimize overshoot during the functions of the read/write head positioning servomechanism for the seek control. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated through stability analysis and simulation results.

        • KCI등재

          The Middle Class, Boredom and Violence: Reading J. G. Ballard's Suburban Disaster Quartet of Cocaine Nights, Super-Cannes, Millennium People and Kingdom Come

          황은주 한국중앙영어영문학회 2011 영어영문학연구 Vol.53 No.4

          This article deals with the last four novels written by a British SF novelist J. G. Ballard: Cocaine Nights, Super-Cannes, Millennium People and Kingdom Come, or shortly, The Suburban Disaster Quartet. Unlike the common expectation, Ballard describes life of the people from the middle class who have become the new proletariat group and revolt against modern society which makes them tamed. Through the violence against modernity itself, Ballard's characters (re)gain animal-like instinct, therefore, violence becomes new energy. The four novels commonly find the cause of violence in the middle class: boredom. This article finds causes of boredom in the middle class in three reasons: the life without stimuli, fun culture and the dearth of human relationships. Firstly, residences in luxurious gated communities are described in Ballard's novels as “Eden without a snake.” Life in gated communities is convenient but at a cost; the characters have lost all the energy and instinct, thus they try to retrieve what they have lost in the modern technological life through violence. Secondly, modern culture is represented by “fun,” and as Bertrand Russell articulates human beings have great fear of boredom. In Ballard's novels, violence plays a role of antidote of boredom. Thirdly, lack of human relationship due to high competition in capitalist societies causes boredom in the middle class. Ballard paradoxically shows affirmativeness of violence, making it inevitable in modernity. This article reads Ballard's Suburban Disaster Quartet as a paradox, which shows affirmativeness of violence but at the same time it is an inevitable result of modernity. By closely looking at the problems in the middle class, this article highlights problems of modernity.

        • KCI등재

          Random central limit theorems for linear processes with weakly dependent innovations

          황은주,신동완 한국통계학회 2012 Journal of the Korean Statistical Society Vol.41 No.3

          Random central limit theorems (CLTs) are established for a linear process driven by a strictly stationary ψ-weakly dependent process as well as for the ψ-weakly dependent process itself, whose dependence structure was introduced by Doukhan and Louhichi [Doukhan, P., & Louhichi, S. (1999). A new weak dependence condition and applications to moment inequalities. Stochastic Processes and their Applications, 30 84, 313–342] to generalize mixings and other dependence. Random CLTs are established for partial sums and sample autocovariances of the ψ-weakly dependent process and the linear process under absolute summability.

        • KCI등재

          A study on moment inequalities under a weak dependence

          황은주,신동완 한국통계학회 2013 Journal of the Korean Statistical Society Vol.42 No.1

          Weestablish Roussas–Ioannides-type inequalities [Roussas, G. G., & Ioannides, D. A. (1987). Moment inequalities for mixing sequences of random variables. Stochastic Analysis and Applications, 5, 61–120] under general ψ-weak dependence proposed by Doukhan and Louhichi [Doukhan, P., & Louhichi, S. (1999). A new weak dependence condition and applications to moment inequalities. Stochastic Processes and their Applications, 84,313–342], which unifies weak dependence such as mixing, association, Gaussian sequences and Bernoulli shifts. Simple applications of the inequalities extend many important moment inequalities available in the literature for mixing sequences to those forψ-weakly dependent sequences. As an illustration, the established inequalities are applied to extend the result for moment bound of partial sum under strong mixing by Cox and Kim [Cox, D. D.,& Kim, T. Y. (1995). Moment bounds for mixing random variables useful in nonparametric function estimation. Stochastic Process and their Applications, 56, 151–158] to the class of ψ-weakly dependent processes.

        • KCI등재

          The stationary bootstrap for the joint distribution of sum and maximum of stationary sequences

          황은주 한국통계학회 2014 Journal of the Korean Statistical Society Vol.43 No.2

          In this work, the stationary bootstrap procedure is used to estimate the joint distributionof sum and maximum of strictly stationary strong mixing sequences. Asymptotic validityis established for stationary bootstrapping of the joint distribution of sum and maximum.

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