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In October 2018, symptoms of the spring dead spot (Rhizoctonia cerealis AG-D) disease in Kwang-Ju Country Club at Gokseong, Jeonnam province, South Korea were observed on zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.). Spring dead spot symptom commonly appears in spring, however our research showed that the spring dead spot symptom on zoysiagrass could be shown in autumn. The initial disease symptoms were observed on reddish brown leaves and a decaying, irregular-shape patch of the leaf (30-50 cm), developed by the end of October, as the disease progressive. Aerial hyphae, like spider web on the leaves, were observed in the early morning. The causal agent was isolated and identified as Rhizoctonia cerealis AG-D by morphological and molecular characteristics. Optimal temperature and pH for mycelial growth of Rhizoctonia cerealis AG-D were 20℃ and pH 6.0, respectively. Bud formation from the infected tissue in fall season was considerably reduced compared to healthy lawn in spring. The spring dead spot infection site was a leaf auricle while the big patch was stemmed around the crown tissue. Thus sheath infected large patch was plucked easily than lawn spring dead spot pathogen. This is the first report of an outbreak of the spring dead spot disease on zoysiagrass in the fall season. 2018년 10월 중순 전남 곡성에 소재한 광주골프장에서 봄마름병 병징이 한국잔디에 발생하였다. 일반적으로 봄마름병의 감염시기는 늦은 가을이며 병징은 봄에 나타나지만 본 연구에서 조사한 바에 따르면 가을에 병징이 나타나는 것으로 조사되었다. 초기 병징은 잔디의 잎이 붉은 갈색으로 황화되기 시작하며 엽이와 줄기가 썩고 10월 말경에는30-50 cm의 불규칙한 패취 형태로 병반이 나타났다. 이른 아침 거미줄 모양의 기중균사가 형성되었다. 병원균의 형태학적 특징과 rDNA의 ITS 염기서열을 분석한 결과 Rhizoctonia cerealis AG-D로 동정되었다. 병원균의 최적 생장온도와pH조건은 20℃에서 pH 6으로 각각 나타났다. 가을에 감염된 잔디의 맹아 출현은 건전 잔디에 비하여 현저히 떨어지는것으로 나타났다. 봄마름병의 감염부위는 엽이이고 반면에 라이족토니아마름병은 관부 주위이기 때문에 봄마름병에 감염된 잔디는 라이족토니아마름병에 감염된 잔디보다 잘 뽑히지 않는 특징이 있다. 가을철 발생하는 한국잔디의 봄마름병을 처음으로 보고하고자 한다.
With the rapid expansion of business activities, it is quite natural to see a wide use of bills and checks as a means of business payments. The significantly increased flow of business bills would, then, invite inevitably pathological phenomenon such as forgeries and misuses of bills. The Bills Act deals wish this problem of forgeries of bills inadequately by stipulating only a single article which corers the validity of obligations. Under the Act it can be construed that neither the man who forges the bill nor the person whose name is forged takes responsibility incurred by the forged bill leaving the holder of the bill the sole sufferer. This is a grave betrayal to the legislative intention of protecting the holder as well as the debtor under the bill stipulated by the Act. This is a study to analyse and examine theories and court cases concerning to forgeries of bills and to formulate a solid theory under which the dual purposes of protecting the holder of a bill and the debtor under the bill can fully achieved. In another paper the writer proved into the possibility of introducing the theory of "Scheinvollmacht" developed in the field of the Civil Law into formulating a valid and viable theory concerning the forgery of bills. In this paper the writer makes reference to the following problems; (a) An introduction (b) In the course of the execution of the undertaking (c) The scope of a third person (d) The malicious intention and gross negligence of a third person (e) The contends of the responsibility (example; the amounts of damages, "Compensation culpae" etc.) (f) Conclusion In conclusion, the writer confirms in this study that the person whose name is forged should be responsible as an employer fur the forged bill if the circumstance is that the person forging the bill (an employee) acts in such a way that satisfies the major requirements necessary to be regarded as "Employer's Liability for Damages" under the provisions of the Civil Law (§756), after an elaborate analysis and examination of court decisions and theories concerning to the system of "Employer's Liability for Damages".
본 연구에서는 기존의 스위치드 커패시터(Switched Capacitor, SC)회로 대신에 스위치드 커런트(Switched Current, SI)회로를 이용하여 전류모드 시그마-델타 변조기를 설계하였다. 특히 스위칭 회로에서 가장 문제되는 클럭피드쓰루(CFT)에 의한 에러 전류를 감소시키고자 에러 전류 상쇄 기법을 이용한 SI 적분기를 본 논문에서 제시하였다. 또한, 이 방법에 의하면 기존의 회로와는 달리 전류원이 필요하지 않게되어 회로를 단순화할 수 있다는 잇점이 있다. In this paper, a current mode sigma-delta modulator using a switched current(SI) circuit instead of a conventional switched capacitor(SC) circuit is designed. To reduce error current, occured by clock feedthrough(CFT), which is a significant problem in. switching circuits, a SI integrator using an error current cancellation technique is proposed. Also this technique can simplify circuits compared to conventional circuits by omitting a current source.
Soybean sprouts have been a considered a nutrient-rich vegetable for hundreds of years. Toevaluate the seedlot quality of soybean sprouts grown, and to evaluate a method for reducingthe presence of improper seeds in soybean seedlots, microbes associated with soybean sprout rotwere isolated from samples collected. Morphological characteristics and gas chromatographyprofiles of the cultured fungal and bacterial strains were identified. Eight types of improperseeds were identified: purple stain(Ps), black rot(Br), seed coat black spot(Cb), wrinkledseed(Ws), brown hilum(Bh), seed coat fracture(Cf), unripe seed(Us), and brown seed coat(Bc). The improper seeds were also dipped into 15%, 20%, and 25% NaCl solutions, as well as asaturated solution of NaCl, for 1min. As the NaCl concentration increased, the number offloating improper seeds increased as well. The highest floating rates were observed for the Cfseeds.