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      • KCI등재

        의적의 『무량수경술의기』와 경흥의 『무량수경연의술문찬』 찬술의 선후문제에 대한 연구(1) : 선행연구에 대한 비판적 검토

        한명숙(Han Myung Sook) 보조사상연구원 2019 보조사상 Vol.55 No.-

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        According to some research, both of them lived in the same era, living period unknown. This often makes it confusing to discuss the order of the two about certain thought. Setting a limit to the commentaries of Muryangsugyeong, the theory of Suruigi to Sulmunchan has been dominantly accepted and the theory of Sulmunchan to Suruigi by Matsubayashi raised, so the order of the two books got an undetermined status. This thesis begins from finding that the writings about the order announced by several scholars had many controversies themselves. Moreover, reviewing these controversies critically, this thesis has a final goal of presenting the new logical basis. This thesis focuses only on the critical review of the order on account of limited space. First, the original figure of this book was almost restored by using the newly discovered copy of Suruigi so as to acquire equal completeness of the two. In this process, the current situation of the copy and the way to intensify its completeness are presented. Thus, it is proved that the completed copy of Suruigi is almost the same as the original one. Next, it is proved that the groundless writing of Uisan and Mochizuki are the reason why the theory of Suruigi to Sulmunchan has been practically accepted. Thoroughly examining the criticism of Matsubayashi for this assertion and the theory of Sulmunchan to Suruigi newly raised by him, its problems were criticized one by one. In this process, it is possible to sort out clearly the valid or invalid things among the respective grounds for the order theory of the two books. 의적과 경흥은 모두 정확한 생몰연대가 알려지지 않았다. 학자들의 연구결과에 따르면 두 사람은 거의 동시대에 살았다. 이러한 상황은 특정 사상에 대한 두 사람의 선후문제를 언급할 때 혼선을 가져오는 경우가 많다. 『무랑수경』에 대한 주석서에 한정하여 오랫동안 『술의기』→『술문찬』설이 유력하게 수용되어 왔고, 마츠바야시 히로유키에 의해 『술문찬』→『술의기』설이 제기됨으로써 두 책의 선후설은 다시 확정되지 않은 지위를 갖게 되었다. 본논문은 그동안 여러 학자에 의해 발표된 양자의 선후설 관련 논문이 그 자체에 몇 가지 문제점을 가지고 있음을 발견한 것을 그 출발점으로 한다. 또한 이 문제를 비판적으로 검토한 후에 필자 자신이 찾은 새로운 근거를 제시하는 것이 그 궁극적 목적이다. 본논문에서는 지면의 제한으로 인해 양자의 선후설에 대한 비판적 검토에 주력하였다. 먼저 필자는 비교의 대상인 두 책의 대등한 완성도를 획득하기 위하여 새롭게 발굴된 『술의기』 사본을 활용하여 이 책의 본래의 모습을 거의 복원하였다. 이 과정에서 『술의기』 복원본의 현황과 그것의 완성도를 높이는 방안을 제시하였다. 또 그렇게 해서 완성된 복원본 『술의기』가 본래의 모습과 거의 동일하다는 것을 규명해 보았다. 다음으로 『술의기』→『술문찬』설이 관행적으로 수용되어 온 것이 의산(義山)과 모치즈키 신코(望月信亨)의 근거가 없거나 빈약한 글에 그 원인이 있음을 밝혔다. 또한 이러한 주장에 대한 마츠바야시의 비판과 그에 의해 새롭게 제기된 『술문찬』→『술의기』설을 상세히 검토하고 그것이 가진 문제점을 낱낱이 비판하였다. 이러한 과정에서 두 책의 선후설 각각에 있어서 그 근거로 제시된 것 중 유효한 것과 유효하지 않은 것을 분명하게 가려낼 수 있었다.

      • KCI등재

        2007 국어과 교육과정과 초등 문학교육 전망 : "내용 체계"의 비판과 구성을 중심으로

        한명숙 ( Myoung Sook Han ) 청람어문교육학회(구 청람어문학회) 2011 청람어문교육 Vol.43 No.-

        국어과 교육과정에서 ``내용 체계``가 제시된 것은 제6차 교육과정 때부터이다. ``내용 체계``의 제시는 교육내용을 체계화하여 제시함으로써 가르쳐야 할 내용을 구체적으로 범주화하여 나타냈다는 점에서 의미가 있다. 그것은 또한 교육과정의 목표와 각 학년별 내용 사이의 가교 역할을 함으로써 교육과정의 체계화에 기여한다. 아울러 각 영역별 교육내용을 특성화하고, 학습자의 학습 경험을 구체화한다는 점에서 교육과정의 ``내용 체계``는 아주 중요하다. 초등학생의 문학 경험을 결정하는 문학 영역의 ``내용 체계``는 나름대로의 발전을 보여 왔으나, 2007 국어과 교육과정 문학 영역의 ``내용 체계``는 몇 가지 문제점을 보인다. 가장 큰 문제는 국민 공통 기본 교육과정에 따라 초등과 중등의 문학교육을 포괄하는 ``내용 체계``로 제시됨으로써 초등학교 문학교육의 독자성을 드러내지 못하였다는 것이다. 아울러 텍스트 중심 교육과정을 표방하였음에도 문학작품의 갈래 이름조차 구체적으로 제시하지 않은 ``내용 체계``를 보였다. ``내용 체계``와 학년별 내용의 괴리를 드러냈다는 문제점도 포착되었다. 초등학교 문학교육을 위한 ``내용 체계``는 초등학생이 문학의 세계에 입문할 수 있도록 체계화되어야 한다. 그러려면 ``내용 체계``에 초등학생의 ``문학 경험``을 담아야 하고, 어린이문학의 ``작품 갈래``를 담아내야 한다. 초등학생의 문학 경험은 ``문학 이해``, ``문학 향유``, ``문학 지향``의 세 가지 범주로 구성될 수 있다. 어린이문학의 독자적인 문학 갈래는 ``전래동요``, ``그림동화``, ``동화``와 같은 어린이문학의 갈래 용어가 ``설화``, ``고소설 ``소설``, ``희곡`` 등과 같은 갈래 용어와 함께 제시되어야 한다. 이와 같은 독자성이 구현되려면 초등문학교육을 위한 ``내용 체계``가 중등의 그것과는 독립적으로 제시되어야 한다. 아울러 다른 영역의 ``내용 체계``와도 다른 형태로 구성되어야 문학교육의 특성을 구현해 낼 수 있다. I designed the literature contents-table of curriculum for elementary education. The literature contents-table is designed to consider followings uniquely. (1) The literature contents-table of curriculum for elementary education must be contains unique literacy experience of elementary students. (2) In the literature contents-table, it must be included genre terms of children``s literature. (3) The contents-table for the elementary education must be designed different from secondary education in the literature curriculum. (4) For the literature education, the contents-table should be separates from other education in the curriculum.

      • KCI등재

        논문 : 현대국어의 어중 경음화 약화 현상

        한명숙 ( Myeong Suk Han ),박동근 ( Dong Geun Park ) 한말연구학회 2012 한말연구 Vol.0 No.30

        The purpose of this study is to investigate the weakening phenomenon of word-mid glottalization by focusing on glottalization reflected in modern Korean language. To examine this, words which are pronounced as glottalization in the dictionary are analyzed, especially how these words are actually articulated by conducting surveys administered to 410 college students. Also, in this paper, word-mid glottalization words are regarded as standard pronunciation. The analysis of the questionnaire survey revealed several important points. First, a survey of 44 words examined indicates that the realization rate of word-mid lenis was of 81.82%. Of 44 words, only 36 words showed the fifty percent of word-mid lenis. This finding shows that the glottalization phenomenon of word-mid is weakening in modern Korean language. Second, a result of examining questionnaire items, languages which are used in reality have not reflected in dictionary. This result implies that there is a difference between fast-changing language reality and conservatism in the dictionary. In this paper, it is shown that the general attitude concerning glottalization has been changed. In other words, so far, the phenomenon of glottalization has been recognized as strengthening. The pedagogical implication of the present research is that the phenomenon of glottalization has been weakening in real language by administering questionnaire surveys.

      • KCI우수등재

        율장(律藏)에 나타난 결과주의적 사유에 대한 고찰

        한명숙(Han, Myung-sook) 불교학연구회 2012 불교학연구 Vol.33 No.-

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        불교윤리는 동기주의(動機主義)에 치중하여 생태윤리 등과 관련된 현실적인 문제를 해결하는데 있어서 별다른 도움을 주지 못한다는 지적이 있다. 필자는 이러한 지적이 타당한 것이고, 불교사상 속에서 그에 대한 답변을 찾아야 한다는 것에 동의한다. 그런데 이러한 지적에 대한 대응으로, 기존의 학자들에 의해 이루어진, 불교사상 속에서 결과주의(結果主義)의 요소를 찾아내려는 시도는 그다지 성공적인 것으로 보이지 않는다. 따라서 먼저 여러 학자들에 의해 불교가 공리주의(功利主義) 윤리의 특성인 결과론을 내재하고 있다는 증거로서 제시된 사례가 실질적인 의미에서 결과론과 연결짓기에는 미흡한 면이 있음을 밝혀 보았다. 다음으로 그 속에 나타난 문제점을 해소할 수 있는 방안을 율장에서 찾고자했다. 그 결과 율장에서 고의(故意)인 경우라도 그 의도가 성취되었는지의 여부에 따라 죄의 경중(輕重)이 달라지는 사례와 고의가 아니더라도 죄를 묻는 사례를 밝힐 수 있었다. 이로써 필자는 불교에 내재된 결과론적 사유체계를 보다 분명하고 설득력 있는 형태로 제시하려는 목적을 성취할 수 있었다. There is a comment that Buddhist Ethics is not very helpful in solving the realistic problems related to Ecological Ethics, etc, while emphasizing Motivationalism. The writer agrees that this comment is valid, and thus the answer to the comment must be found in Buddhist ideology. In response to this comment, however, the attempt that the existing scholars make, to try to seek the factor s of Consequentialism through Buddhist ideology does not appear very successful. First, therefore, the writer reveals that the case was not enough to connect to Consequentialism in a practical sense, while some scholars presented a case to prove that Buddhism includes Consequentialism, that is the characteristic of Utilitarianistic Ethics. Next, the writer tried to find from Hīnayāna Vinaya Piṭaka the method of solving the problem within the case. As a result, the writer could reveal the case in which a crime exists, although it is not intentional, in addition to the case in which the gravity of the offense varies, depending on whether the intent is accomplished in an intentional situation. With this, the writer could achieve the aim of presenting the Consequentialistic thinking system, which Buddhim has, in the clearer and persuasive shape.

      • KCI등재

        일반논문 : 초등문학교육을 위한 교육과정 비교 연구

        한명숙 ( Myoung Sook Han ) 한국문학교육학회 2012 문학교육학 Vol.39 No.-

        I compared with the Korean Language Curriculum of 2011 and the Communication Art Curriculum of the state of Missouri in the Unite States of America of 2008. These two curriculums have the same aims and goals to develop linguistic competence of each native language. And two curriculums support students with literary experiences such as reading and understanding literatures. I analysed literary experiences that elementary students will get from these two curriculums. The following is the result of my analysis to compare with two curriculums. First, the Korean Language Curriculum takes its own plan to educate literature to students unlike Communication Art Curriculum of Missouri State. The Communication Art Curriculum just has some plans to read literatures to students. Second, the Korean Language Curriculum show more literary genres that students will learn than the Communication Art Curriculum does. The Communication Art Curriculum shows 3 genres, ``Fiction, poetry and Drama`` in the statement of the expectation. Third, the Korean Language Curriculum doesn`t have abundant detail contents that students will experience to learn literature compared to the Communication Art Curriculum. The Communication Art Curriculum has more literary contents and more detail contents than the Korean Language Curriculum. Fourth the contents of the Korean Language Curriculum are separated into classified contents and its grade contents, However, the Communication Art Curriculum has a contents table on a single sheet with classified contents and its grade contents. We should develop a better curriculum to provide better educational experiences because it is an educational imperative that we are elementary school students on the curriculum. And then elementary school students will get better experience for enhancing their literary competence.

      • KCI등재

        논문 : 어두 경음화 수치 개발을 위한 기초 연구

        한명숙 ( Myeong Suk Han ) 한말연구학회 2013 한말연구 Vol.0 No.32

        This study is a basic research to develop numerical value of word-initial glottalization in modern Korean language. So far, this phenomenon has been mainly discussed and focused on the ratio of word-initial glottaliztion on the basis of regions, words, ages, and gender. This phenomenon of language, however, is varied from each vocabulary and is different depends on a recipient. Therefore, this discussed ways to quantify a degree of glottalization by noting that this phonological phenomenon is varied by words. First of all, followings can be considered on the basis of the degree of word-initial glottalization : the researcher`s judgement whether the phenomenon happens or not, the actualization of word-initial glottalization in spoken language, the percentage of word-initial glottalization, the transcription of word-initial glottalization, and the recipient`s acceptance attitude. In this study, of these things, only three things were considered, i.e., he actualization of word-initial glottalization, the transcription of word-initial glottalization, and the recipient`s acceptance attitude. As a result, the numerical value of word-initial glottalizaiton is classified into seven categories <from numerical value 0> to <from numerical value 6>. Considering phonological history of Korean language, this phenomenon of language has been consistently developed since medieval Korean. Thus, the numerical value 6 of word-initial glottalization is historically a completed phase. In the case of <the numerical value 5 of word-initial glottalization>, both the actualization rate and the ratio of transcription showed more than 50 percent. It was also strikingly distinctive with respect to the aspect of transcription. When it comes to <the numerical value 4 of word-initial glottalization>, the actualization rate of word-initial glottalization was over 50 percent and 50 percent of those who responded said an initial lenis was askward in the recipient`s acceptance attitude. This case is a high rate of word-initial glottalization by vocabulary itself. <the numerical value 3 of word-initial glottalization> presents that 50 percent of the people surveyed say that both an initial lenis and an initial fortis are natural in the recipient`s acceptance attitude. <the numerical value 2 of word-initial glottalization> demonstrates that an initial lenis is a predominant phase and more than 50 percent of respondents said word-initial glottalization was awkward. <The numerical value 1 of word-initial glottalization> means that an initial fortis appear by only part of production mistake. <The numerical value 0 of word-initial glottalization> is a stage that an initial glottalization never happens. This study did not clearly explain to measure an iaitial glottalization in a quantitative respect. Nevertheless, this study is significant that this tries to investigate an initial glottalization in terms of the extent of a degree, the actualization rate of word-initial glottalization, the transcription of word-initial glottalization, and the recipient`s acceptance attitude. Follow-up study is necessary that a lot of vocabulary need to be investigated to develop the numerical value of word-initial glottalization explicitly and statistically.

      • KCI등재

        문학교육에 대한 교육사회학적 접근 : 사회제도 속의 문학생태계와 문학교육의 과제

        한명숙 ( Myoung Sook Han ) 한국문학교육학회 2013 문학교육학 Vol.42 No.-

        I have discovered a ecological system of literature in our contemporary society. The system is organized with four elements; WORK, LITERARY PRODUCER, LITERARY CONSUMER, LITERARY CIRCULATOR according to their behaviour in literary system of society. This literary ecological system gives variety literary experiences and activities to many students. So the plans for literature education in schools have to integrate formal education with literary ecological system. Therefore, I suggest three ways to connect literary education in schools with students`s out-of-school literary experiences. First, the curriculum of literary education in school must be related to literature in social system. Second, literary educators have to understand their students as literary consumers, literary producer, and literary circulators in social system. Third, literary educators need to have some special plan for teaching their students as literary readers in their society as well as just students in their schools.

      • KCI등재

        일반논문 : 한국어 용언의 어두 경음화 현상 연구

        한명숙 ( Myeong Suk Han ) 겨레어문학회 2013 겨레어문학 Vol.0 No.51

        This study discusses word-initial glottalization of Korean which appears in predicate and considers not only word-initial glottalization in modern Korean diachronically and synchronically, but also examines the function of word-initial glottalization in predicate. The major predicate as research object dealt with in the paper is pure Korean words. First, distinguish standard pure Korean words from Korean language dictionary and make a list of genuine(=pure) predicate except for derivative. Here, the followings are excluded: (a) both onomatopoeic and mimetic words are ruled out because they could make the differences in nuance. (b) both lax consonants and tense consonants in the beginning of a word are defined as headwords in Korean dictionary are exempted. The aspects of word-initial glottalization in predicate are investigated in two sides. One is the aspect of diachronic word-initial glottalization. The other is word-initial glottalization of predicate in modern Korean. Word-initial glottalization is a phonetic phenomenon which has steadily developed since Middle Korean. This is not a phenomenon that suddenly appears due to psychological reasons in modern society but this phenomenon can be viewed as an extension of diachronic changes. The analysis of word-initial glottalization in predicate in Modern Korean reveals that the extent of word-initial glottalization is varied depending on each vocabulary. Of these, language community is considered naturally and the recipient does not feel awkward when ``saeda`` is pronounced as ‘ssaeda’ that is a form of fortis. With regard to the function of word-initial glottalization, this is examined in terms of meaning, expression effect, and lexicalized. First, the main function of word-initial glottalization in predicate deals with meaning. Especially, the functions of meaning emphasizes its meaning, distinguishes from meaning to meaning, and discriminates the social meaning difference. In short, meaning functions have emphasis, meaning discrimination, and the realization of social meaning differences. Second, regarding the function of expression effect, this deals with the physical intensity of an object that a speaker describes or the degree of emotion or maximizes speakers` state of mind. Final function is lexicalized. This is the case that a form of word-initial glottalization is ctually used as lexicon. This study is significant in the sense that it is specialized in parts of speech in comparison with previous researches which have suggested the lists of word-initial glottalization uniformly. This is also worthwhile when it comes to trying to find out functions of word-initial glottalization in predicate.

      • KCI등재

        미국 버지니아 주의 초등 자국어교재 분석 및 시사점

        한명숙 ( Han Myoung-sook ) 청람어문교육학회(구 청람어문학회) 2018 청람어문교육 Vol.0 No.67

        우리 초등국어교과서는 한 종류의 국정 교과서라서 교육의 획일성과 고정성에 얽매이기 쉽다. 반면에 미국 버지니아 주의 자국어교재 8종을 분석해 본 결과 교재 간 차이와 다양성을 볼 수 있어서 초등국어교과서 개발에의 시사점을 도출할 수 있다. 자국어교재의 다양성은 들뢰즈(Gilles Deleuze) 철학에서 다양한 것들끼리의 연결접속으로 생성을 추구하는 ‘다양체(multiplicity)’의 속성으로 나타난다. ‘교재 다양체’라 일컬을 수 있는 이 속성은 학습자 중심의 수준별 수업, 다양한 방향의 수업, 교사와 학생의 선택이 가능한 수업 등을 뒷받침해 준다. 그 특성은 첫째, 학년성에 따라 차이를 둔 다양한 교재 및 단원의 구성과, 둘째, 읽기나 문법 등 특정한 목적 및 방향에 따른 교재의 구성, 셋째, 학생의 접근성과 수준 등을 고려한 다양한 교재 구성, 넷째, 상세하고 구체적으로 분화되고 전문화된 다양한 교사용 안내서 구성 등으로 교재 다양체를 구현한 양상이다. 이 외에도 비교문학적 관점의 작품 및 다양한 문화권의 제재를 수록하고, 학년 당 십 여 권 내외의 가볍고 얇은 읽기자료를 수준별로 구성하여 학생용 교재를 개발한 점도 교재 다양체의 면모로서 주목된다. 우리 초등국어교과서가 ‘다양체’로서의 교재로 개발된다면 교수학습 주체에게 선택의 기회를 보장하고, 학습자중심의 수준별 초등국어교육을 뒷받침하는 초등국어교육을 생성하여, 미래사회 인재 양성에 기여하리라 전망한다. The purpose of this study is to suggest several plans for developing the Korean Language Textbooks in Elementary Schools. Currently, there is just one kind of elementary schools textbook in Korea. Since 1955, Korea has been using one kind of textbooks for elementary language education. But there are eight kinds of English textbooks are adapted elementary school textbook in State of Virginia of USA. Unlike the Korean textbooks of elementary school in Korea, Virginia's native language textbooks are characteristic of multiplicity. Therefore, it is possible to have the autonomy and diversity of selecting and using the eight kinds of native language textbooks in each educational bureau. In order to support the language education according to individuality and difference of students and teachers in elementary schools, we need to develop some kind of textbooks diversely. The diversity of textbooks could select and choice their textbooks to teachers and students. Textbooks as a multiplicity which would afford them great and effective opportunities in many ways in their language learning.

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