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이 연구는 사운드스케이프라는 청각적 경관의 개념에 기초하여, 계절에 따라 도시 거리의 청각적 경관에서 나타나는 경관요소, 경관특징, 경관인상에 대한 한국인의 청각선호도를 조사하여, 청각적 경관의 구성요인과 계절의 요인이 어떻게 상호작용하여 청각선호도에 영향을 미치는 지를 파악하는 것이다. 캡션평가법이라는 환경심리 조사수법을 이용하여 45명의 대학생들이 4계절 동안 남원시의 거리를 걸으면서 듣고 느낀 청각적 경관에서 나타나는 경관요소, 경관특징, 경관인상의 요인과 계절의 상호작용 효과를 단순요인 분산분석과 비모수 일원배치 분산분석하였다. 분석결과, 청각적 경관의 경관요소, 경관특징, 경관인상과 계절 사이에 상호작용 효과가 있으며, 각 경관의 구성요인들이 청각선호도에 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 경관요소의 계절별 선호도는 봄, 여름, 가을에는 자연음이, 겨울에는 사회음의 선호도가 높게 나타났다. 경관특징의 계절별 선호도는 봄, 여름 및 겨울에는 양태가, 그리고 가을은 주변관계가 중요한 영향을 미치고 있다. 경관인상의 계절별 선호도는 봄과 겨울은 소리특성이, 그리고 여름과 가을은 거리의 분위기라는 경관인상이 중요한 영향을 미치고 있다. 이 연구의 결과는 사운드스케이프 디자인에 있어서 계절에 따라 어떠한 청각적 경관의 경관요소, 경관특징, 경관인상을 배려하는 것이 바람직한 것인가, 그 양부를 판정할 수 있는 유용한 자료로써 활용할 수 있다. Based on a concept of soundscape, this study aims to investigate Koreans' preference for auditory elements, features, and impressions depending upon the season, and examine how these auditory factors of soundstape and seasons interact with each other and attempt to discover their influence on people's auditory preferences. According to an environmental psychological approach called the caption evaluation method, 45 college students examined the soundscape of Namwon City while racing the streets in four seasons. In order to analyze the interactions between seasons and such auditory factors as elements, features, and impressions, it was conducted the GLM univariate analysis and the NPAR tests for independent samples. The results of the analyses show that there are interactive effects between seasons and auditory factors like elements, features, and impressions and that the auditory factors have an effect on auditory preference. Moreover, as for seasonal preference for auditory elements, it was found that people prefer natural sound in spring, summer, and fall while they prefer social sound in winter. Concerning seasonal preference for auditory features, people place a focus on the behaviors in spring, summer, and winter while they stress the surroundings in autumn, as for seasonal preference for auditory impressions, they make much of sound characteristics in spring and winter but they value the atmosphere of streets in summer and fall. The results of this study can he utilized as useful data in determining which auditory factors among elements, features, and impressions to take into consideration in a soundscape design.
이 연구의 목적은 사운드스케이프의 의미론적 관점에 기초하여 도시의 거리경관에 관한 청각적 이미지의 평가구조를 파악하는 것이다. 캡션평가법이라는 새로운 환경심리조사수법을 이용하여 2001년부터 2005년까지 총45명의 대학생이 남원시의 주요 거리를 걸으면서 듣고 느끼는 소리의 이미지 파악을 위한 현장조사에 참가하고, 그 결과 청각적 경관에 대한 요소, 특징, 인상 및 선호도 등을 포함한 다양한 자료를 얻을 수 있었다. 남원시에 있어서, 청각적 이미지의 구성 요소는 자연음, 그리고 기계음, 사회음, 지시음 등을 포함한 인공음으로 분류되고, 청각적 경관의 특징은 소리종류, 양태, 상황, 성질, 주변관계, 이미지 등으로, 그리고 청각적 경관의 인상은 인간의 감성, 거리의 분위기, 소리 자체의 특성이라는 3가지 카테고리로 분류된다. 청각적 경관과 판단과의 관계로 부터, 청각적 경관의 요소, 특징, 인상 등은 긍정적, 중립적, 부정적 이미지 등의 항목으로 구성된다. 또한, 남원시의 거리경관의 평가구조모델로부터 그 장소 또는 공간의 청각적 이미지특성을 파악할 수 있었다. The purpose of this study is to interpret the evaluation structure of auditory images about streetscapes in urban area on the basis of the semantic view of soundscapes. Using the caption evaluation method. which is a new method, from 2001 to 2005, a total of 45 college students participated in a fieldwork to find out the images of sounds while walking on the main streets of Namwon city. It was able get various data which include elements, features, impressions, and preferences about auditory scene. In Namwon city, the elements of the formation of auditory images are classified into natural sound and artificial sound which include machinery sounds, community sounds. and signal sounds. Also, the features of the auditory scene are classified by kind of sound, behavior, condition, character, relationship of circumference and image. Finally, the impression of auditory scene is classified into three categories, which are the emotions of humans, atmosphere of the streets, and the characteristics of the sound itself. From the relationship between auditory scene and estimation, the elements, features and impressions of auditory scene consist of the items which are positive, neutral, and negative images. Also, it was able to grasp the characteristics of auditory image of place or space through the evaluation model of streetscapes in Namwon city.
The purpose of this study is to find out the evaluation structure of visual images about streetscapes in urban area. Using the caption evaluation method, which is a new method, from 2001 to 2005, a total of 45 college students participated in a fieldwork on the main streets of Namwon city. Resulting from this, it was obtained various visual data which include elements, features, impressions, and estimation(preference). In Namwon city, the elements of visual image consist of buildings, location/space, constructions, things/objects, humans, and nature. The features of visual images consist of appearance, scale, extent, existence/composition, image, situation, and function/relationship. The impressions of visual images consist of atmosphere, emotion, personality, esthetic sense, formation, size, safety, convenience, pace, and use. From the relationships between each element of formation and estimation(preference), it was found that the elements, features and impressions of the visual images individually consist of positive, neutral, and negative images. Also, it was able to grasp the characteristics of visual image of place or space through the evaluation model of streetscapes in Namwon city.
This study aims to rediscover the meaning and value of Soswaewon construction represented in Kim In-Hu's 48 poems on the basis of the concept and idea of soundscape. It classified the landscape resources through the various emotional elements such as the sense of sight, hearing, smell, touch, taste, and warmth described in the 48 poems of Soswaewon, and also interpreted the meaning and value of Soswaewon construction. Appreciating various sounds of Soswaewon, Kim In-Hu understood a sound as an important element of the landscape. Also, he abundantly wrote down the interesting changes of Soswaewon which vary depending on time or seasons. The 48 poems contain the scent and feel of Soswaewon as well as the soundscapes which can be heard with ears. A variety of sounds heard in Soswaewon are the whole senses which are combined with the chill of Soswaewon, the fragrance of trees and the mystery of the mountain, etc, and they mean the wider world much more than the value of physical sounds. Soundscapes of Soswaewon are becoming an emotional space which intactly conveys not only the musical inspiration but also the scent of life to us. 이 연구는 사운드스케이프의 개념과 사상으로부터 김인후의 48영에 표상된 소쇄원의 조영의 의미와 가치를 재조명하는 것을 목표로 한다. 소쇄원 48영에서 묘사되는 시각, 청각, 후각, 촉각, 미각/온각 등의 다양한 감성요소로부터 경관자원을 분류하고, 사운드스케이프의 개념과 사상으로 부터 소쇄원의 조영의 의미와 가치를 해석하였다. 그는 소쇄원의 다양한 소리에 귀를 기울여 거기에서 들리는 소리를 감상하면서 소리를 풍경의 중요한 요소로써 파악하고 있다. 또 그는 시간 혹은 계절에 따라 달라지는 소쇄원의 흥미로운 변화를 풍부하게 기록하고 있다. 귀로 듣는 소리풍경 뿐아니라 그곳에서 느끼는 향기나 감촉까지도 담고 있다. 소쇄원에서 들을 수 있는 다양한 소리의 울림은 소쇄원의 냉기, 나무들의 향기, 산의 신비 등을 모두 결합한 하나의 전체적 감각으로, 물리적 음향의 가치를 훨씬 뛰어넘은 보다 넓은 세계를 의미하고 있다. 소쇄원에서 듣는 소리풍경은 우리들에게 음악적 감흥 뿐아니라 공간의 삶의 향기까지도 오롯이 전해 주는 감성적 공간이 되고 있다.
This study was under taken to treat the aqueous solutions containing organic pollutants, PCP(p-chlorophenol) and DBS(sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate), by adsorption and biofilm processes using activated carbon fiber(ACF A-15) packed column. And the behavior of trihalomethane formation potential in the model experimental system was investigated to clarify the mechanisms of the decrease/increase of THMFP in the biological activated carbon treatment. When adsorption of bi-components solution(PCP and DBS) was progressed, DBS , which was initially adsorbed, was replaced by PCP. The final adsorption capacities for these components at SV(space velocity) of 3.6h-¹were in good agreement with the batch single adsorption measurments, but for the DBS and PCP in bi-components system, were over 50% and 70%, respectively by BAC treatment. In case of treating the bi-components solution(PCP and DBS) mixed with raw river water, the removal efficiencies for these components were greatly improved to over 90%. It was found that DBS restrains the THMFPs of PCP more or less. However, from the THMFP removal point of view, treating the bi-components (PCP and DBS) feed solution mixed with raw water containing abundant biomass, appeared to be more effective than treating the bi-components solution without raw river water.
The biological treatability of phenolic wastewater by biological acivated carbon process was carried out in prolonged operation. With respect to the hydrauric retention time and effluent water quality, the operating condition was found to be effective at the upflow velocity of 0.05m/h. The average removal efficiencies of COD and phenol were 83 and 90% under the same conditiom. Effluent COD concentrations were linearly increased with the COD volumetric loading rate up to approximately 80g/㎥ ·day, and then the increasing rate of the effluent COD concentrations were susbtantially lowered. The model of biofilm kinetic was established based on Monod equation. COD concentration at the one-half maximum growth rate of biomass(Ks) and maximum COD utilization rate per unit mass of biofilm (k) were 4.133mg/1 and 0.195day??, respectively.
ACF(Activated Carbon fiber) has an advantage of fast adsorption rate and easiness of handling comparing the granular adsorbents or the powdered adsorbents. Application of newly commercialized ACF in the field of water treatment and deodorization in air are introduced. For designing ACF beds, adsorption isotherms of three trihalomethanes(THMs: CHCl₃, CHBrCl₂ and CHBr₂Cl) and the other organics(p-chlorophenol and sucrose)on ACFs were measured. Adsorption capacities of the ACFs for these THMs were found to be comparable with or slightly larger than those of granular activated carbons(GACs) which have been widely used for trihalomethanes control in drinking water. Also, the breakthrough curve prediction was successfully carried out using a mathematical model on basis of the assumption that the adsorption equilibrium is instantaneously established when a THM solution contacts the ACF. The measured adsorption capacities of PCP and sucrose in column adsorption were in good agreement with those of theoretically calculated results using the batch adsorption measurements. And saturation time model of these substrates in the columns was also agreed successfully with practical measurements. Deodorization of ammonia, trimethylamine and methylmercaptan in air was carried out successfully. The removal rate was 99% over within 15 minutes.
In order to remove ethylene glycol(EG) in the pretreated polyester weight loss wastewater, calcium hydroxide was used as neutralization agent and immobilization media for the batch and continuous experiments. The TCODMn concentrations in the treated wastewater using culture of immobilization and suspension for the synthetic wastewater were found as 650mg/L and 1,250mg/L, respectively after 48hours of reaction time. SVI(Sludge Volume Index) and TCODMn concentration were 74 and 73 mg/L at optimum F/M ratio, 1.32kg-TCODMn/d․kg-MLVSS. The TCODMn concentration and removal efficiency were 213mg/L and 93.5% by continuous experiments in the air-lift reactor. The TCODMn concentration was 82mg/L, and the MLVSS concentration was 2,550mg/L, when the volumetric loading rate was 3.04kg-TCODMn/㎥․day for pretreated polyester weight loss wastewater.
This study was carried out to treat the aqueous solutions containing reactive dyes(RB19, RR120 and RY179) by adsorption process using activated carbon fiber(ACF). And the changes of Trihalomethane Formation Potential(THMFP) in the model experimental system was investigated. ACF(A-15) has much larger specific surface area(1,584㎡/g-ACF) in comparison with granular activated carbon adsorbent(F400, 1,125㎡/g-GAC), which is commonly used, and most of pores were found to be micropores with pore radius of 2nm and below. It was found that RY179 has highest THMFP, and RB19 was most easily adsorbed among the dyes in this study. Increase and decrease of THMFP concentrations were observed before and after adsorption of reactive dyes on ACF(A-15). THMFPs per unit TOC were significantly decreased after adsorption of reactive dyes. And 70% of THMFP was decreased in adsorbed dye(RY179) solution. In the case of PCP(p-chlorophenol) and sucrose, which are single component adsorbate, adsorption capacities of ACF(A-15) were in good agreement with the batch adsorption measurement, and saturation time predicted of ACF columns for these components was also well agreed with practically measured time. But in the case of reactive dyes, which have relatively high molecular weight and aggregated with multi-components, adsorption capacities or saturation time predicted were not agreed with practically measured values.