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          대학생 커뮤니티의 <한글 맞춤법> 표기 실태 비교 연구

          한명숙 ( Han Myeong-suk ) 한말연구학회 2020 한말연구 Vol.0 No.58

          The purpose of this study was to find out the correlation between the level of academic background and the rules of Hangul orthography by examining the compliance of Korean spelling. To examine this, six universities were divided into three divisions by level into A, B, and C, and the status of marking by university was compared with the free bulletin board of Everytime, a college student community. As a result of the survey, A-grade K universities best observed the Hangul Hangul orthography followed by C-grade A universities. The university that did not keep the Hangul orthography well was a C-grade D university. By educational level, the grade with the lowest mislabeling rate is grade A. It can be seen that the status of compliance with the lexical norms is related to each level of education. However, it cannot be generalized because there are not many vocabulary in common from six universities, but there is some correlation between knowledge and actual notation.

        • KCI등재

          대학생들의 어두 경음화 실현 및 인지 양상 연구

          한명숙 ( Myeong Suk Han ) 겨레어문학회 2011 겨레어문학 Vol.46 No.-

          이 연구는 현대국어의 어두 경음화 현상에 대한 일련의 연구로, 대학생을 대상으로 구어에서 어두 경음화 실현 실태와 어두 경음화에 대한 표기 인식 태도를 연구하는 것이 목적이다. 이를 위해 본 연구에서는 대학생 293명(남성 149, 여성 144)의 발표를 녹취하여 구어에서의 어두 경음화 실태를 살펴보고, 어두 경음화 현상이 표기에도 미치는 영향을 파악하기 위해 대학생 420명을 대상으로 받아쓰기를 하였다. 연구 결과, 발표자에 따라 구어에서 어두 경음화가 실현된 비율은 40.6%였으며, 가장 빈도가 높은 것은 ``좀``을 /쫌/으로 발음하는 경우였다. 그밖에, ``조금(/쪼금/)``, ``다른(/따른/)``, ``짝다(/짝다/)`` 등이 높은 순으로 나타났다. 일반적으로 한자어는 경음화가 잘 일어나지 않는데 ``계속(/꼐속/)``의 경우 빈도수 9로 상대적으로 높은 경음화 빈도를 보였다. 표기 면에서 어두 경음화 비율이 가장 높은 어휘는 ``주꾸미(/쭈꾸미/)(90.0%)``와 ``곰장어(/꼼장어)``(90.0%)`이다. 이는 언중들이 어두 경음화된 발음을 표준어로 인식하고 이것이 그대로 표기에 반영된 것으로 보인다. 그 외에 어두 경음화 표기 비율이 높은 어휘로는 ``숙맥(/쓱맥/)(61.7%), 골초(/꼴초/)(48.8%)`` 등이 있다. 일반적으로 남성이 여성에 비해 경음을 많이 사용하는 것으로 알려져 있지만, 본 조사에서는 남성과 여성의 어두 경음화 정도에 큰 차이가 나타나지 않았다. 이 연구는 어두 경음화 현상이 화자와 개별 어휘에 따라 실현 정도가 다르다는 점을 인식하고 개별 어휘에 따른 경음화의 정도를 계량적으로 살폈다는 데에 의의가 있다. 다만 본 연구가 다소 격식을 갖춘 발표 구어를 대상으로 하였다는 점에서 앞으로 좀더 자연스러운 일상 대화에서 실현되는 어두 경음화 양상을 살펴볼 필요가 있다. This study discusses word-initial glottalization of modern Korean language and focuses on college students` word-initial glottalization in verbal language and indication of word-initial glottalization. For this purpose, the presentations made by 293 college students(149 male and 144 female) were recorded to examine how word-initial glottalization occurs in verbal language and 420 college students were selected for dictation to investigate how word-initial glottalization affects written language. In result, 40.6% of students showed word-initial glottalization in verbal language and the most frequently used word was ``Jon`` pronounced as /Jjon/. Other frequently used words were ``Jogeum(/Jjogeum/)``, ``Dareun(/Ddareun/)``, and ``Jakda(/Jjakda/)``. Generally, words from Sino-Korean words writing do not show glottalization, but ``Gyesok`` also showed relatively frequent 9 tines use of glottalization. In case of written language, the most frequently used words associated with word-initial glottalization were ``Juggumi(Jjuggumi)(90.0%)`` and ``Gomjangeo(/Ggomjangeo/)(90.0%)``. It seems that many people believe the glottalization words are correct and write them as they as they sound. Other words that are frequently written with word-initial glottalization include ``Sukmaek(/Ssukmaek/)(61.7%)`` and ``Golcho(/Ggolcho/)(48.8%)``. It is generally believed that male use more glottalized words than female, but this study found that there is no difference between male and female in terms of word-initial glottalization. The significance of this study was that it understood that word-initial glottalization appears differently according to speaker and each individual word and glottalization of each word is quantitatively examined. However, it was limited to verbal language used in formal presentations and it is necessary to examine word-initial glottalization that appears in everyday conversation in more natural settings.

        • KCI등재

          논문 : 현대국어의 어중 경음화 약화 현상

          한명숙 ( Myeong Suk Han ),박동근 ( Dong Geun Park ) 한말연구학회 2012 한말연구 Vol.0 No.30

          The purpose of this study is to investigate the weakening phenomenon of word-mid glottalization by focusing on glottalization reflected in modern Korean language. To examine this, words which are pronounced as glottalization in the dictionary are analyzed, especially how these words are actually articulated by conducting surveys administered to 410 college students. Also, in this paper, word-mid glottalization words are regarded as standard pronunciation. The analysis of the questionnaire survey revealed several important points. First, a survey of 44 words examined indicates that the realization rate of word-mid lenis was of 81.82%. Of 44 words, only 36 words showed the fifty percent of word-mid lenis. This finding shows that the glottalization phenomenon of word-mid is weakening in modern Korean language. Second, a result of examining questionnaire items, languages which are used in reality have not reflected in dictionary. This result implies that there is a difference between fast-changing language reality and conservatism in the dictionary. In this paper, it is shown that the general attitude concerning glottalization has been changed. In other words, so far, the phenomenon of glottalization has been recognized as strengthening. The pedagogical implication of the present research is that the phenomenon of glottalization has been weakening in real language by administering questionnaire surveys.

        • KCI등재

          어두 경음화에 따른 새 표준어 사정 문제

          한명숙 ( Han Myeong-suk ) 한말연구학회 2017 한말연구 Vol.0 No.44

          This study focuses on the position that some of the words which were realized as word-initial glottalization should be acknowledged as standard language and acceptable pronunciation. The National Institute of the Korean Language announced four additional standard words from 2011 to 2016. In light of these additional announcements, standard language is not irreversible any more. In this study, first, the standard language list of word-initial glottalization which is recognized as norm in 『Standard Korean Language Dictionary』 was examined by parts of speech was examined by parts of speech. As a result, there were 3 adverbs, 15 adjectives, 21 verbs, and 21 nouns. Of these, some vocabularies were words of low frequency and were difficult to figure out word meaning. The phenomenon of word-intial glottalization has option and individuality. In certain words, however, the phenomenon of word-intial glottalization appears consistently and it is accepted automatically. Language users, also consider word-intial form or word-initial pronunciation as standard. In this paper, therefore, these words were presented in two aspects. One is a list of possibility that the notation which is realized as word-initial glottalization can be accepted as a standard language. `kkomjangeo` and `jjukkumi` falls in this category. The other is a list of possibility that the pronunciation which were occurred as word-initial glottalization can be viewed as acceptable pronunciation. `seda`, `golcho`, `gondon`, `gambang`, `sungmaeg` belong to this category. This article has a more slightly flexible position on nonstandard notation and non-standard pronunciation of word-initial glottalization. Indeed, in reality, nonstandard notation(mark) of word-initial glottalization form is highly frequently used. Based on these, a suggestions is made that standard notation or standard pronunciation should also change over time rather than being chocked by the norm.

        • KCI등재

          현대국어의 어두 경음화 표기 실태 연구

          한명숙 ( Myeong Suk Han ) 겨레어문학회 2014 겨레어문학 Vol.0 No.53

          이 연구는 인터넷 웹 검색을 활용하여 현대국어의 어두 경음화 표기실태를 조사하는 것이 목적이다. 지금까지 어두 경음화가 실현된 형태의 표기들은 어문규범에 어긋난 표기라는 점만 주로 부각되었으나 본고에서 는 어두 경음화가 실현된 형태가 표기에 나타나는 것은 어두 경음화 현 상이 발음뿐만 아니라 표기에도 확산되어 가는 과정으로 보았다. 그리하여 현대국어의 어두 경음화 표기 실태와 시간의 흐름에 따른 어두 경음 화 표기의 변화 양상을 살펴보고자 하였다. 어두 경음화 표기 변화 양상을 확인하기 위해 어두 경음화 표기 정도 에 따라 크게 네 가지로 분류하여 사용 실태를 계량적으로 확인하였다. 첫째, 어두 경음화 표기가 거의 굳어진 경우 둘째, 어두 경음화 표기가 우세한 경우 셋째, 어두 경음화 표기가 증가하는 경우 넷째, 어두 경음화 표기와 표준 표기가 비슷한 경우로 나누어 최근 10년 동안 표기 선호도 가 어떻게 변하고 있는지를 살펴보았다. This study investigated the actual transcription condition of word-initial glottalization in modern-Korean by searching the Internet. So far, the real transcription form which is realized as word-initial glottalization has been dealt wit3h an error based on language norms. This paper, however, viewed it as a spreading process of word-intial glottalization; i.e. word-intial glottalization occurs not only pronunciation but also language transcription. Thus, this study examined the actual transcription condition and the transcription changing aspects of word-initial glottalization over time. This study, particularly, employed infinite size of the Web documents as a living language resources and identified specific figures of transcription in word-intial glottalization. In this sense, this research has the distinction with previous studies. The results are as follows. First, ‘Jjookkoomi, kkomjangeo, ssukmaek`` was identified. These are the fixed transcription of word-initial glottalization. The ratio of ‘Jjookkoomi, kkomjangeo, ssukmaek`` which are represented as fortis is more than 70% in the real world. Especially, in the case of ‘Jjookkoomi’, the ratio is over 90% and it shows that fortis is preferred. This representation, however, already was used ten years ago, so this indicates that language audiences regard word-fortis transcription as a standardtype. Second, the transcription of word-intial glottalization appeared prominently. These examples were ‘ssaeoul, jjolbyenong, jjoejipkye, etc’. In the case of ‘saeoul or jjolbyeong’, these transcriptions tend to change as standard notation. ‘jjoejipkye’ did not show a remarkable change. Third, the transcription of word-initial glottalization gradually increased. These instances were ‘kkomul, kkolcho, ssaengkicho, jjifinae, etc.’ Fourth, the two sets of data which the standard transcription and word-initial glottalization had similar ratios were dealt with. These were ‘jalida/jjalida’, ‘saengchobo/ssaengchobo’, and ‘jaturi/jjaturi’. These forms are currently understood that they co-exist with a similar level. In the case of ‘jaturi/jjaturi’, ‘jaturi’ had the upper hand. With regard to ‘jalida/jjalida’ and ‘saengchobo/ssaengchobo’, they did not show any particular direction.

        • KCI등재

          대구수목원 국화전시회 만족영향요인 분석

          한명숙(Han, Myeong-Suk),장정걸(Jang, Jung-Gul),박석화(Park, Seok-Hwa),박준규(Park, Jun-Gyu) 한국산림휴양복지학회 2018 한국산림휴양학회지 Vol.22 No.2

          본 연구는 대구수목원 국화전시회 방문객의 만족도, 재방문 및 추천의지에 영향을 미치는 요인을 파악하여 전시회의 개선방향을 제시하고자 수행하였다. 현지 설문조사는 2016년 대구수목원 국화전시회를 방문한 관람객 589명을 대상으로 실시하였다. 요인분석 결과 서비스, 전시내용, 시설 및 인프라 등 3가지 요인으로 구분되었고, 그 중 전시내용 요인이 국화전시회 방문에 가장 큰 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 측정 변수 중 수목원의 기타 볼거리 항목은 만족도, 재방문, 추천의지 모두에 영향을 미치는 것으로 파악되었으며, 직원 친절성은 재방문 의사에 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. The purpose of this study is to identify the factors influencing the satisfaction, revisit and recommendation of visitors to the Daegu Arboretum Chrysanthemum Exhibition. The survey was conducted on 589 visitors who visited the Daegu Arboretum Chrysanthemum Exhibition in 2016. Factor analysis showed that there were three factors, service, exhibition contents and facilities & infrastructure. Exhibition content factors had the greatest influence on visits to Chrysanthemum exhibitions. As a result of analyzing the influence of detailed variables, it was found that the sights of the arboretum affect the overall the satisfaction, revisit, and recommendation. The employee kindness affects the intention to revisit.

        • KCI등재

          일반논문 : 한국어 용언의 어두 경음화 현상 연구

          한명숙 ( Myeong Suk Han ) 겨레어문학회 2013 겨레어문학 Vol.0 No.51

          This study discusses word-initial glottalization of Korean which appears in predicate and considers not only word-initial glottalization in modern Korean diachronically and synchronically, but also examines the function of word-initial glottalization in predicate. The major predicate as research object dealt with in the paper is pure Korean words. First, distinguish standard pure Korean words from Korean language dictionary and make a list of genuine(=pure) predicate except for derivative. Here, the followings are excluded: (a) both onomatopoeic and mimetic words are ruled out because they could make the differences in nuance. (b) both lax consonants and tense consonants in the beginning of a word are defined as headwords in Korean dictionary are exempted. The aspects of word-initial glottalization in predicate are investigated in two sides. One is the aspect of diachronic word-initial glottalization. The other is word-initial glottalization of predicate in modern Korean. Word-initial glottalization is a phonetic phenomenon which has steadily developed since Middle Korean. This is not a phenomenon that suddenly appears due to psychological reasons in modern society but this phenomenon can be viewed as an extension of diachronic changes. The analysis of word-initial glottalization in predicate in Modern Korean reveals that the extent of word-initial glottalization is varied depending on each vocabulary. Of these, language community is considered naturally and the recipient does not feel awkward when ``saeda`` is pronounced as ‘ssaeda’ that is a form of fortis. With regard to the function of word-initial glottalization, this is examined in terms of meaning, expression effect, and lexicalized. First, the main function of word-initial glottalization in predicate deals with meaning. Especially, the functions of meaning emphasizes its meaning, distinguishes from meaning to meaning, and discriminates the social meaning difference. In short, meaning functions have emphasis, meaning discrimination, and the realization of social meaning differences. Second, regarding the function of expression effect, this deals with the physical intensity of an object that a speaker describes or the degree of emotion or maximizes speakers` state of mind. Final function is lexicalized. This is the case that a form of word-initial glottalization is ctually used as lexicon. This study is significant in the sense that it is specialized in parts of speech in comparison with previous researches which have suggested the lists of word-initial glottalization uniformly. This is also worthwhile when it comes to trying to find out functions of word-initial glottalization in predicate.

        • KCI등재

          대학생들의 외래어 표기와 발음의 상관성 연구

          한명숙 ( Han Myeong-suk ) 한말연구학회 2016 한말연구 Vol.0 No.41

          The purpose of this study was to investigate loanword orthography and the actual condition of loanword pronunciation among university students. The research focused on the difference between loanword orthography and its pronunciation. Through this, this also attempted to look into usages that are regarded as standards in loanword orthography. Loanword orthography is based on the original sound principle, there is, however, a diversity of orthography because, in reality, language users employ a different orthography. Furthermore, in subsection (5) of loanword orthography, there is no definite range of common use. For this reason, it is not clear for us to judge whether it obeys the rules of loanword orthography or not and whether it is considered as common usages or not. In this study, loanword orthography and its actual pronunciation condition were examined and a total of 150 university students took part in. The result of this study shows that there were cases which were in discord with right form of loanword orthography and university students had higher adoption of wrong form. In relation to this finding, we need to consider these vocabularies as examples of common use, not a wrong form of loanword orthography. Another result showed that pronunciation of loanword showed a high rate of one type pronunciation. This implies that pronunciation which are widely used among language users can be considered as standard pronunciation. Thus, this research made an investigation an exact figure of loanword orthography and its pronunciation.

        • KCI등재

          논문 : 어두 경음화 수치 개발을 위한 기초 연구

          한명숙 ( Myeong Suk Han ) 한말연구학회 2013 한말연구 Vol.0 No.32

          This study is a basic research to develop numerical value of word-initial glottalization in modern Korean language. So far, this phenomenon has been mainly discussed and focused on the ratio of word-initial glottaliztion on the basis of regions, words, ages, and gender. This phenomenon of language, however, is varied from each vocabulary and is different depends on a recipient. Therefore, this discussed ways to quantify a degree of glottalization by noting that this phonological phenomenon is varied by words. First of all, followings can be considered on the basis of the degree of word-initial glottalization : the researcher`s judgement whether the phenomenon happens or not, the actualization of word-initial glottalization in spoken language, the percentage of word-initial glottalization, the transcription of word-initial glottalization, and the recipient`s acceptance attitude. In this study, of these things, only three things were considered, i.e., he actualization of word-initial glottalization, the transcription of word-initial glottalization, and the recipient`s acceptance attitude. As a result, the numerical value of word-initial glottalizaiton is classified into seven categories <from numerical value 0> to <from numerical value 6>. Considering phonological history of Korean language, this phenomenon of language has been consistently developed since medieval Korean. Thus, the numerical value 6 of word-initial glottalization is historically a completed phase. In the case of <the numerical value 5 of word-initial glottalization>, both the actualization rate and the ratio of transcription showed more than 50 percent. It was also strikingly distinctive with respect to the aspect of transcription. When it comes to <the numerical value 4 of word-initial glottalization>, the actualization rate of word-initial glottalization was over 50 percent and 50 percent of those who responded said an initial lenis was askward in the recipient`s acceptance attitude. This case is a high rate of word-initial glottalization by vocabulary itself. <the numerical value 3 of word-initial glottalization> presents that 50 percent of the people surveyed say that both an initial lenis and an initial fortis are natural in the recipient`s acceptance attitude. <the numerical value 2 of word-initial glottalization> demonstrates that an initial lenis is a predominant phase and more than 50 percent of respondents said word-initial glottalization was awkward. <The numerical value 1 of word-initial glottalization> means that an initial fortis appear by only part of production mistake. <The numerical value 0 of word-initial glottalization> is a stage that an initial glottalization never happens. This study did not clearly explain to measure an iaitial glottalization in a quantitative respect. Nevertheless, this study is significant that this tries to investigate an initial glottalization in terms of the extent of a degree, the actualization rate of word-initial glottalization, the transcription of word-initial glottalization, and the recipient`s acceptance attitude. Follow-up study is necessary that a lot of vocabulary need to be investigated to develop the numerical value of word-initial glottalization explicitly and statistically.

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