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150 quadrats of 20m×20m scattered in Mt. Gyeryong were inventoried to determine continuous variation of leading dominants along topographic moisture gradient. The mesic species were Quercus aliena, Styrax japonica, etc., and the xeric were Quercus mongolica, Fraxinus sieboldiana, etc. The leading dominant species were determined as follows; Styrax japonica, Castanea crenata, Pinus densiflora, Carpinus laxiflora, Carpinus cordata, Quercus variabilis, Quercus mongolica. The continuous variation of leading dominants were presumed with close relations to moisture gradient. Pinus densiflora located in subxeric regions were widely dispersed pioneer species.
천연기념물로 지정된 안면도 승언리의 모감주나무군락과 최근 발견된 태안군 근흥면 정죽리 모감주나무군락의 구조와 식생조성 및 토양특성을 분석하였다. 안면도의 모감주나무군락은 아교목층과 초본층 만으로 구성된 단조로운 2층 구조인데 반하여 근흥면 정죽리의 모감주나무군락은 아교목층, 관목층, 초본층의 3층 구조를 나타내고 있다. 또한 아교목층의 종조성에 있어서도 안면도 모감주나무군락 자생지는 거의 모감주나무 단순림을 구성하고 있는데 반하여, 근흥면 정죽리의 모감주나무군락은 곰솔, 말채나무, 풍게나무, 팽나무, 쉬나무 등이 혼효되어 있다. 두 모감주나무군락 지역의 토양특성은 전질소함량, 유기물함량, 유효인산함량, CEC, E.C. 그리고 치환성 K, Ca, Mg, Na 함량 등에서 가까이 위치한 침·활엽수의 산림토양보다 높게 나타났다. 또한 토양 pH는 6.3∼7.0으로서, 근처에 있는 산림토양에서의 토양 pH 4.7∼5.5보다 높았다. The vegetation structure and soil characteristics in Koelreuteria paniculata communities of Taean-Gun and Anmyondo were studied. The Koelreuteria paniculata community in Anmyondo had two vegetation layers, lower-tree and herb layers, but the Koelreuteria paniculata community in Anmyondo had three vegetation layers, subtree, shrub, and herb layers. Also the Koelreuteria paniculata was only the species of subtree layers in the Koelreuteria paniculata community of Anmyondo, but the subtree layer in the Koelreuteria paniculata community of Taean-Gun consisted of Pinus thunbergii, Cornus walteri, Celtis jessoensis, Celtis sinensis, and Evodia danielii. The soil organic matter, total N, available P, CEC, and exchangeable K, Ca, Mg, and Na concentrations were greater in the two Koelreuteria paniculata community than in the adjacent forest. The range of soil pH in the two Koelreuteria paniculata communities were 6.3∼7.0, but those in adjacent forests were 4.7∼5.5. [Dierssen scale, Vegetation classification, Forest soil].
본 연구는 국립공원의 산림관리에 필요한 기초자료를 제공하고자 계곡부식생을 조사하였다 계룡산국립공원의 계곡부식생을 ZM학과의 식물사회학적인 방법으로 분류한 결과 까치박달군락으로 구분되었다 까치박달군락은 다시 고로쇠나무아군락, 조릿대아군락, 병꽃나무아군락 등 3개의 아군락으로 서어나무군락은 쥐똥나무아군락 쪽동백아군란 등 2개의 아군락으로 구분되었다 까치박달군락은 서어나무군락보다 해발고가 높고 습한 지역에 분포하였다 또한 동일한 계곡이라 할지라도 입지조건 중 특히 계곡부가 위치해 있는 사면의 방위에 따라 식생구성의 차이를 나타냈다.
This study was performed to evaluate the induction time, hemodynamic responses and local venous complications after intravenous induction with midazolam, comparing with those after intravenous induction with thiopental. Sixty adult surgical patients received either 5 mg/kg thiopental sodium(group I) or 0.2 mg/kg midazolam hydrochloride(group II) as an induction agent. The results were as follows. 1) The induction time(loss of palpebral reflex) of the group II(68.2±21.5 sec) was significantly longer than those of group I(29.6±8.3 sec). 2) The magnitude of rises in the systolic blood pressure, 1 and 2 minute after intravenous administration of induction agent, of group II were significantly smaller than those of group I. 3) The magnitude of rises in the diastolic blood pressure, 2 minute after intravenous administration of induction agent,of group II were significantly smaller than those of group I. 4) The magnitude of rises in the pulse rate, 1 and 2 minute after intravenous administration of induction agent, group II was not significantly differ from those of group I. 5) In three patients of the group I complained of pain during injection, but no patients of the group II complained of pain. There was no significant difference in the incidence of the postoperative local venous complication.
Vegetational data obtained from 15 quadrats of Mt. Daeam area were analysed by applying two multivariate methods: two-way indicator species analysis(TWINSPAN) for classification and detrended canonical correspondence analysis(DCCA) for ordination. The dominant tree species were Quercus mongolica, Acer pseudo-sieboldianum, Betula costata, and Acer mono in descending order. The pH ranges were 5.0 to 5.5 in the 15 sites near bog and 5.3 to 5.4 in the 3 sites within bog. The forest communities in Mt. Daeam were classified into Quercus mongolica-Acer mono, Quercus mongolica-Prunus sargentii, Quercus mongolica-Abies nephrolepis-Acer tschonoskii var, rubripes, and Quercus mongolica-Abies nephrolepis-Betula costata according to the TWINSPAN. The relationships between the distribution of dominant species of forest vegetation and soil in the forest of Mt. Daeam were investigated by analyzing soil nutrition gradient. Quercus mongolica-Prunus sargentii forests were distributed in the good sites in nutrition levels of total nitrogen. cation exchange capacity. Mg^++ and Ca^++ but Quercus mongolica-Abies nephrolepis-Betula costata forests in the poor sites in the nutrition levels.
Background: Gabapentin, an anticonvulsant structurally related to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), was recently reported to be effective in pain associated with reflex sympathetic dystrophy and neuropathy. However, the effects of intrathecal (IT) gabapentin in postoperative pain are unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the analgesic action of IT gabapentin in a rat model of postoperative pain which was similar to human postoperative pain states. Methods: Rats were prepared with chronic intrathecal catheter. Under halothane anesthesia, a 1 cm incision was made in the plantar aspect of the hind paw and closed. Rats were divided into 7 groups, a control group (saline 20 μl intrathecally n = 6); a GP 30 group (gabapentin 30 μg intrathecally, n = 6); a GP 100 group (gabapentin 100 μg intrathecally, n = 6); a GP 300 group (gabapentin 300 μg intrathecally, n = 6); a GP 1000 group (gabapentin 1,000 μg intrathecally, n = 6); a NS-GP group (saline 10 μl and gabapentin 300 μg intrathecally, n = 6)-GP group (D-serine 100 μg and gabapentin 300 μg intrathecally, n = 6). The rats were placed on an elevated plastic mesh floor, and withdrawal threshold was determined using calibrated von Frey filaments applied from beneath the test cage to an area adjacent to the wound. A cumulative pain score based on the weight bearing behavior of the rats, and motor deficit score, were also assessed. Results: In all group, the median withdrawal threshold for punctate hyperalgesia decreased from 148.4 mN before surgery to 1.5 mN-14.5 mN 2 hours after surgery-inducing hyperalgesia and remained unchanged during the 2hr testing period. The IT administration of gabapentin (30 300 μg) increased the median withdrawal threshold toward preincision values dose-dependently and the nonevoked pain scores were also decreased. But the effects of intrathecal gabapentin were reversed by IT D-serine. The Analgegic effects of gabapentin were observed at doses that had no significant effect on motor function or spontaneous activ. Conclusions: These observations suggest that intrathecal gabapentin can modulate the facilitation of spinal nociceptive processing by tissue injury and may offer a therapeutic agent for the treatment of postoperative pain. (Korean J Anesthesiol 1999; 37: 704∼710)
Monoterpenes of the oleoresin of P. densiflora S. et Z., P. densi-thunber gii Uyeki, P. thunber gii Parl., and P. densiflora for. erecta Uyeki of the subgenus Diploxylon of the genus Pinus in Korea were analysed by means of gas liquid chromatography, and following results were obtained. Monoterpene of P. densiflora, P. densi-thunber gii, P. thunber gii, and P. densiflora for. erecta consisted of α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, myrcene, limonene, β-phellandrene, terpinolene and two unknown components. Major monoterpene components of P. densiflora and it's for. erecta were α-pinene, β-phellandrene, myrcene, and terpinolene. Major monoterpene components of P. densi-thunber gii were β-pinene, β-phellandrene, α-pinene and terpinolene. Major monoterpene components of P. thunber gii were β-pinene, α-pinene, β-phellandrene, and limonene. Monoterpene components in P. densiflora, P. densi-thunber gii, P. thunber gii, and P. densiflora for. erecta showed a range of variation by the individual trees. Monoterpene contents of P. densi-thunber gii were intermediate between those of P. densiflora and P. thunber gii. α-pinene, β-pinene, and myrcene appeared to be the best taxonomic characteristics for separating P. densiflora from P. thunber gii, and the former had higher content of α-pinene than β-pinene while those of the latter were vise versa. There was a significant difference of α-pinene components of P. densiflora between that of Anmyun Island and Mt. Chiak, but it seemed to be caused by the difference of the individual trees rather than provenancial difference